Vincent Fernandez

Vincent Fernandez
Natural History Museum, London · Division of Experiments

PhD

About

128
Publications
38,025
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1,074
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Introduction
Vincent Fernandez currently works at the Core Research Laboratories of the Natural History Museum in London, as manager of the micro CT laboratory. My main research interests are burrowing adaptation in therapsid and vertebrate embryos fossilised in ovo. The main technique I use it micro computed tomography, using both synchrotron radiation and laboratory sources.
Additional affiliations
April 2018 - present
Natural History Museum, London
Position
  • Laboratory Manager
February 2016 - March 2018
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Position
  • Researcher
February 2013 - February 2016
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (128)
Preprint
Full-text available
Extreme asymmetry of the skull is one of the most distinctive traits that characterizes toothed whales (Odontoceti, Cetacea). The origin and function of cranial asymmetry are connected to the evolution of echolocation, the ability to use high frequency sounds to navigate the surrounding environment. Although this novel phenotype must arise through...
Article
Full-text available
Although soft tissues of coleoid cephalopods record key evolutionary adaptations, they are rarely preserved in the fossil record. This prevents meaningful comparative analyses between extant and fossil forms, as well as the development of a relative timescale for morphological innovations. However, unique 3-D soft tissue preservation of Vampyronass...
Article
Beaks are among the few hard parts of coleoid cephalopods and are informative for species identification. Although mandible shape has been shown to be adaptive in many vertebrate taxa, it has been suggested that the shape of coleoid beaks does not bear any ecological signal. Yet, previous studies only explored beak shape in 2D and none have provide...
Article
Full-text available
The Manda Beds of southwest Tanzania have yielded key insights into the early evolutionary radiation of archosaurian reptiles. Many key archosaur specimens were collected from the Manda Beds in the 1930s and 1960s, but until recently, few of these had been formally published. Here, we describe an archosaur specimen collected in 1963 which has previ...
Article
Cetaceans (baleen and toothed whales) present a unique set of adaptations for life in water. Among other abilities, the two living groups can hear and produce different sound frequencies: baleen whales use low frequencies primarily for communication, whereas toothed whales acquired the ability to echolocate using high-frequency sounds. Both groups...
Article
Full-text available
Ankylosauria is a diverse clade of armoured dinosaurs whose members were important constituents of many Cretaceous faunas. Phylogenetic analyses imply that the clade diverged from its sister taxon, Stegosauria, during the late Early Jurassic, but the fossil records of both clades are sparse until the Late Jurassic (~150 million years ago). Moreover...
Article
Full-text available
The Middle Jurassic witnessed the early diversification of mammal groups, including the stem‐mammalian clade, Docodonta. Recent discoveries in China indicate docodontans exhibited ecomorphological diversity akin to small‐bodied mammals living >100 million years later, in the Cenozoic. Our understanding of the emergence of this ecological diversity...
Poster
Full-text available
Over the past three years, paleontological excavations realized in lower Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) strata around Lodève, Hérault (France) have yielded several specimens of marine vertebrates. The newly discovered specimens are partly or entirely preserved in anatomical connection and include a partial ichthyosaur skeleton with soft tissues as well...
Article
Full-text available
Sauropodomorph dinosaurs dominated the herbivorous niches during the first 40 million years of dinosaur history (Late Triassic–Early Jurassic), yet palaeobiological factors that influenced their evolutionary success are not fully understood. For instance, knowledge on their behaviour is limited, although herding in sauropodomorphs has been well doc...
Article
Premise: The conifer Geinitzia reichenbachii was a common member of the Cretaceous Laurasian floras. However, the histology of G. reichenbachii leafy axes was never described in detail, and our knowledge of its paleoecology remains very limited. Using new and exquisitely preserved silicified material from the Upper Cretaceous of western France, we...
Article
Full-text available
Biarmosuchia is a clade of basal therapsids that includes forms possessing plesiomorphic ‘pelycosaurian’ cranial characters as well as the highly derived Burnetiamorpha which are characterised by cranial pachyostosis and a variety of cranial bosses. Potential ontogenetic variation in these structures has been suggested based on growth series of oth...
Article
Lepidosaurs include lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and the tuatara, comprising a highly speciose evolutionary radiation with widely varying anatomical traits. Their stem-lineage originated by the late middle Permian 259 million years ago, but its early fossil record is poorly documented, obscuring the origins of key anatomical and functional trait...
Article
Full-text available
Teleost fishes comprise one-half of all vertebrate species and possess a duplicated genome. This whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred on the teleost stem lineage in an ancient common ancestor of all living teleosts and is hypothesized as a trigger of their exceptional evolutionary radiation. Genomic and phylogenetic data indicate that WGD occurr...
Article
Full-text available
Teleost fishes comprise one-half of all vertebrate species and possess a duplicated genome. This whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred on the teleost stem lineage in an ancient common ancestor of all living teleosts and is hypothesized as a trigger of their exceptional evolutionary radiation. Genomic and phylogenetic data indicate that WGD occurr...
Article
Full-text available
Ornithischian dinosaurs were ecologically prominent herbivores of the Mesozoic Era that achieved a global distribution by the onset of the Cretaceous. The ornithischian body plan is aberrant relative to other ornithodiran clades, and crucial details of their early evolution remain obscure. We present a new, fully articulated skeleton of the early b...
Presentation
The internal endocranial structures of an undescribed atoposaurid crocodylomorph from the Sao Khua Formation (Cretaceous: Berriasian-Barremian) in the North-East of Thailand are investigated. The specimen is comparable in size and external morphology to Theriosuchus grandinaris Lauprasert et al. 2011 but is preserved with the braincase uncrushed, c...
Article
We report new ichthyosaur material excavated in lower Toarcian levels of the LafargeHolcim Val d'Azergues quarry in Beaujolais, SE France. A partially articulated skull and a smaller, unprepared but likely subcomplete skeleton preserved in a carbonate concretion are identified as stenopterygiids, a family of wide European distribution during the Ea...
Article
We report new ichthyosaur material excavated in lower Toarcian levels of the LafargeHolcim Val d'Azergues quarry in Beaujolais, SE France. A partially articulated skull and a smaller, unprepared but likely subcomplete skeleton preserved in a carbonate concretion are identified as stenopterygiids, a family of wide European distribution during the Ea...
Article
Full-text available
Main conclusion Modulation of the gaseous environment using oxygen absorbers and/or silica gel shows potential for enhancing seed longevity through trapping toxic volatiles emitted by seeds during artificial ageing. Abstract Volatile profiling using non-invasive gas chromatography–mass spectrometry provides insight into the specific processes occu...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in jaw function experienced through ontogeny can have striking consequences for evolutionary outcomes, as has been suggested for the major clades of mammals. By contrast to placentals, marsupial newborns have an accelerated development of the head and forelimbs, allowing them to crawl to the mother's teats to suckle within just a few we...
Article
Full-text available
Thyestiids are a group of osteostracans (sister‐group to jawed vertebrates) ranging in time from the early Silurian to Middle Devonian. Tremataspis is unique among thyestiids in having a continuous mesodentine and enameloid cover on its dermal elements, and an embedded pore‐canal system divided into lower and upper parts by a perforated septum. The...
Article
Full-text available
Among the cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), the Holocephali are unique in that teeth are absent both in ontogeny and adult regenerative growth. Instead, the holocephalan dentition of ever‐growing nonshedding dental plates is composed of dentine, trabecular in arrangement, forming spaces into which a novel hypermineralized dentine (whitlockin)...
Article
Full-text available
Dinocephalians (Therapsida), some of the earliest amniotes to have evolved large body size, include the carnivorous Anteosauria and mostly herbivorous Tapinocephalia. Whilst the palaeoneurology of the Tapinocephalia has been investigated in Moschognathus whaitsi, that of the Anteosauria remains completely unknown. Here we used X-ray micro-Computed...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous aspects of early hominin biology remain debated or simply unknown. However, recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have opened new avenues in the field of paleoanthropology. More specifically, X-ray synchrotron-based analytical imaging techniques have the potential to provide crucial details on the ontogeny, physiology,...
Article
In the late 1980's the discovery of late Permian helical burrow casts containing articulated skeletons of the small herbivorous therapsid Diictodon feliceps led to conjecture that they may have been used for oviposition/parturition and shelter for infants. Here we present new fossil evidence in support of this interpretation and discuss the possibi...
Article
Docodonta are one of the earliest diverging groups of mammaliaforms, and their morphology provides key information on the transition between non-mammalian cynodonts and Mammalia. We describe the partial skulls of two docodontans Borealestes serendipitus and Borealestes cuillinensis sp. nov. from the Kilmaluag Formation (Middle Jurassic: Bathonian),...
Article
Synchrotron-based X-ray analytical techniques are gaining in prominence as a crucial yet highly specialized tool for advancing knowledge within the broad field of the Earth Sciences. In terms of global scientific competitiveness, African scientists are somewhat disadvantaged by not having access to their own synchrotron on the African continent. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
The postcranial morphology of the extremely long-necked Tanystropheus hydroides is well-known, but observations of skull morphology were previously limited due to compression of the known specimens. Here we provide a detailed description of the skull of PIMUZ T 2790, including a partial endocast and endosseous labyrinth, based on synchrotron microt...
Article
Full-text available
Despite considerable advances in knowledge of the anatomy, ecology and evolution of early mammals, far less is known about their physiology. Evidence is contradictory concerning the timing and fossil groups in which mammalian endothermy arose. To determine the state of metabolic evolution in two of the earliest stem-mammals, the Early Jurassic Morg...
Article
Full-text available
Increased planktonic foraminifera shell weights were recorded during the course of Termination II at a tropical site off the shore of the Mauritanian coast. In order to investigate these increased shell mass values, a series of physicochemical analyses were performed, including X-ray computed tomography (CT). The data are given here. Furthermore, t...
Article
Full-text available
A simple coherent-imaging method due to Paganin et al. is widely employed for phase-amplitude reconstruction of samples using a single paraxial x-ray propagation-based phase-contrast image. The method assumes that the sample-to-detector distance is sufficiently small for the associated Fresnel number to be large compared to unity. The algorithm is...
Article
Full-text available
Planktonic foraminiferal biomineralization intensity, reflected by the weight of their shell calcite mass, affects global carbonate deposition and is known to follow climatic cycles by being increased during glacial stages and decreased during interglacial stages. Here, we measure the dissolution state and the mass of the shells of the planktonic f...
Article
Planktonic foraminiferal biomineralization intensity, reflected by the weight of their shell calcite mass, affects global carbonate deposition and is known to follow climatic cycles by being increased during glacial stages and decreased during interglacial stages. Here, we measure the dissolution state and the mass of the shells of the planktonic f...
Preprint
Planktonic foraminiferal biomineralization intensity, reflected by their shell calcite mass, affects global carbonate deposition and is known to follow the climate cycles by being increased during glacial stages and decreased during interglacial ones. Here we measure the dissolution state and the mass of the shells of the planktonic foraminifera sp...
Article
Full-text available
In mammals, the infraorbital canal provides a passage for the infraorbital ramus of the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve. The infraorbital nerve ensures tactile sensitivity of the upper teeth and face between the eye and upper lip and, more significantly, the innervation of mystacial vibrissae (whiskers). In contrast, most non-mammalian syn...
Article
Natural history museums hold hundreds of thousands of mineral and fossil specimens containing iron sulfides, such as pyrite, all of which may be at risk from deterioration. Oxidation of these minerals causes cracking, crystal growth and powdering which, if unchecked, can eventually lead to the complete loss of specimens. This article reports the fi...
Article
High-contrast, high-resolution imaging of biomedical specimens is indispensable for studying organ function and pathologies. Conventional histology, the gold standard for soft-tissue visualisation, is limited by its anisotropic spatial resolution, elaborate sample preparation, and lack of quantitative image information. X-ray absorption or phase to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abnormally elevated foraminifera shell weights of the planktonic species Globigerina bulloides were recorded during the course of Termination II at a tropical site offshore the Mauritanian coast. In order to investigate these increased shell mass values a series of physicochemical analyses were performed including X-ray computed tomography (CT) and...
Article
Tanystropheus longobardicus is one of the most remarkable and iconic Triassic reptiles. Mainly known from the Middle Triassic conservation Lagerstätte of Monte San Giorgio on the Swiss-Italian border, it is characterized by an extraordinarily long and stiffened neck that is almost three times the length of the trunk, despite being composed of only...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Macrocnemus is a member of the Tanystropheidae, a clade of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs well known for their very characteristic, elongated cervical vertebrae. Articulated specimens are known from the Middle Triassic of Alpine Europe and China. Although multiple articulated specimens are known, description of the cranial morphology...
Article
The Holocephali is a major group of chondrichthyan fishes, the sister taxon to the sharks and rays (Elasmobranchii). However, the dentition of extant holocephalans is very different from that of the elasmobranchs, lacking individual tooth renewal, but comprising dental plates made entirely of self-renewing dentine. This renewal of all tissues occur...
Preprint
A simple coherent-imaging method due to Paganin et al. is widely employed for phase-amplitude reconstruction of samples using a single paraxial x-ray propagation-based phase-contrast image, provided the sample-to-detector distance is sufficiently small for the associated Fresnel number to be large compared to unity. The algorithm is particularly ef...
Article
Full-text available
The early Permian mesosaurs were the first amniotes to re-invade aquatic environments. One of their most controversial and puzzling features is their distinctive caudal anatomy, which has been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate caudal autotomy. Several researchers have described putative fracture planes in mesosaur caudal vertebrae — unossified...
Article
Full-text available
Dinosaur embryos are among the rarest of fossils, yet they provide a unique window into the palaeobiology of these animals. Estimating the developmental stage of dinosaur embryos is hindered by the lack of a quantitative method for age determination, by the scarcity of material, and by the difficulty in visualizing that material. Here we present th...
Article
Osteocytes, cells embedded within the bone mineral matrix, inform on key aspects of vertebrate biology. In particular, a relationship between volumes of the osteocytes and bone growth and/or genome size has been proposed for several tetrapod lineages. However, the variation in osteocyte volume across different scales is poorly characterised, and mo...
Article
Fragments of filled wood‐borings were recently discovered from the Eocene–Oligocene Conglomerate and Sandstone Formation of the Malzieu Basin (Lozère, southern France). Propagation phase‐contrast X‐ray synchrotron microtomography (PPC‐SRμCT) was used to characterize their hidden inner structures. Virtual 2D sections and 3D reconstructions show that...
Preprint
There is uncertainty regarding the timing and fossil species in which mammalian endothermy arose, with few studies of stem-mammals on key aspects of endothermy such as basal or maximum metabolic rates, or placing them in the context of living vertebrate metabolic ranges. Synchrotron X-ray imaging of incremental tooth cementum shows two Early Jurass...
Preprint
Full-text available
Osteocytes, cells embedded within the bone mineral matrix, inform on key aspects of vertebrate biology. In particular, a relationship between volumes of the osteocytes and bone growth and/or genome size has been proposed for several tetrapod lineages. However, the variation in osteocyte volume across different scales is poorly characterised, and mo...
Article
Full-text available
The growing availability of virtual cranial endocasts of extinct and extant vertebrates has fueled the quest for endocranial characters that discriminate between phylogenetic groups and resolve their neural significances. We used geometric morphometrics to compare a phylogenetically and ecologically comprehensive data set of archosaurian endocasts...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The partial skeleton of the docodont mammal, Borealestes serendipitus (Docodonta, Mammaliaformes), was recovered from Skye in 1972, and is now held at National Museums Scotland. It includes the cranium, upper and lower tooth rows and a partial postcranial skeleton. It is the most complete Jurassic mammal fossil described from the UK to date, and on...
Article
Full-text available
Gorgonopsia is one of the major clades of non-mammalian synapsids, and includes an array of large-bodied carnivores that were the top terrestrial predators of the late Permian. Most research on the clade has focused on these largest members; small-bodied gorgonopsians are relatively little-studied. Here, we redescribe a small gorgonopsian skull (MB...
Data
Strict consensus tree of gorgonopsian phylogenetic analysis, only MB.R.999 and no other referred specimens of Cynariops robustus coded. Numbers left under nodes indicate bootstrapping support values above 50%. Numbers right under nodes show Bremer support indices. (TIF)
Data
Label of MB.R.999. Photocopy of the label for specimen MB.R.999 in the collections of the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin. (PDF)
Data
Data matrix of this study for both MB.R.999 and a composite coding of other referred specimens of Cynariops robustus, available in NEXUS format. (NEX)
Data
Strict consensus tree of gorgonopsian phylogenetic analysis, MB.R.999 and referred specimens of Cynariops robustus coded as separate OTUs. Numbers left under nodes indicate bootstrapping support values above 50%. Numbers right under nodes show Bremer support indices. (TIF)
Data
CC BY Permit of Carola Radke, Mfn. For reprint [22] and use of Figs 1–3 under a CC BY license, original copyright 2016 (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
A unique characteristic of mammals is a vertebral column with anatomically distinct regions, but when and how this trait evolved remains unknown. We reconstructed vertebral regions and their morphological disparity in the extinct forerunners of mammals, the nonmammalian synapsids, to elucidate the evolution of mammalian axial differentiation. Mappi...
Article
Full-text available
We describe here a partial skull with associated mandible of a large felid from Monte Argentario, Italy (Early Pleistocene; ~1.5 million years). Propagation x-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of the specimen, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, allows ascribing it reliably to Acinonyx pardinensis, one of the most intriguing e...