Vincent Chaplot

Vincent Chaplot
Institute of Research for Development | IRD · 182 - Laboratory of Oceanography and Climate : Experiments and numerical Approaches (LOCEAN)

PhD, HDR

About

157
Publications
51,933
Reads
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7,519
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Sorbonne Université
Position
  • Senior researcher, Vice director of LOCEAN research unit
April 2007 - August 2013
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Full-text available
Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer, so changes in sugarcane management in Brazil can affect the environment to a great extent. During almost one century, studies were carried out in cropping systems involving pre-harvest burning of aerial sugarcane residues. Nowadays the green trash management of sugarcane residues has become a common...
Article
Full-text available
Land use policies together with growing market demand have resulted in rapid land use changes in the uplands of the Lao PDR over the past few years. These changes have led to questions concerning the link between agricultural activities and off-site impacts. To tackle this issue the Management of Soil Erosion Consortium has equipped a catchment in...
Article
The quantification of the diverse responses of soils and terrestrial fresh water to elevated levels of greenhouse gases and to climate change is crucial for the proper management of natural ecosystems in the future. Despite previous experiments and simulations, there is still a need for the evaluation of the impact of these global changes at the wa...
Article
In this study our main objective was to quantify water interrill erosion in the sloping lands of Southeast Asia, one of the most bio-geochemically active regions of the world. Investigations were performed on a typical hillslope of Northern Laos subjected to slash and burn agriculture practiced as shifting cultivation. Situations with different per...
Article
One of the most important scientific challenges of digital soil mapping is to develop generic models that may allow the soils to be predicted over large areas. Our objective here is to quantify the relationships between the soils and their “environment” to further our understanding of the rules of soil distribution. The study was conducted in the A...
Article
One of the most important scientific challenges of digital elevation modeling is the development of numerical representations of large areas with a high resolution. Although there have been many studies on the accuracy of interpolation techniques for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs) in relation to landform types and data quantity o...
Article
In this study we investigated the quantitative and qualitative aspects of soil organic matter (SOM) losses caused by water erosion within a small catchment in Northern Laos, under steep slopes and slash and burn agriculture. The soils in the region have a high contribution of black carbon to soil organic matter and high erosion rates. The aim of th...
Article
Tropical soils are generally depleted in organic carbon (OC) due to environmental conditions favouring decomposition and mineralisation of soil organic matter (SOM). In Northern Laos, sloping soils are subjected to slash and burn agriculture, which leads to production of black carbon (BC), a stable SOM fraction. BC may directly influence the quanti...
Article
In a given watershed, the accuracy of models in predicting the hydrologic and erosion behavior depends, to a large extent, on the quality of the knowledge in respect of the spatial rainfall. The hydrologic and erosion aspects of rainfall are often discussed without due regard to any resulting improvement in watershed modeling. Thus, there is a real...
Article
Linear erosion (LE), including rilling and gullying, has been identified as the major problem for sustainable agriculture in steepland areas. It causes severe environmental, economic, and social impacts. This issue is even more crucial in those areas undergoing rapid changes in land use, as for example northern Laos, and may dramatically affect soi...
Article
The accuracy of agricultural nonpoint source pollution models depends to a great extent on how well model input spatial parameters describe the relevant characteristics of the watershed. It is assumed that reducing the precision of spatial input parameters affects the simulation results of runoff and sediment yield from the entire watershed. Howeve...
Article
Linear erosion (LE) induced either by piping or overland flow is one of the most active factors in the evolution of soils. During single storm events LE may remove enormous amounts of soil material from the uplands to the bottomlands and has thus become a broad challenge for food supply, food security, and human health. Recent and rapid changes in...
Article
Full-text available
Microaggregates that characterize ferralic soils have been hypothesized to have physical, geochemical and/or biological origins. Despite of many studies, the hierarchy between these processes that form microaggregates has seldom been reported. The objective of this work was to study the genesis of microaggregates in a sequence of Ferralic Nitisols...
Article
Full-text available
[ 1] This study quantified the soil and carbon fluxes caused by water erosion within the sloping uplands of the Mekong River basin, a river system carrying one of the greatest worldwide amounts of sediment to the ocean. Losses of sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) ( including black carbon, BC) were evaluated within an agricultural catchment of...
Article
So far, soil-landscape models have been based on soil surface topographic information only. However, hillslope hydrology that affects soil distribution is also controlled by sub-surface flow pathways that may not entirely be explained by surface terrain features. This paper compares the accuracy of a model for predicting the spatial variations of t...
Article
Our main objective in the present study was to assess the spatial variation of chemical and physical soil properties and then use this information to select an appropriate area to install a pasture rehabilitation experiment in the Amazon region, Brazil. A regular 25 m grid was used for collecting a total of 2955 soil samples (from 985 georeferenced...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in land-use or management practices may affect water outflow, sediment, nutrients and pesticides loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the watershed scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. This paper evaluates by a modeling approach the impact of farming practices...
Article
Full-text available
Geophysical methods have already shown their interest for the continuous characterisation of soils over landscapes, rapidly and, non-intrusively. But in bottomland areas, difficulties are encountered in relating geophysical properties to soil spatial distribution due to large variations in the depth, texture and/or water content of soils. Indeed, r...
Article
Full-text available
Geophysical methods have already shown their interest for the continuous characterisation of soils over landscapes, rapidly and, non-intrusively. But in bottomland areas, difficulties are encountered in relating geophysical properties to soil spatial distribution due to large variations in the depth, texture and/or water content of soils. Indeed, r...
Book
A better knowledge of the spatial distribution of soils over landscapes is one of the key issue for environmental modelling. Although digital elevation models (DEMs) and land use maps are fairly easy to generate, other important pieces of information such as the spatial distribution of soils or soil properties are not so easy to obtain. Quantitativ...
Article
Full-text available
Soil spatial distribution, i.e. the spatial distribution of soils within landscapes, is difficult to predict because numerous processes operate simultaneously, but variably, over time. Quantifications of large areas with an acceptable degree of precision and low in cost require the development of specific methods making the best possible use of exi...
Article
The estimation of the spatial distribution of soil wetness within a catchment is one of the most important issues in hydrological and erosion modelling. So far, such models have been based on soil surface topographic information only. However, soil hydrology is also controlled by subsurface flow pathways that may not be explained only by surface te...
Article
Quantitative soil-landscape models, based on topographic attributes, make possible the characterization of large areas because of the widespread availability of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, these soil-landscapes models, which are usually generated and validated on the same detailed, single research site, such as a hillslope or an eleme...
Article
Full-text available
In agricultural landscapes, factors affecting V under steady-state conditions of infiltration are well docu- Various interactions, particularly those existing between the rain- by all three factors: rainfall intensity (r 0.48; P 0.0001), slope gradient (r 0.51; P 0.0001) and slope length (r 0.29; P 0.02); "For a constant runoff rate rain impacted f...
Article
Full-text available
Attempts to map vegetation types, especially pasture, from satellite sensor data in tropical and sub-tropical regions very often have limited success. This study analyses the accuracy of two classifications of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), with the aim of distinguishing the pastures from other vegetation classes in a meso-scale basin (12 400 km 2,...
Article
Full-text available
40 ref. *INRA UMR Sol Agronomie Spatialisation Rennes (FRA) Diffusion du document : INRA UMR Sol Agronomie Spatialisation Rennes (FRA)
Article
Pedological soil surveys usually based on auger sampling encounter methodological and economic difficulties. Electrical resistivity (ER) techniques could be used as a simple and practical method to determine their spatial variability. However, attempts to map soils using ER techniques have very often limited success, especially in bottomland areas,...
Article
Because soils are both a source and a sink for atmospheric CO2, there is an increasing need to characterize the spatial distribution of soil C pools. Large amounts of organic carbon (OC) accumulate in hydric bottom-lands soils. In the Armorican Massif (Western France) where these soils represent 20% of the total surface area, the spatial characteri...
Article
Soil-landscape models have prediction errors that can be reduced by using auxiliary soil data. However, standard soil surveys using auger hole and laboratory analysis encounter both methodological and economical constraints because of, for example, the short-range variability of soils and the expensive field work. In the present study, the objectiv...
Article
Full-text available
In regions with intensive agriculture and shallow hydrological systems, headstreams are often polluted with nitrate even at the springs. In North-West France, nitrate concentration was seen to decrease downstream during baseflow conditions when the stream flows on granite, but this does not occur on schist. In order to explain this difference in be...
Article
This study analyses the sensitivity of soil hydromorphy prediction methods with regard to the resolution of topographical information and additional soil data. Seven Digital Elevation Models (DEM) were computed and compared to topographic measurements, with different resolutions (10, 20, 30 and 50 m) and construction mode (inputting actual stream l...
Article
Soil maps analysis to identify the role of the tectonic regime on saprolite permeability regional distribution. For applied geology, e.g., geotechnics or hydrogeology, it is of prime interest to know the spatial distribution of the saprolite permeability. This study focuses on the role of the tectonic regime on saprolite permeability regional distr...
Article
Despite numerous studies, the effect of slope on interrill erosion is not clearly established. Several interactions exist between erosion parameters that are not taken into account under experimental laboratory measurements and results need to be validated in the field. The influence of slope steepness (2 to 8 per cent) on soil loss for a crusted i...
Article
Knowledge of the bottomland hydric functioning in humid zones is important in order to estimate denitrification that takes place in anaerobic conditions. The objective of this study was to point out the temporal dynamics of soil cover redox conditions for different geological substrates and to compare these dynamics to soil morphological features....
Article
Full-text available
The study of pedological maps from the Armorican Massif evidenced the effect of recent tectonics (500 000–700 000 years BP) on the regional hydromorphic soil distribution. Blocs in relative uplift were characterized by a low proportion of hydromorphic soils, whereas a higher proportion marked blocs in relative downlift. Such clear differences can b...
Article
Water erosion is one of the most active processes in soil genesis and dynamics. It is also at the origin of significant environmental problems. Soil surface state is one of the most important factors for erosion risk assessment. However, it is not easy to determine the effect of this factor at a large scale. A field experiment was held in Pays de C...
Article
Full-text available
Les mesures de pertes en eau et en terre, réalisées dans un contexte de région limoneuse intensivement cultivée du Nord-Ouest de la France à l'échelle de 1 m2, sont présentées et commentées. L'érosion hydrique est l'un des processus majeurs dans la redistribution des particules solides du sol au sein des paysages. Aussi, afin d'estimer dans un prem...