Vijesh V Krishna

Vijesh V Krishna
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | CIMMYT · Socioeconomics

MSc, MPhil, PhD
Research on inclusive agrarian development

About

93
Publications
37,929
Reads
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2,402
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2017 - June 2020
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Position
  • Economist
Description
  • Adoption and Impact Studies
March 2012 - July 2017
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Position
  • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Description
  • Senior Research Fellow, with Matin Qaim
March 2012 - August 2017
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Research on land-use dynamics in Indonesia; Teaching.
Education
October 2007
University of Hohenheim
Field of study
  • Agricultural Economics
May 2004
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Environmental Policy
November 2002
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Field of study
  • Agricultural Economics

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
We examine the emergence of land markets and their effects on forest land appropriation by farm households in Jambi Province, Sumatra, using micro-level data covering land use and land transactions for a period of more than 20 years (1992–2015). Based on a theoretical model of land acquisition by a heterogeneous farming population, different hypoth...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the social inclusiveness of agricultural extension services in India. We estimate the probability and frequency of farmers’ access to extension services and resulting changes in crop income across different caste groups. The literature suggests that caste-based social segregation manifests in various spheres of life, and perpetu...
Article
Rigorous impact evaluations of agricultural research and development programs involve estimating the causal effects of interventions. Here we examine the scope and challenges of using an instrumental variable (IV) approach in this connection. To this end, we systematically review 31 impact evaluations conducted in the maize production systems in de...
Article
Curtailing deforestation and the negative environmental and social externalities of oil palm expansion in the tropics requires a clear understanding of the associated economic benefits. Through analyzing regency-level panel data for 2005–2014 from rural Indonesia, we find that oil palm expansion has had a robust and positive impact on the provision...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the empirical literature on the determinants of farmer adoption of sustainable intensification technologies in maize agri-food systems of the Global South. The attributes of the technology and the dissemination institutions interact with farm/farmer-specific variables, leading to heterogeneous impacts, making the prediction of te...
Article
Several recent studies that employed DNA fingerprinting to identify crop varieties on farmers' fields revealed a significant mismatch between perceived and actual adoption. Varietal misidentification may undermine seed market functioning, especially if low-quality seeds of age-old varieties are distributed through the same channels as seeds of rece...
Article
Full-text available
During the post-Green Revolution era, numerous improved wheat varieties were released and disseminated to enhance tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and increase productivity. Still, in the wheat-based farming systems of the Global South, gender-based and other social inequalities continue to undermine equitable access to improved varieties,...
Article
Full-text available
The research on crop genetic enhancement has created a continuous flow of new, improved germplasm for the benefit of farmers and consumers of the Global South during and after the Green Revolution. Understanding farmers’ heterogeneous preferences for varietal traits in different market segments and incorporating the prominent ones in crop breeding...
Article
Full-text available
Rice and wheat production in the intensive, irrigated farming systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) is associated with significant negative environmental and health externalities. Conservation Agriculture (CA) has the potential to curb some of these externalities while enhancing farm income. However, farmer adoption of CA remains modest in the...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the patterns of women's engagement in wheat as decision-makers and laborers in India. Qualitative research conducted twice in one village in Madhya Pradesh explored gender norms and agency changes over time. Quantitative research was carried out in the same village and 17 additional villages. Four questions are asked: (1) Is...
Presentation
Full-text available
Food insecurity impacts of maize expansion in India.
Article
Full-text available
The productivity plateau of Indian wheat during and after the 1990s has attracted significant research and development (R&D) investment and policy focus. Our paper explores the reasons for this phenomenon by analysing the regional differences in wheat production in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). We found that there was only a small yield gap to br...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Managerial practices for farming system intensification have received increased focus in research-and-development (R&D) initiatives. These technologies are proven to close the yield gaps in researcher-managed field trials and are recommended for farmer's adoption. However, not all farmers have the technical, financial, and social capital to adopt a...
Book
Full-text available
This study reports on the adoption and impacts of CGIAR-related maize varieties in 18 major maize-producing countries in sub-Saharan Africa from 1995-2015. Key findings include: • Of the 1,345 maize varieties released in the study countries during this timeframe, approximately 60% had a known or reported CGIAR parentage. • In 2015, about 34% of th...
Article
Full-text available
Every year after the rice harvest, some 2.5 million farmers in northwest India burn the remaining stubble to prepare their fields for the subsequent wheat crop. Crop residue burning causes massive air pollution affecting millions of people across the Indo-Gangetic Plains. We examine different tillage practices to provide urgently needed empirical e...
Article
Full-text available
Many tropical countries are experiencing massive land-use change with profound environmental and socioeconomic implications. In Indonesia, oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding at the expense of more traditional crops – such as rubber and rice – and forest land. While environmental effects of the oil palm boom were analyzed in many studies, muc...
Article
Agricultural research-and-development (R&D) systems generate and disseminate new technologies, aiming to enhance crop and livestock production sustainably. Adoption-impact studies analyze farmer acceptance of these innovations and their impacts to identify what was taken up, how it works in farmers’ fields, and the implications thereof. In this pap...
Article
Full-text available
Development and dissemination of sustainable practices are key to enhance agricultural productivity in developing countries and to curtail potential negative externalities. Rigorous adoption/impact evaluations provide valuable lessons to enhance the capacity of agricultural research-for-development (R4D) systems in this context. Conventional evalua...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use transitions can enhance the livelihoods of smallholder farmers but potential economic-ecological trade-offs remain poorly understood. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study of the environmental, social and economic consequences of land-use transitions in a tropical smallholder landscape on Sumatra, Indonesia. We find widespread biodiv...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines conservation effects of wildlife trade using demand and supply data from caged-bird markets in Sumatra, Indonesia. When consumers have a strong preference for species rarity, trade could result in wildlife overexploitation and species extinction. Results from a choice experiment show that buyers of caged birds indeed value speci...
Data
Online Appendix of "Apparent Gains, Hidden Costs: Examining Adoption Drivers, Yield, and Profitability Outcomes of Rotavator Tillage inWheat Systems in Nepal", doi: 10.1111/1477-9552.12333.
Article
Full-text available
The 'high speed' rotavator is used for shallow tillage to create a fine tilth and incorporate crop residues, often with a single tractor pass. Rotavator tillage has spread quickly in many parts of South Asia, despite short-term experimental trials suggesting deteriorating soil quality and crop yield penalties. Evidence of rotavator impacts on farme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Oil palm has been claimed as one of the major drivers for the land-use change in Indonesia. Research regarding the environmental degradation and biodiversity loss because of oil palm has been performed massively. However, how the land-use change influence the household nutrition and gender roles are still limited known. We analyze the association b...
Data
Heterogeneous effects of extension contact on crop income. (DOCX)
Data
Regression analysis to test the suitability of variable ‘lack of extension services in the district as the reason for not accessing extension’ as instrument. (DOCX)
Data
Caste-differentiated effects of extension contact on crop income: Full regression models. (DOCX)
Data
Association between non-access due to non-availability of extension services and access probability. (DOCX)
Data
Caste-differentiated effects of extension contact on crop income: District-level fixed effects models. (DOCX)
Research
Full-text available
Labor saving innovations are essential to increase agricultural productivity, but they might also increase inequality through displacing labor. Empirical evidence on such labor displacements is limited. This study uses representative data at local and national scales to analyze labor market effects of the expansion of oil palm among smallholder far...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We analyze the effects of rotavator tillage adoption on yield and profitability of wheat in the Nepalese small farm sector, using recent survey data and propensity score matching. Rotavator is a tractor-operated cultivating implement for shallow tillage, which operates by pulverizing soil with the help of rotating 'L' or 'J'-shaped blades. Rotavato...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Caste-based social segregation manifests its influence in various spheres of life and perpetuates economic inequality and oppression. The present study, analysing nationally representative data from rural India, shows that differential access to quality information on crop production technologies critically limits the income potential of farmers of...
Article
The expansion of agricultural land remains one of the main drivers of deforestation in tropical regions. Stronger land property rights could possibly enable farmers to increase input intensity and productivity on the already cultivated land, thus reducing incentives to expand their farms by deforesting additional land. This hypothesis is tested wit...
Article
Many tropical regions are experiencing massive land-use change that is often characterized by an expansion of oil palm at the expense of forests and more traditional forms of agricultural cropping. While implications of such land-use change for the environment and for local farm households were examined in previous research, possible effects on the...
Article
Full-text available
While the negative ecological effects of the rapid expansion of oil palm in Southeast Asia are far-reaching and relatively widely studied, the socioeconomic consequences have received much less attention in the literature. We examine whether local farmers in Indonesia benefit from cultivating oil palm. We also look at the impact dynamics and possib...
Raw Data
This data was collected as part of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia (CSISA) (Phase-I) project, with an objective to assesses cereal production in selected areas of NW-Bangladesh, especially with respect to the biophysical and socio-economic characterization of the cereal producing farm households.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the impacts of oil palm adoption on livelihoods of smallholder farm households are analyzed. The study builds on survey data from Sumatra, Indonesia. Treatment-effects and endogenous switching regression models suggest that smallholder households benefit from oil palm adoption on average. Part of the benefit stems from the fact tha...
Article
Full-text available
Oil palm is one of the most rapidly expanding crops throughout the humid tropics. In Indonesia, the expansion is largely driven by smallholder farmers. While recent research has studied effects for the environment and climate change, socioeconomic impacts in the small farm sector have hardly been analyzed. Here, we address this research gap by anal...
Presentation
Full-text available
This study addresses the conservation effects of wildlife trade.
Article
Full-text available
Smallholder-dominated agricultural mosaic landscapes are highlighted as model production systems that deliver both economic and ecological goods in tropical agricultural landscapes, but trade-offs underlying current land-use dynamics are poorly known. Here, using the most comprehensive quan-tification of land-use change and associated bundles of ec...
Data
Primer pair sequences for plants, bacteria, and archaea
Data
Supplementary Figures 1 - 9, Supplementary Tables 1 - 5, Supplementary Note 1 and Supplementary References
Chapter
Full-text available
Conservation tillage (CT) is one among the prominent agronomic innovations proposed to address stagnant wheat yields in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia. A review of recent literature and an analysis of farm household datasets indicate that the magnitude of economic impact of CT wheat, albeit being generally positive, varies widely across the...
Article
This article examines the ecosystem impacts of transgenic Bt cotton technology resulting from reduced chemical pesticide use. Employing unique panel data from smallholder farmers in India, negative environmental and health effects of pesticide use are quantified with the environmental impact quotient (EIQ), with and without Bt technology. An enviro...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical lowland rainforests are increasingly threatened by the expansion of agriculture and the extraction of natural resources. In Jambi Province, Indonesia, the interdisciplinary EFForTS project focuses on the ecological and socio-economic dimensions of rainforest conversion to jungle rubber agroforests and monoculture plantations of rubber and...
Article
Full-text available
Diversifying the range of crop and livestock species produced by smallholder farmers is often seen as a good strategy to improve their dietary diversity and nutrition. Based on data from different countries, we show that this link between production and consumption diversity is less strong than typically assumed. Market access plays a much more imp...
Article
Full-text available
In their letter, Remans et al. (1) argue that our study (2) on the relationship between farm production diversity and household dietary diversity confirms earlier research but lacks discussion of scale and environmental aspects. Indeed, our findings are largely consistent with recent case studies from particular settings, but they challenge some wi...
Article
Full-text available
In his letter (1), Berti argues that our failure to find a relationship between farm production diversity (PD) and household dietary diversity (DD) may be due to the fact that PD and DD were measured using different scales. First, we would like to clarify that the main result of our article is not a zero relationship. What we find is a relatively s...
Article
Full-text available
Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and undernourished people are smallholder farmers, diversifyin...
Article
Do transgenic crops cause agrobiodiversity erosion? We hypothesise that they increase productivity and reduce production risk and may therefore reduce farmers' demand for on-farm varietal diversity, especially when only a few transgenic varieties are available. We also hypothesise that varietal diversity can be preserved when more transgenic variet...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Enhancing the diversity of agricultural production systems is increasingly recognized as a potential means to sustainably provide diversified food for rural communities in developing countries, hence ensuring their nutritional security. However, empirical evidences connecting farm production diversity and farm-households' dietary diversity are scar...
Article
Cultivar depreciation – the gradual decline in relative advantage of a cultivated variety over time – accentuates the vulnerability of resource-poor farmers to production risks. The current paper addresses constraints in combating cultivar depreciation of wheat in India. National level data on quoted demand for breeder seeds and breeder seed produc...
Article
Full-text available
As one of largest emerging economies, the Indian poultry market has wide-ranging implications for global poultry production and trade due to its sheer size, national market and rapid structural growth. Availability of low-priced, high-quality feeds is critical in order for domestic poultry production to remain competitive and meet growing consumer...
Article
Full-text available
Smallholder maize cultivation is prevalent in the marginal areas of India, under diverse agro-climatic conditions. Abiotic stress tolerant maize cultivars are expected to be highly beneficial in reducing the production risks and enhancing farmer livelihoods, especially in the face of climate change. Nevertheless, the adoption and production risk im...
Article
Full-text available
The study examines the current feed use in the rapidly-growing Indian poultry sector and evaluates the potential economic impact of using biofortified maize with higher levels of amino acids as feed. Data collected from 185 poultry firms of South India form the empirical base. A significant share of broiler firms were found using amino acids in qua...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the ecosystem impacts of transgenic Bt cotton technology resulting from reduced chemical pesticide use. Employing unique panel data from smallholder farmers in central and southern India, negative environmental and health effects of pesticide use are quantified with the environmental impact quotient (EIQ), with and without Bt te...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Do transgenic crops cause agrobiodiversity erosion? We hypothesize that they increase productivity and reduce production risk and may therefore reduce farmer demand for on-farm varietal diversity, especially when only a few transgenic varieties are available. We also hypothesize that varietal diversity can be preserved when more transgenic varietie...