Vincent Duronio

Vincent Duronio
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC ·  Division of Respiratory Medicine

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145
Publications
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Publications

Publications (145)
Article
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Tendons are specialized tissues composed primarily of load-responsive fibroblasts (tenocytes) embedded in a collagen-rich extracellular matrix. Habitual mechanical loading or targeted exercise causes tendon cells to increase the stiffness of the extracellular matrix; this adaptation may occur in part through collagen synthesis or remodeling. Integr...
Article
Purpose: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is known to play a variety of roles in the response to exercise, and more recently has been shown to enhance the healing of tendon, a fibrous load-bearing tissue required for efficient movement. The objective of the current study was to further explore the mechanisms of ANGPTL4's impact on tendon cells using...
Article
p53 is a tumor suppressor protein which is either lost or inactivated in a large majority of tumors. The small molecule 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) was originally identified as the inhibitor of p53 effects on the mitochondrial death pathway. In this report we demonstrate that p53 protein from PES-treated cells was detected in reduced mobility b...
Article
Key points: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) modulates tendon neovascularization. Cyclic loading stimulates the activity of transforming growth factor-β and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and thereby increases the expression and release of ANGPTL4 from human tendon cells. Targeting ANGPTL4 and its regulatory pathways is a potential avenue for regulating...
Article
It has long been realized that hematopoietic cells may have the capacity to trans-differentiate into non-lymphohematopoietic cells under specific conditions. However, the mechanisms and the factors for hematopoietic cell trans-differentiation remain unknown. In an in vitro culture system, we found that using a conditioned medium from proliferating...
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Etoposide has been used clinically in cancer treatment, as well as in numerous research studies, for many years. However, there is incomplete information about its exact mechanism of action in induction of cell death. Etoposide was compared at various concentrations to characterize the mechanisms by which it induces cell death. We investigated its...
Article
The survival of macrophages depends on the presence of specific cytokines that activate survival signalling events, as well as suppressing formation of apoptosis-inducing pathways. We have previously shown that macrophages deprived of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) produce ceramide that contributes to apoptosis of these cells, a pathw...
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We tested whether loss of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) activity in macrophages suppresses development of atherosclerosis by transplanting bone marrow from mice with mutant eEF2K into ldlr(-/-) mice. Sixteen weeks after high-fat diet feeding, mutant eEF2K hematopoietic chimeras had a dramatically reduced level of atherosclerotic pla...
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Introduction Tendinopathy is often viewed as the result of failed or inadequate healing response in response to subclinical injury.1 Previous authors have suggested there may be an association between pain and neurovascular changes resulting from a failed healing response in tendinopathy patients.2,3 Our previous study has shown that cyclic strain...
Article
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Angiogenesis is associated with the tissue changes underlying chronic overuse tendinopathy. We hypothesized that repetitive, cyclic loading of human tendon cells would lead to increased expression and activity of angiogenic factors. We subjected isolated human tendon cells to overuse tensile loading using an in vitro model (1 Hz, 10% equibiaxial st...
Article
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Tendon disorders are a significant cause of pain and morbidity amongst athletes, workers and the general public.1 2 Tendinopathy is often viewed as the result of failed or inadequate healing response through repetitive overuse.3 The clinical symptoms of tendinopathy are activity-related pain, focal tenderness, and intratendinous imaging changes. Pr...
Article
We previously suggested that keratinocyte releasable factors might modulate the wound healing process by regulating the expression of key extracellular matrix components such as collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) and type I collagen in fibroblasts. The first one, we called it keratinocyte-derived anti-fibrogenic factor (KDAF), identified as s...
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Phosphorylation of the BH3 (Bcl-2 homology domain 3)-only protein BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) can either directly disrupt its association with the pro-survival proteins Bcl-X(L) and/or Bcl-2, or cause association of BAD with 14-3-3 proteins. In the present study, we further characterize phosphorylation of BAD at Ser170, a un...
Article
Macrophages are prominent components of human atherosclerotic lesions and they are believed to accelerate the progression and/or complications of both early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We and others have shown that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induces growth and inhibits apoptosis in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. In...
Article
Macrophages play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, in part by destabilizing plaques. We and others have shown that low concentrations of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) inhibit macrophage apoptosis. As oxLDL is present in lesions, this may be a mechanism by which macrophage populations in the intima are expanded. We have previously shown that...
Chapter
In 1996, three groups independently cloned the hemopoietic specific src homology 2 (SH2)-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase, SHIP (Damen et al. 1996; Lioubin et al. 1996; Kavanaugh et al. 1996). Although this intracellular enzyme, which is capable in vitro of hydrolyzing the 5′-phosphate from phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and inos...
Article
Growth factor withdrawal from hemopoietic cells results in activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Members of the Bcl-2 family regulate this pathway, with anti-apoptotic members counteracting the effects of pro-apoptotic members. We investigated the effect on Mcl-1 function of mutation at a conserved threonine 163 residue (T163) in it...
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MCL-1, a pro-survival member of the BCL-2 family, was previously shown to have functions in ATR-dependent Chk1 phosphorylation following DNA damage. To further delineate these functions, we explored possible differences in DNA damage response caused by lack of MCL-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). As expected, Mcl-1(-/-) MEFs had delayed Chk1 p...
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We recently reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) induces an oscillatory increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) levels in macrophages. Furthermore, we have shown that these [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations mediate oxLDL's ability to inhibit macrophage apoptosis in response to growth factor deprivation. However, the signal transduction pathways by whi...
Article
The inflammation associated with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal-induced arthritis arises from the activation of neutrophils with crystals in the synovial joint. Furthermore, constitutive neutrophil apoptosis is inhibited by this interaction with CPPD so that the lifetime of the cells and the duration of the inflammatory response are...
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PIK3CA, which codes for the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), is implicated as an oncogene. Despite importance of PIK3CA in cancer, little is known about what drives up its expression in tumor cells. We recently characterized the PIK3CA promoter and reported that it is transcriptionally silenced by the tumor suppr...
Article
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Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) promotes lipid accumulation as well as growth and survival signaling in macrophages. OxLDL uptake is mainly due to scavenger receptors SR-AI/II and CD36. However, other scavenger receptors such as lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) may also play a role. We used mice with targeted inactivation of the LOX-1 gene to define the r...
Article
Objective— Macrophage survival and proliferation is believed to be a contributing factor in the development of early atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a key mediator in the pathogenesis of this disease, has been shown to block apoptosis in macrophages deprived of growth factor. In this report, we investigate the mec...
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The activation of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) family members is a universal event in response to virtually all cytokines, growth factors and hormones. As a result of formation of PtdIns with an added phosphate at the 3 position of the inositol ring, activation of the protein kinases PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) and PKB (protein k...
Article
Macrophage survival and proliferation is believed to be a contributing factor in the development of early atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), a key mediator in the pathogenesis of this disease, has been shown to block apoptosis in macrophages deprived of growth factor. In this report, we investigate the mechanism of o...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular function and angiogenesis are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF). The purpose of this preliminary study was to address the following questions: Is VEGF expression in the patellar tendon more prevalent in patients with patellar tendinopathy than in individuals with normal, pain-free patellar tendons? Which cell populat...
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Expansion of the extracellular matrix is a prominent but poorly characterized feature of tendinosis. The present study aimed to characterize the extent and distribution of the large aggregating proteoglycan versican in patients with patellar tendinosis. We obtained tendon from tendinopathy patients undergoing debridement of the patellar tendon and...
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Here we report a novel role for myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), a Bcl-2 family member, in regulating phosphorylation and activation of DNA damage checkpoint kinase, Chk1. Increased expression of nuclear Mcl-1 and/or a previously reported short nuclear form of Mcl-1, snMcl-1, was observed in response to treatment with low concentrations of etoposid...
Article
We have previously demonstrated that indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) expressed by dermal fibroblasts generated a tryptophan deficient environment in which immune cells, but not skin cells, undergo apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which primary skin cells such as fibroblasts and keratinocytes are resistant to this culture environment is not e...
Article
The PI3K-PKB pathway is an important and widely studied pathway in cell signaling. The enzyme activity of PI3K produces D-3 phosphoinositides, including the lipid second messengers PI(3,4,5)P3 and PI(3,4)P2. PI(3,4,5)P3 has been deemed to be the most important second messenger for triggering PKB phosphorylation. PKB has two regulatory phosphorylati...
Article
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The cellular basis of painful tendon overuse pathology (tendinosis) is poorly understood. It has been suggested that because of the close anatomical associations between mast cells and vessels in connective tissues, mast cells may mediate the development of tendon hypervascularity or oedema. To examine the distribution of mast cells in men and wome...
Article
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The BCL-2 family of proteins plays a major role in the control of apoptosis as the primary regulator of mitochondrial permeability. The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 homologues BAX and BAK are activated following the induction of apoptosis and induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria. A second class of BCL-2 homologues, the BH3-only proteins, is require...
Article
We have previously demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression by skin cells generates a tryptophan deficient environment in which THP-1, Jurkat cells as well as human PBMC are unable to survive. However, the subsets of primary human T cells that are sensitive to tryptophan depletion have not been identified. In this study, we as...
Article
Bone has a remarkable ability to adjust its mass and architecture in response to a wide range of loads, from low-level gravitational forces to high-level impacts. A variety of types and magnitudes of mechanical stimuli have been shown to influence human bone cell metabolism in vitro, including fluid shear, tensile and compressive strain, altered gr...
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Bone has a remarkable ability to adjust its mass and architecture in response to a wide range of loads, from low-level gravitational forces to high-level impacts. A variety of types and magnitudes of mechanical stimuli have been shown to influence human bone cell metabolism in vitro, including fluid shear, tensile and compressive strain, altered gr...
Article
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common pathogens affecting humans and is the major environmental factor in the development of gastric cancer increasing from 4 to 6 folds the risk of its development. Variations in cancer risk among H. pylori infected individuals may correlate to difference in H. pylori strains, variable host characteristics a...
Article
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The BCL-2 homologue MCL-1 plays an important role in the regulation of cell fate by blocking apoptosis as well as regulating cell cycle. MCL-1 has an unusual N-terminal extension, which contains a PEST domain and several phosphorylation sites that have been suggested to regulate its turnover. Here we report that the first 79 amino acids of MCL-1 re...
Article
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Because phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in cellular activation, proliferation, and survival, pharmacologic inhibitors targeting components of the PI3K pathway are actively being developed as therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and cancer. These targeted drugs inhibit the activity of either PI3K itself or d...
Article
Apoptosis is an important mechanism involved in regulating the number of macrophages present at sites of inflammation. Several lines of evidence indicate that blocking macrophage apoptosis can increase atherosclerosis. We previously reported that oxidized LDL can inhibit apoptosis in cultured bone marrow-derived macrophages. We used pertussis toxin...
Article
We have investigated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent survival signalling pathways using several cytokines in three different hemopoietic cell lines, MC/9, FDC-P1, and TF-1. Cytokines caused PI3K- and PKB-dependent phosphorylation of FOXO3a (previously known as FKHRL1) at three distinct sites. Following cytokine withdrawal or PI3K inh...
Article
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The pathogenesis of tendon overuse injuries is poorly understood. The histopathology underlying tendinopathy at various anatomical locations is similar and may reflect a common pathologic process. Apoptosis contributes to the pathophysiology in patellar tendinopathy. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. We compared biopsy specimens from the pa...
Article
To investigate tenocyte regulatory events during the development of overuse supraspinatus tendinosis in rats. Supraspinatus tendinosis was induced by running rats downhill at 1 km/hour for 1 hour a day. Tendons were harvested at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks and processed for brightfield, polarized light, or transmission electron microscopy. The developme...
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac inhibit human colorectal carcinogenesis through a mechanism involving the direct inhibition of cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2. However, a wealth of recent evidence indicates that these agents might elicit their effects through mechanisms independently of Cox-2. In this study, we investigated the effect...
Article
Pulmonary emphysema is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema. In this study, we investigated the acute effect of cigarette smoke in vitro on the production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) using differentiated U9...
Article
The regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) by phosphorylation at inhibitory sites has been well documented. In many, but not all, cases, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, and particularly the downstream kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/akt, have been shown to be responsible for GSK-3 phosphorylation. Given that no studies have ever...
Article
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF; a progressive lung disease) is characterized by parenchymal remodeling with enlarged air spaces called honeycomb cysts and palisades of fibroblasts called fibroblast foci. In IPF, lung epithelial cells covering honeycomb cysts and fibroblast foci aberrantly express the active conformation of the potent fibrogenic...
Article
Anoxia and apoptosis are both implicated in chronic tendon pathology, however the influence of anoxia on the viability of tendon cells is not known. The objectives of the current study were to (i) investigate the effect of oxygen withdrawal on the viability of porcine Achilles tendon cells (ATCs), and (ii) examine the ability of IGF-I, a factor wit...
Article
We used two inhibitors of the signaling enzyme phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K), wortmannin and LY294002, to evaluate the potential involvement of PtdIns3K in the activation of the MAP kinases (MAPK), Erk1 and Erk2. In dose-response studies carried out on six different cell lines and a primary cell culture, we analyzed the ability of the in...
Article
In this report, we show for the first time that ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway, which is a major mechanism whereby growth factors promote cell survival. Also, C1P induced IkappaB phosphorylation, and enhanced the DNA binding activity of the transcription factor NF-kappa...
Article
Full-text available
The role of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has only recently been explored in tendon. To investigate the development of apoptosis after high strain loading of rat tendon. The right tibialis anterior tendons of three rats were prepared for mechanical loading, and left tendons were prepared identically as non-loaded controls. Tendon was loaded...
Article
Full-text available
Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukaemia-1) is a Bcl-2 family member with short-term pro-survival functions but whose other functions, demonstrated by embryonic lethality of knockout mice, do not involve apoptosis. In the present study, we show a cell-cycle-regulatory role of Mcl-1 involving a shortened form of the Mcl-1 polypeptide, primarily localized to th...
Article
b>Background: The role of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has only recently been explored in tendon. Objective: To investigate the development of apoptosis after high strain loading of rat tendon. Methods: The right tibialis anterior tendons of three rats were prepared for mechanical loading, and left tendons were prepared identically as n...
Article
This study was designed to investigate Bad phosphorylation at several of its key regulatory Ser residues in cytokine-dependent hemopoietic cells. These studies were initiated in light of numerous studies that have reported a key role for phosphorylated Bad in preventing apoptosis. One key question is whether the survival signaling effect of the PI...
Article
This article presents an overview of the recent progress in understanding metabolic and functional interrelationships of biologically active sphingolipids related to the sphingomyelin signal transduction pathway in relation to the regulation of apoptosis in macrophages. Ceramide generation is an essential, early step in apoptosis in numerous system...
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Inflammation, a term coined by the ancients, is widely used in sports medicine. But what is meant when a clinician tells a patient that symptoms are probably due to inflammation? The question of whether inflammation is helpful or harmful to healing can only be answered after inflammation is defined. This brief analysis of inflammation reveals that...
Article
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Most practicing sports medicine clinicians refer to the concept of "inflammation" many times a day when diagnosing and treating acute and overuse injuries. What is meant by this term? Is it a "good" or a "bad" process? The major advances in the understanding of inflammation in recent years are summarised, and some clinical implications of the conte...
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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway plays a critical role in B cell activation and differentiation. Recruitment of pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing signal transduction proteins to the plasma membrane through binding to 3-phosphoinositide second messengers represents a major effector mechanism for PI3Ks. We have found that the...
Article
Full-text available
Macrophages play a central role in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. It is well known that oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) promotes the recruitment of monocytes (which differentiate to macrophages) into the intima. We reported recently that ox-LDL blocks apoptosis in bone marrow-derived macrophages deprived of ma...