Vijay Panchang

Vijay Panchang
Texas A&M University - Galveston | TAMUG · Maritime Systems Engg

About

49
Publications
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1,154
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
268 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301020304050
201720182019202020212022202301020304050

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Data from three satellites (JASON2, CRYOSAT, and SARAL/AltiKa) and two buoys were used to examine the performance of wind and wave forecasting models in the Persian Gulf. The quality of the satellite data was first examined by comparing them with buoy data. Wind speed data from all three satellites were found to be close to in situ measurements; fo...
Chapter
Engineers design structures are often expected to withstand extreme environmental loads. In the context of offshore engineering, such loads are due largely to very high waves and winds that occur relatively infrequently. A critical aspect of design therefore consists of estimating environmental conditions with a low probability of occurrence or a h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coastline and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from bot...
Conference Paper
Reliable knowledge of wave climate in a large water body such as in the Arabian Gulf for navigation, recreational, maintenance and installation of offshore-infrastructure (e.g. oil platforms) etc. is an important pre-requisite. Predicting waves in a region like Arabian Gulf, which is approximately 1000 km in length (north to south) and 550 km in wi...
Conference Paper
Understanding the features of weather system around and over the Arabian Gulf is a prerequisite for setting up of a numerical weather forecasting system. The reanalysis, ERA-Interim data with a spatial resolution of ∼80 km has been utilized for analyzing the wind climatology for a period of 35 year. It is found that in the Arabian Gulf, throughout...
Article
Full-text available
Short-term wave height distributions in intermediate water depthshave been investigated using spectral wave data from two gauges near Galveston (on the northern side of the Gulf of Mexico) and NDBC buoy 42035 during Hurricane Ike. Frequently used distributions such as the Rayleigh, the scaled Rayleigh and the 2-parameter Weibull distributionsare co...
Article
Full-text available
The statistical behavior of wave heights obtained from short-term (i.e., 30-min) wave records during Hurricane Ike was investigated. Spectral data from seven temporary pressure gauges and one National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoy moored off the coast of Texas, covering a 12-day period, were used. The wave heights, based on time series reconstructed...
Article
An approach is developed to simulate wave–wave interactions using nonlinear elliptic mild-slope equation in domains where wave reflection, refraction, diffraction and breaking effects must also be considered. This involves the construction of an efficient solution procedure including effective boundary treatment, modification of the nonlinear equat...
Article
Full-text available
The 2004-2008 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) saw several exceedances of what was regarded, prior to that period, as the 100-year significant wave heights (SWHs) that are used for the design of offshore oil and gas facilities. As a result, these facilities sustained considerable damage and disrupted U. S. energy supplies. The wave clim...
Article
Strong tidal forcing combined with complex winds and currents make wave modeling quite challenging in Cook Inlet (CI), Alaska. Using a coupled wind-wave–current modeling approach, we conducted a sensitivity analysis of the environmental factors that impact the modeling predictive skill for waves. A depth-averaged circulation model forced by the win...
Article
Full-text available
Parametric wind models are often used to reconstruct hurricane wind fields from a limited set of hurricane parameters. Application of the Rankine Vortex and other models used in forecasting Gulf of Mexico hurricanes show considerable differences between the resulting wind speeds and data. The differences are used to guide the development of adjustm...
Conference Paper
Knowledge of ocean weather conditions is important for mariners, offshore oil and gas operations, evacuation procedures, and sustainable management of coastal resources. While NOAA provides forecasts of ocean weather for outer oceans, these forecasts do not cover near-shore areas which present their own challenges such as complex coastal morphology...
Article
To ensure the safety of a variety of marine operations, ocean weather monitoring and prediction in many coastal regions have gained prominence over the last couple of decades. To support ongoing forecasting efforts in Prince William Sound, the site of the worst oil spill disaster in U.S. history, a three-way coupled wave forecasting system is devel...
Article
Field and modelling studies of the distribution of mussel larvae and juvenile plantigrade mussels in and around eelgrass meadows at Mt. Desert Narrows, Lamoine, Maine have demonstrated the following sequence of events which results in the establishment of mussel beds in shallow subtidal and intertidal waters. Mussel larvae increase on the flood tid...
Conference Paper
Engineers involved in harbor engineering projects are confronted with a bewildering array of numerical models that can be used for simulating waves in harbors. As new models become available, the engineer is left wondering whether or not s/he should adopt them in favor of ones that are already used, and frequently has little by way of guidance on t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During 2004 and 2005, four severe hurricanes - Ivan, Dennis, Katrina, and Rita - occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. These hurricanes created winds and waves that were close to or exceeded the calculated 100 years return period conditions. As a result, new estimates of extreme metocean conditions are needed for many offshore engineering applications. R...
Article
Full-text available
Wind waves represent a significant hydrodynamic factor affecting many oceanographic studies such as sediment transport, design of structures, etc. In coastal Maine, wave information is needed, among other applications, for aquaculture-related activities. As few data sources exist, a question that confronts scientists pertains to the magnitudes of t...
Article
Full-text available
Simulation models based on the elliptic mild-or steep-slope wave equation are frequently used to estimate wave properties needed for harbor engineering calculations. To enhance the practical applicability of such models, a method is developed to accommodate the effects of rubble mound structures that are frequently found along the sides of harbor e...
Article
There is an established need for accurate ocean weather predictions in many coastal regions, and we have begun to address this problem for various coastal domains in the Gulf of Maine, the Gulf of Alaska, and the Gulf of Mexico. Prince William Sound (PWS) in Gulf of Alaska, for instance, has been the site of a catastrophic oil spill, and the PWS Oi...
Article
Missing oceanographic data resulting from an instrument that is damaged, malfunctioning, or otherwise non-operational can be an impediment to real-time applications of the data and also to statistical calculations pertaining to climatological studies. The problem of reconstructing lost information by correlating oceanographic data from multiple sta...
Article
Full-text available
Sophisticated wave models like the Wave Model (WAM) and Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)/ WAVEWATCH are used nowadays along with atmospheric models to produce forecasts of ocean wave conditions. These models are generally run operationally on large ocean-scale domains. In many coastal areas, on the other hand, operational forecasting is not perfor...
Article
The large waves generated by Hurricane Ivan caused extensive damage to the offshore oil industry and to the coastal areas on the Gulf of Mexico. This damage and the wave conditions have received considerable media coverage. There has been speculation that the associated wave conditions correspond to a 1000-year event and that the criteria for desig...
Article
Methods to incorporate the effect of ambient currents in the prediction of nearshore wave transformation are developed. This is accomplished through the construction of a finite-element coastal/harbor wave model based on an extended mild-slope wave–current equation that includes wave breaking. Improved boundary conditions are used to provide more a...
Article
Computer models based on the two-dimensional (2-D) elliptic mild-slope equation are nowadays routinely used in harbor engineering applications. However, structures like floating breakwaters and docks, which are often encountered in the modeling domain, render the problem for locally three-dimensional model and hence are problematic to incorporate i...
Conference Paper
A wave transformation model, SWAN, is used to simulate wave conditions with a high spatial resolution in Penobscot Bay and Machias Bay in the coastal Gulf of Maine, The motivations are to provide forecasts to assist mariners, recreational boaters and others, and to develop a database of hindcast information that can be used for engineering applicat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The forecasting of wave heights is an essential prerequisite for planning, operation, and maintenance works associated with offshore engineering, navigation, and other activities. The requisite wave height information is currently derived from numerical models which use predicted wind information based on wind-wave relationships. These models somet...
Article
Full-text available
Two wave transformation models, SWAN and CGWAVE, are used to simulate wave condi-tions at the Field Research Facility, Duck (North Carolina). The motivation is to examine how well these models reproduce observations and to determine the level of consistency between the two models. Stationary wave conditions pertaining to three different storm-induc...
Conference Paper
Conventional absorbing boundary conditions used in elliptic harbor wave models usually do not consider the effect of incident angle and amplitude variation of the outgoing waves at a boundary. In this paper, a generalized absorbing boundary condition with linear approximation is developed to account for these effects. Improved solutions have been o...
Article
A technique is developed for including the effects of dissipation due to wave breaking in two-dimensional elliptic models based on the mild-slope wave equation. This involves exploration of convergence properties pertaining to iteration due to presence of the nonlinear wave breaking parameter in the governing equations as well as new boundary condi...
Article
Surface water waves in coastal waters are commonly modeled using the mild slope equation. One of the parameters in the coastal boundary condition for this equation is the direction at which waves approach a coast. Three published methods of estimating this direction are examined, and it is demonstrated that the wave fields obtained using these esti...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional elliptic harbor wave models are based on the assumptions that the region outside the computational grid is of constant depth and that the exterior coastlines are collinear and fully reflecting. These assumptions, which are associated with the open boundary, are generally not met in practice. This paper demonstrates that the effects of e...
Article
Our long-term goal is to develop a comprehensive model to predict coastal surface waves in any harbor (or open coastal regions also) and their effect on floating objects in confined waters. Several years of theoretical and applied research will be converted into a practical tool that eliminates the limitations of existing nearshore wave models used...
Article
Satellite technology has yielded a large database of global ocean wave heights which may be used for engineering applications. However, the sampling protocol used by the satellite leads to some difficulties in making use of these data for practical applications. These difficulties and techniques to estimate extreme wave heights using satellite meas...
Article
Full-text available
Net-pen aquaculture results in the introduction of excess fish food and fecal matter in coastal waters. These wastes may modify the benthic environment. Mathematical models are developed in this study to simulate tidal and wind-driven currents, waves, and the resulting dispersion of fish food and fecal matter in coastal Maine, a region where limite...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional elliptic harbor wave models are based on the assumptions that the exterior sea region (i.e. the region outside the computational grid) is of constant depth and that the exterior coastlines are collinear and fully reflecting. This paper demonstrates that for most coastal regions, where these assumptions are generally not true, their effe...
Article
A new wave modelling strategy has been developed by Holthuijsen et al. (1989) for estimating wave heights for engineering applications in coastal areas. This strategy as well as the original model itself of Holthuijsen et al. (1989), called HISWA, are being used in several engineering applications. This paper examines two aspects of this model: its...
Article
Two-dimensional elliptic water-wave models based on the mild-slope equation find wide application in engineering and other studies. Model results are often adversely influenced by approximate treatment of the open boundary condition. A method to incorporate the exact radiation condition at infinity in finite-difference models is therefore developed...
Article
Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tide models were used to simulate the M2 tide in the Gulf of Maine. Model estimates of changes to the tide caused by a tidal barrier in the upper Bay of Fundy were made and compared. Tidal amplitudes in the presence of a barrier increased 30-50 cm for both models. The three-dimensional model uniformly produced...
Article
Iterative solution procedures for solving the complete mild-slope wave (combined refraction-diffraction) equation are developed. Existing models for investigating wave refraction-diffraction in coastal areas have one of two main problems; (i) Some of the physics is lost as they resort to approximate solutions (e.g. parabolic approximations). Thus t...
Article
Full-text available
While studying the bathymetric transformation of ocean waves propagating into a coastal region, the engineer often invokes the concept of the significant wave to represent the offshore irregular sea state. As an approximation, the propagation characteristics of a regular wave train (with properties equal to that of the significant wave) are determi...
Article
The Gulf of Maine is a region lacking in wave data that can be used for engineering and research purposes. Extreme wave statistics for this area are therefore computed in this paper by numerical hindcasting. A representative sample of twenty-two strong extratropical northeast storms from the period 1942–1976 was selected, and wave heights were comp...
Article
A two-dimensional, elliptic, reduced wave equation was proposed in the mid-seventies to investigate water-wave propagation for coastal engineering applications. However, it is extremely difficult to solve that inseparable, complex equation except for very small sea areas. For larger regions, approximate equation methods such as the “parabolic equat...
Article
A method for solving the combined refraction-diffraction equation in large domains is described. This equation is modified to the reduced wave equation, and the elliptic, boundary-value problem is solved by the marching or “Error Vector Propagation” method. The solution method is direct, and eliminates the computer storage problems associated with...
Article
A technique is presented for modeling the evolution of wave spectra in bays. In particular, the writers are concerned with those bodies of water where bathymetric effects are important and where conventional methods such as ray tracing may not always work. The technique presented is based upon a modified form of the Helmholtz equation, thus incorpo...

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