Vikram N Vakharia

Vikram N Vakharia
University of Maryland, Baltimore County | UMBC · Department of Marine Biology

PhD

About

188
Publications
22,657
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5,739
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2008 - present
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1988 - March 2008
University of Maryland, College Park
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (188)
Article
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) regulates cellular life processes, including defense responses against infection by a variety of viral pathogens, by binding to target proteins. At present, various fish ISG15s have been identified, but the biological function of ISG15 in snakehead fish is still unclear. In this study, total RNA was extracted f...
Article
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease‑19 (COVID‑19) pandemic has already claimed millions of lives and remains one of the major catastrophes in the recorded history. While mitigation and control strategies provide short term solutions, vaccines play critical roles in long term control of the disease. Recent emergence of potentially vaccine‑resistant and novel va...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza virus (AIV) represents a major concern with productive implications in poultry systems but it is also a zoonotic agent that possesses an intrinsic pandemic risk. AIV is an enveloped, negative-sense and single-stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome. The eight genomic segments, comprising the whole genome, encode for eleven protei...
Article
This communication summarizes the presentations given at the 1st international conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV) held virtually during 16–18 June 2021, under the theme of tackling global viral epidemics. The purpose of this biennial meeting is to foster international collaborations and address important viral epidemics in different...
Article
Full-text available
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain R2B, with an altered fusion protein cleavage site, was used as a viral vector to deliver the immunogenic genes VP2 and VP1 of chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) to generate a bivalent vaccine candidate against these diseases in chickens. The immunogenic genes of CIAV were expressed as a single transcription...
Article
Recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectors have gained a lot of interest for its oncolytic virus therapy and cancer immune therapeutic properties due to its selective replication to high titers in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to find out the oncolytic effects of mesogenic recombinant NDV strain R2B-GFP on murine mammary tumor cell line...
Article
Full-text available
A new grass carp reovirus (GCRV), healthy grass carp reovirus (HGCRV), was isolated from grass carp in 2019. Its complete genome sequence was determined and contained 11 dsRNAs with a total size of 23,688 bp and 57.2 mol% G+C content, encoding 12 proteins. All segments had conserved 5' and 3' termini. Sequence comparisons showed that HGCRV was clos...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide and threatens to become an endemic problem, therefore the need for as many types of vaccines as possible is of high importance. Because of the millions of doses required, it is desirable that vaccines are not only safe and effective, but also easy to administer, store, and...
Article
Full-text available
The grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes severe hemorrhagic disease with high mortality and leads to serious economic losses in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry in China. Oral vaccine has been proven to be an effective method to provide protection against fish viruses. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus BmNPV-VP35-VP4 was genera...
Article
Rabies is a devastating disease affecting almost all mammalian animal species including humans. Vaccines are available to combat the disease. Protection against the disease is rendered by assessing the humoral immune response. Recent reports suggest the role of cell mediated immune response (CMI) in assessing vaccine efficacy. In the present study,...
Article
Full-text available
The grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), has resulted in severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry in China. VP4 and VP35 are outer capsid proteins of GCRV and can induce an immune response in the host. Here, three recombinant baculoviruses, AcMNPV-VP35, AcMNPV-VP4, and AcMNPV-VP35-VP4, were generated t...
Article
Full-text available
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most deadly infectious fish pathogens, posing a serious threat to the aquaculture industry and freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Previous work showed that VHSV sub-genotype IVb suppresses host innate immune responses, but the exact mechanism by which VHSV IVb inhibits antiviral response remains...
Article
Full-text available
Although typical Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines can prevent mortality, they are not effective in preventing viral shedding. To overcome this, genotype-matched vaccines have been proposed. To date, this approach has never been tested against genotype XII strains. In this study, we generated and assessed the protection against genotype XII ch...
Article
Full-text available
Newcastle disease (ND) and avian reovirus (ARV) infections are a serious threat to the poultry industry, which causes heavy economic losses. The mesogenic NDV strain R2B is commonly used as a booster vaccine in many Asian countries to control the disease. In this seminal work, a recombinant NDV strain R2B expressing the sigma C (σC) gene of ARV (rN...
Article
Rainbow trout farming is a major food source industry worldwide that has suffered great economic losses due to host jumps of fish rhabdovirus pathogens, followed by evolution of dramatic increases in trout-specific virulence. However, the genetic determinants of host jumps and increased virulence in rainbow trout are unknown for any fish rhabdoviru...
Article
Full-text available
Background Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a fish rhabdovirus belonging to the Novirhabdovirus genus, causes severe disease and mortality in many marine and freshwater fish species worldwide. VHSV isolates are classified into four genotypes and each group is endemic to specific geographic regions in the north Atlantic and Pacific Oceans....
Preprint
Full-text available
Although typical Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines can prevent mortality, they are not effective preventing viral shedding. To overcome this, genotype-matched vaccines have been proposed. To date, this approach has never been tested against genotype XII strains. In this study, we generated and assessed the protection against genotype XII chall...
Article
Full-text available
Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bi-segmented dsRNA genomes totalling about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non-enveloped virions. The family includes four genera, members of three of which (Aquabirnavirus, Avibirnavirus and Blosnavirus) infect vertebrates (excluding mammals), whereas members of the fourth genus (Entomobirnavirus) infect insects...
Article
Full-text available
Picobirnaviridae is a family of viruses with bi-segmented (rarely unsegmented) dsRNA genomes comprising about 4.4 kbp in total, with small, non-enveloped spherical virions. The family includes one genus (Picobirnavirus) grouping three genetic clusters with high sequence variability, two defined by viruses infecting vertebrates and a third with viru...
Article
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Macrobrachium rosenbergiiNodavirus (MrNV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in Giant freshwater prawnMacrobrachium rosenbergiiwhich leads to immense economic losses in hatcheries and farms. In the present study,we cloned the capsid protein gene ofMrNV-CP-RNA-2 (1146 bp) into a DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 to formMrNV-CP-RNA-2- pVAX1. The bacterial transf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Novirhabdoviruses are enveloped (-)ssRNA viruses affecting a wide range of wild and farmed fish. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia virus (VHSV) and Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHNV) can both be highly contagious and cause OIE notifiable diseases, albeit with different host reservoirs. VHSV M (Matrix) protein is a powerful suppressor of h...
Article
Full-text available
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an enveloped non-segmented, singlestranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Novirhabdovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae. This virus causes economically significant diseases in farmed rainbow trout, in Turkey, which is often associated with the transmission of pathogens from European re...
Article
Full-text available
Background Newcastle disease is one of the most important infectious diseases of poultry, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This virus is distributed worldwide and it can cause severe economic losses in the poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. Protection against NDV in chickens has been associate...
Article
Full-text available
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain F is a lentogenic vaccine strain used for primary vaccination in day-old chickens against Newcastle disease (ND) in India and Southeast Asian countries. Recombinant NDV-F virus and another recombinant NDV harboring the major capsid protein VP2 gene of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); namel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For more than a decade the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America has hosted a unique Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype -IVb. Mortality outbreaks affected up to 32 fish species between 2005-2009, when several new haplotypes emerged approximating a “quasi-species” distribution pattern. Thirty-seven sites were investigated be...
Poster
Full-text available
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) causes a highly contagious, deadly systemic disease to a wide range of fish (>90 species); it is an OIE notifiable disease because it threatens wild and cultured fish world-wide. Novirhabdoviruses (Fam. Rhabdoviridae) are enveloped RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and express 6 viral genes encodi...
Article
Full-text available
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the Northern Hemisphere. VHSV infection of fish cells leads to upregulation of the host's virus detection response, but the virus quickly suppresses interferon (IFN) production and antiviral gene expression. By systematically screening ea...
Article
Many enveloped viruses encode a matrix protein. In the influenza A virus, the matrix protein M1 polymerizes into a rigid protein layer underneath the viral envelope to help enforce the shape and structural integrity of intact viruses. The influenza virus M1 is also known to mediate virus budding as well as the nuclear export of the viral nucleocaps...
Article
Full-text available
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain R2B is a mesogenic vaccine strain used for booster vaccination in chickens against Newcastle disease in India and many south East Asian countries. A full-length cDNA clone of the virus was generated by ligating eight overlapping fragments generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction having uniqu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) causes a highly contagious, deadly systemic disease to a wide range of fish (>90 species); it is an OIE notifiable disease because it threatens wild and cultured fish world-wide. Novirhabdoviruses (fam. Rhabdoviridae) are enveloped RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and express 6 viral genes encodi...
Article
Full-text available
Background The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes significant economic losses in Chilean salmon farming. For effective sanitary management, the IPNV strains present in Chile need to be fully studied, characterized, and constantly updated at the molecular level. Methods In this study, 36 Chilean IPNV isolates collected over 6 years (...
Article
In recent years, aquaculture has attained a major economic revolution, however, infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, mycotic and parasitic origin are the most significant restrictive agents in the improvement of intensified aquaculture, which has become a fast blooming seafood industry. For environment-friendly aquaculture and human health conc...
Article
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae and genus Novirhabdoviridae, causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts located in northern hemisphere. To evaluate the genetic diversity of VHSV from the North and South West of Iran, the sequences of a 1483 bp nt region of the glycoprotein gene were determ...
Article
Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae and genus Novirhabdoviridae, causes mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts located in northern hemisphere. To evaluate the genetic diversity of VHSV from the North and South West of Iran, the sequences of a 1483 bp nt region of the glycoprotein gene were determ...
Article
Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) is a member of the family Birnaviridae which causes significant losses in the aquaculture industry. To develop a recombinant vaccine for IPNV, a cDNA construct of IPNV VP2-VP3 fusion gene was prepared and cloned into an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression vector (pET-26b) to obtain recombinant protein p...
Article
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Novirhabdovirus genus, contains an 11-nucleotide conserved sequence at the terminal 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) that are complementary. To study the importance of nucleotides in the 3'-UTR of VHSV for replication of novirhabdoviruses, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of sel...
Article
Full-text available
The members of Vesiculovirus which belongs to the family of Rhabdoviridae can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus (named as SHVV) was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. The SHVV shared 94% nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) which infect...
Article
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) has four genotypes (I-IV) and sub-lineages within genotype I and IV. Using a reverse genetics approach, we explored the importance of the L gene for growth characteristics at different temperatures following interchange of the L gene within genotype IV (IVa and IVb) strains. VHSV strains harboring heterolog...
Article
Full-text available
Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) is the causal agent of a highly contagious disease that affects many species of fish and shellfish. This virus causes economically important diseases of farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in Iran which is often associated with the transmission of pathogens from European resources. In this study, m...
Article
Full-text available
Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F...
Article
VP2 protein is the primary host-protective immunogen of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). His249 and His253 are two surface histidine residues in IBDV subviral particles (SVP), which is formed by twenty VP2 trimers when the VP2 protein of a local isolate is expressed. Here, a systemic study was performed to investigate of His249 or/and His253...
Article
Full-text available
Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the causal agent of a highly contagious disease that affects many species of fish and shellfish. This virus causes economically significant diseases of farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Iran, which is often associated with the transmission of pathogens from European resources. In...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary Orthomyxoviruses are a family of RNA viruses that include the various types of influenza viruses. The genome of orthomyxoviruses consists of multiple segments of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecules, each packaged in the form of rod-shaped, double-helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. How different RNPs interact with ea...
Article
Full-text available
Mesogenic vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are widely used in many countries of Asia and Africa to control the Newcastle disease of poultry. In India, the mesogenic strain R2B was introduced in 1945; it protects adult chickens that have been preimmunized with a lentogenic vaccine virus and provides long-lasting immunity. In this art...
Article
Virus like particles (VLPs) against viral pathogens not only constitute a novel approach for the development of antiviral vaccines for an specific virus, but also for the creation of multivalent vaccines in which antigens from other pathogens may be expressed on the surface of these VLPs. Despite positive results on protection for many of these VLP...
Article
Full-text available
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) are members of the genus Novirhabdovirus within the Rhabdoviridae family, which can cause severe hemorrhagic disease in fresh- and saltwater fish worldwide. These viruses carry an additional nonvirion (NV) gene, which codes for the nonstructural NV protein...
Article
Full-text available
The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of seque...
Article
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse...
Article
Reverse genetics system is a powerful tool to study the function of a particular gene. The currently available reverse genetics system for Novirhabdovirus is based on vaccinia-driven T7 RNA polymerase expression. An improved system for the recovery of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was developed which utilizes cellular RNA polymeras...