Viktor Trifonov

Viktor Trifonov
Institute for History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Saint-Petersburg · Dept. of Central Asia and the Caucasus

PhD in Archaeology

About

82
Publications
24,668
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181
Citations
Introduction
Viktor Trifonov currently works at the Dept. of Central Asia and the Caucasus, Institute for History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Saint-Petersburg.
Additional affiliations
January 1984 - present
Institute for the History of material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Bronze Age, Eastern Europe and the Caucasus
January 1984 - present
Russian Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Full-text available
The Bronze Age Maikop kurgan is one of the most richly furnished prehistoric burial mounds in the northern Caucasus. Its excavation in 1897 yielded a set of gold and silver tubes with elaborate tips and decorative bull figurines. Interpretations of these tubes include their use as sceptres and as poles to support a canopy. Re-examination of these o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the study of a Maikop Culture surface tomb of the so far unknown type preceding the dolmen structure in mound 1 excavated by Nikolaĭ I. Veselovskiĭ near the village of Tsarskaya in 1898, Northwest Caucasus. The tomb was a surface structure with dry stone walls, a pebble-paved and clay-covered floor with wooden bea...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents the reconstruction of the architectural features, construction, basic dimensions, building stages, chronological and cultural contexts of the unique multisided dolmen with a pyramidal roof, excavated by Nikolay Kamenev near Tsarskaya (modern Novosvobodnaya), North-Western Caucasus in 1869. This dolmen and parts of a destroyed 11-...
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides an overview of the recent DNA analysis of the ancient populations of the Caucasus and the adjacent steppes during the Eneolithic–Bronze Age (V–II mill. BC) and explores the issues of cultural and historical interpretation of the results. Seven specific features of the general paleogenetic picture of the region have been singled o...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution presents the results of chemical, technological, functional, thematic and iconographic analyses of a bronze hook found in a dolmen near the settlement of Tsarskaya (3200–2900 BC, Maykop culture, northwest Caucasus). The scene of a fist-fight is cast from metal. The object was produced in the lost-wax process and is composed of arse...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper provides results of the first direct radiocarbon dating of domestic cereals (Hordeum L., Triticum L.) discovered in the Bronze Age dolmen culture settlement Starchiki, in the NW Caucasus (3rd mill. BC).
Article
Full-text available
The paper reports on the results of excavating an above-ground Maykop tomb of unknown type. This construction precedes the dolmen in kurgan 1 excavated by N. I. Veselovsky near the Tsarskaya village (northwestern Caucasus) in 1898. The tomb is an above-ground construction made of dry-stone walling, the floor paved with pebbles and covered with clay...
Article
This paper presents the results of a unique fur garment from the megalithic tomb of a rich man in the Northwest Caucasus, dated to the Early Bronze Age, which was excavated in 1898 (Tsarskaya, Russia). The garment was made from the fur of a souslik group animal, most likely the ground squirrel. Direct radiocarbon dating puts the fur at around 4445...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a unique fur garment from the megalithic tomb of a rich man in the Northwest Caucasus, dated to the Early Bronze Age, which was excavated in 1898 (Tsarskaya, Russia). The garment was made from the fur of a souslik group animal, most likely the ground squirrel. Direct radiocarbon dating puts the fur at around 4445...
Article
Full-text available
Archaeogenetic studies have described the formation of Eurasian ‘steppe ancestry’ as a mixture of Eastern and Caucasus hunter-gatherers. However, it remains unclear when and where this ancestry arose and whether it was related to a horizon of cultural innovations in the 4th millennium BCE that subsequently facilitated the advance of pastoral societ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reports on the results of comprehensive analysis of a unique bronze flesh-hook featuring anthropomorphic figures from an Early Bronze Age dolmen (ca. 3200-2900 BC) near the village of Tsarskaya (contemporary Novosvobodnaya) in the Northwest Caucasus (fig. 1). It was established that the flesh-hook was cast from arsenical bronze with the u...
Article
Full-text available
В статье приведены результаты всестороннего анализа уникального бронзового крюка с антропоморфными фигурками из дольмена эпохи ранней бронзы (прибл. 3200–2900 до н. э.) у ст. Царская (совр. Новосвободная) на Северо-Западном Кавказе. Установлено, что предмет отлит из мышьяковой бронзы по технологии утрачиваемой восковой модели, является крюком для в...
Article
Full-text available
This study, the first of this kind, reconstructs the technical chaîne operatoire of thin‐walled jointless gold bead production in the Maykop culture on the basis of trace‐wear analysis, experimental research and comparative analysis, using gold beads from the Early Bronze Age dolmen (c. 3200–2900 bc) in kurgan 2 at Tsarskaya (discovered in 1898). T...
Article
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Ochre is a natural pigment of yellow or red color, mainly consisting of iron minerals. Along with determining the origin of mineral dyes, one of the main problems of studying natural pigments in archaeology is identifying the origin of the so-called “red” ochre, made on the basis of hematite. Hematite is a widespread mineral found everywhere. Howev...
Preprint
Full-text available
Archaeogenetic studies have described the formation of Eurasian 'steppe ancestry' as a mixture of Eastern and Caucasus hunter-gatherers. However, it remains unclear when and where this ancestry arose and whether it was related to a horizon of cultural innovations in the 4th millennium BCE that subsequently facilitated the advance of pastoral societ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents results of the morphological and isotopic analyses of fur remnants coming from a dolmen dating to the Early Bronze Age (the end of the 4rd millennium BC) discovered near Stanitsa Tsarskaya in the North-West Caucasus, 1898. It has been established that the fur garment of the buried individual was made of souslik (a short-tailed gr...
Article
Full-text available
The dolmen known as Shepsi was accidentally discovered on the Black Sea coast (Tuapse region, Russia). Radiocarbon dates show that the classic trapezoidal construction of the Caucasian dolmens with a porthole appeared in the region as early as 3250 BC. The distinctive structural characteristic for dolmens of that time was a floor slab laid between...
Article
Full-text available
The NorthEastern Black Sea Cultural Province of the VI – II millennium BC is a cultural phenomenon in the Western Caucasus which developed in the context of sub-continental contacts. It was one of few a cultural provinces on the Black Sea rim. Before the Ist millennium BC, all of them had predominantly inland rather than coastal or maritime contact...
Article
Full-text available
In the end of the 4th-2nd millennium BC, the Western Caucasus was occupied by the Dolmen culture named for its megalithic mortuary constructions housing collective burials. The existence of about 3,000 dolmens has been documented. These are usually clustered in groups of 2 to 3 up to several dozen structures. The largest groups consist of about 500...
Article
Full-text available
The dolmen known as Shepsi was accidentally discovered on the Black Sea coast (Tuapse region, Russia). Radiocarbon dates show that the classic trapezoidal construction of the Caucasian dolmens with a port-hole appeared in the region as early as 3250 BC. The distinctive structural characteristic for dolmens of that time was a floor slab laid between...
Article
Full-text available
The Caucasian dolmens represent a unique type of prehistoric architecture, built using precisely dressed stone blocks. The monuments date between the end of the fourth-and the end of the second millennium BC. Their origins remain unknown. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century numerous hypotheses have been advanced to account for the origins...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the dolmen known as Kolikho (Black Sea coast, Russia), discovered accidentally in 2008. It is a unique, undisturbed megalithic structure. The burial chamber contains disarticulated human remains from about 70 individuals. Radiocarbon dating shows that the dolmen was in use between roughly the 19th to 13th centuries BC. Strontium iso...
Article
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