Vidar Schei

Vidar Schei
NHH Norwegian School of Economics | NHH · Department of Strategy and Management

PhD

About

67
Publications
69,099
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2,467
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Introduction
My research is firmly grounded in the field of organizational behavior, with a particular focus on social decision making, including topics such as team and cooperation processes, negotiation, and conflict management.

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Team psychological safety, as a shared perception, is persistently found to be important for team performance. However, team members may not necessarily agree on the level of safety within the team. What happens when team members have dispersed perceptions of team psychological safety? Through a survey-based study involving 1,149 members of 160 man...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
Team emergent states are properties that develop during team interactions and describe team members' attitudes and feelings (e.g., cohesion). However, these states' emergent nature has largely been neglected, as most studies do not examine the temporality of team phenomena. We review longitudinal studies on team emergent states and demonstrate that...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries...
Article
Full-text available
The employee flexibility desired in changing and uncertain business environments is amplified in small business settings. How can small business leaders facilitate the employee flexibility needed in this context? In the present study, we proposed that mastery goal-oriented leaders who are concerned with learning and competence development would cre...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Cooperative motivation can be rooted in individual differences as well as in external factors, such as instructions from superiors, incentive schemes, policy agendas, or social relationships. Whereas cooperative motivation has generally been found to increase trust, in five studies conducted across different contexts (scenario-based, online with mo...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary teams often face complex problem-solving tasks. We theorized that two individual differences previously neglected in team research (cognitive motivation and maximizing) would be helpful for teams facing such situations. We tested this assertion on 81 teams participating in an escape-room simulation in which teams were locked into a pre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mindfulness has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the field of management. However, even though mindfulness – broadly viewed as a state of active awareness – has been described mainly at the individual level, it may also have important effects at aggregated levels. In this article, we adopt a team-based conceptualization of mindfulness...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the field of management. However, even though mindfulness – broadly viewed as a state of active awareness – has been described mainly at the individual level, it may also have important effects at aggregated levels. In this article, we adopt a team‐based conceptualization of mindfulness...
Article
Full-text available
Because negotiation is an integral part of social life, negotiators with different social motives are likely to meet. When this happens, will they be able to handle their differences constructively? We examined the relations between dyads’ social motive composition (cooperative, individualistic, or mixed), negotiation behavior, and economic and rel...
Article
Purpose This paper examines the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') leadership behaviors (consideration and initiating structure) and firm and individual performance (i.e. profitability, affective commitment and employees' willingness to change) in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) that need to adapt to changing environments....
Article
Mindfulness has recently attracted a great deal of interest in the field of management. However, even thoughmindfulness–broadly viewed as a state of active awareness–has been described mainly at the individual level, itmay also have important effects at aggregated levels. In this article, we adopt a team-based conceptualization ofmindfulness, and d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last ten years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgments of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Full-text available
Prejudiced attitudes and political nationalism vary widely around the world, but there has been little research on what predicts this variation. Here we examine the ecological and cultural factors underlying the worldwide distribution of prejudice. We suggest that cultures grow more prejudiced when they tighten cultural norms in response to destabi...
Article
Full-text available
The slippery slope framework of tax compliance emphasizes the importance of trust in authorities as a substantial determinant of tax compliance alongside traditional enforcement tools like audits and fines. Using data from an experimental scenario study in 44 nations from five continents (N = 14,509), we find that trust in authorities and power of...
Article
Full-text available
Does gender composition affect a group’s willingness to cooperate with another group? We studied this question by examining 188 three- and four-person groups of master-level business students (N = 682) playing a multiple-round intergroup prisoner’s dilemma game. The proportion of male group members was positively related to the rate of initial coop...
Article
Full-text available
Virtuell kommunikasjon blir stadig mer sentralt i en digital og global verden. Samtidig kan virtuell samhandling være svært krevende. For å få bedre innsikt i hvordan effektiv virtuell samhandling kan skapes, fulgte vi en mindre IT-bedrift med svært høy grad av elektronisk kommunikasjon. De to viktigste forutsetningene for suksess synes å være høy...
Article
Full-text available
Vi får bare én sjanse til å gjøre et førsteinntrykk. Men kan det som skjer de første minuttene av en interaksjon, være så avgjørende? Vi fulgte fire team fra oppstart og flere måneder fremover for å få innsikt i dette. Og ja, sentrale hendelser i startfasen synes å legge klare føringer på det videre arbeidet. Selv enkle utsagn i oppstarten preget t...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about the veracity of psychological research have been growing. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and nonrepresentative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Crowdsourced research, a type of large-scale collaboration in which...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of leadership behavior on work performance is highly context sensitive. We address this notion by investigating leadership behavior in one important but understudied organizational context—namely, professional service firms (PSFs). We examine how partners’ leadership behavior in a PSF relates to employee self-leadership, creative climate...
Article
Cultural intelligence (CQ), the capability by which expatriates, managers, and others involved in cross-cultural interactions function effectively in a globalized world, was introduced in 2002 and has garnered wide attention recently. In this paper, we present a detailed and up-to-date review of 142 empirical articles in the CQ research field. We f...
Preprint
Concerns have been growing about the veracity of psychological findings. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and non-representative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Large-scale collaboration, in which one or more research projects a...
Article
Full-text available
Noen kulturer gir stort spillerom for hvordan en kan opptre, mens andre har strenge sosiale normer som begrenser spillerommet. Norge er blant landene som har de aller strengeste sosiale normene. Og land vi kan sammenligne oss med? Pakistan, India og Sør-Korea. Formålet med denne artikkelen er å belyse hvorfor Norge har så strenge sosiale normer, sa...
Article
Full-text available
Det synes å være en utbredt oppfatning at kvinnerer dårlige til å forhandle. Nyere internasjonal forskning viser imidlertid at det er små forskjeller mellom kvinner og menn. Og det avgjørende er hvorvidt forhandlingssituasjonen favoriserer mannlige eller kvinnelige kjønnsroller. Våre data fra Norge indikerer at kvinner og menn er like dyktige til å...
Article
Teams are increasingly relied on to manage and adapt to a changing world. Previous studies have found adaptive teams to be less susceptible to disruptive events. In this study, we test whether or not the development of a team charter 2 weeks prior to a given task increases a team’s ability to adapt to disruptions and overall performance. We find th...
Article
Individuals and society invest ever-increasing resources in formal educational programs. However, informal workplace learning may be an effective alternative source for enhancing competencies, but, unfortunately, our knowledge about informal learning is still limited. We extend the research on informal learning to the unexplored occupational group...
Article
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This article examines the functioning of team charters in teamwork. We argue that the psychological contract literature serves as a theoretical foundation for understanding team charters. We examine what types of psychological contracts are established and developed during interactions between team members and whether these psychological contracts...
Article
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Regnskapsførere har lenge hatt en stabil arbeidssituasjon. Denne posisjonen blir nå sterkt utfordret. For å møte utfordringene har mange tatt til orde for at regnskapsførere bør bevege seg fra passiv regnskapsføring til aktiv rådgivning. Dette krever imidlertid en endring fra fokus på transaksjon til fokus på relasjon. Kan regnskapsførere klare en...
Conference Paper
This study examines a horizontal psychological contract (HPC) perspective to clarify the relationships between group members. By studying new forms of organizing through collaboration in the farming industry, we collected interview data from 12 joint operations (groups) to investigate three research questions about HPCs: their content, state, and o...
Article
Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators’ creative personality and their state of positive arousal wer...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals as well as organizations often need to work together to achieve economies of scale and scope. However, collaboration can be a challenge, and one example in which the potential benefit of cooperation has been difficult to realize are joint operations within the Norwegian farming industry. Thus, the purpose of this article is to illuminat...
Article
Full-text available
De første minuttene i et team legger ofte sterke føringer på hvordan teamet vil fungere. Formålet med denne artikkelen er å utforske effektene av at team utarbeider en handlingsplan (hva de skal gjøre) og en samhandlingsplan (hvordan de skal jobbe sammen). Resultater fra en kvantitativ og en kvalitativ studie av konsulentteam indikerer at slike pla...
Article
Full-text available
Cycling is arguably one of the most physically demanding sports. However, road cycling athletes are also challenged by a social-psychological tension induced by a fairly simple dilemma: There will only be one individual winner, but no one can win unless teammates sacrifice their own chances to win. This article addresses ways to effectively handle...
Chapter
Full-text available
Organizational culture is the sum of the values and norms in a corporation. The integration perspective implies that an organizational culture is a unifying and inclusive force. The differentiation perspective involves a focus on cultural differences and the existence of subcultures, while the fragmentation perspective is characterized by the actor...
Article
Full-text available
A traditional approach in agricultural and veterinary research is focussing on the biological perspective where large cattle-databases are used to analyse the dairy herd. This approach has yielded valuable insights. However, recent research indicates that this knowledge-base can be further increased by examining agricultural and veterinary challeng...
Article
Full-text available
With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and...
Article
Despite noting the likelihood of dissimilar motives in many transactions, previous negotiation research has focused on negotiations whose participants were similarly motivated (to be cooperative or individualistic). In this paper, we answer recent calls to examine “mixed dyads” (i.e. negotiators with differing social motives) in addition to homogen...
Article
Individuals that usually work independently may find it challenging to form projects where team members are highly interdependent. The purpose of this paper is to explore conflict and cooperation processes when these individuals engage in joint operations. We made extensive interviews and gathered data in twelve joint operations in the dairy farmin...
Article
Full-text available
Mange ledere sverger til bruken av team for å utvikle kreative ideer. Forskning viser imidlertid at team ofte er lite kreative. Formålet med denne artikkelen er å gi innsikt hvorfor team mangler kreativitet, og hvordan de med relativt enkle grep kan utvikle flere kreative ideer.
Article
This study examines how emotional intelligence impacts process and outcome in negotiating groups. We measured the negotiators emotional intelligence before they participated in a negotiation simulation. Results indicated that emotional intelligence was negatively related to group performance. Interestingly, the group members self emotional appraisa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Integration is an active search for information about facts and interests – motivated by a willingness to find mutually satisfactory agreements – and is usually necessary for creating high quality settlements in conflicts. The purpose of this paper is to examine the integrative approach to conflicts. Design/methodology/approach – Surveys,...
Article
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This experiment examines how members' individualistic or cooperative motivational orientations affect the processes and outcomes of negotiating groups. A total of 228 students participated in a three-person negotiation simulation where motivational orientations were induced through written instructions and members were aware of each other's orienta...
Article
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Title: Effective mediation: Fewer problems with a stronger focus on the problem? Abstract: Mediation can be defined as a complex problem-solving situation where the mediator assists conflicting parties in finding solutions. Research on cognition finds that focusing on problem definition has a decisive effect on the outcomes reached in traditional...
Article
Full-text available
Noen forhandlere er egoister og bare opptatt av eget resultat. Andre er mer kollektive og også opptatt av motpartens resultat. Den typiske oppførselen til både egoister og kollektivister bidrar imidlertid ofte til at ingen når sine mål. Formålet med denne artikkelen er å gi innsikt i hvordan både egoister og kollektivister best kan nå sine respekti...
Article
On étudie dans cet article la façon dont la motivation cognitive et le rôle de négociateur interagissent pour prédire les comportements et les résultats des négociations duelles. La motivation cognitive de 64 participants a été mesurée antérieurement à une simulation de négociation achatvente. Les résultats montrent que l’impact de la motivation co...
Article
Full-text available
Members of small groups often disagree when making decisions. Therefore, they need to negotiate to reach a joint decision. Small group negotiations will often be difficult because group members approach the task with different motivational orientations, some members being individualistic (i.e., focusing only on their own interests) and others being...
Chapter
Full-text available
Planned change processes can be viewed as continuous negotiations and renegotiations between change agents and change recipients. While change agents typically aim to minimize renegotiations of their proposed changes, we view renegotiations as an integral and often unavoidable part of implementing large-scale change. We argue that rather than focus...
Article
Cooperatively oriented group members (i.e., members concerned about both own and group outcome) typically negotiate smoothly with each other, but what happens when cooperators have to face group members with individualistic orientations (i.e., members concerned only about own outcome)? This study examines how cooperators' behavior and outcome are a...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of motivational orientations on negotiation outcomes in unstable negotiation contexts. Instability was created by pitting individualists against cooperators (mixed dyads), and by giving only one of the parties information about the other party's orientation. A total of 162 subjects participated i...
Article
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Forhandlinger er en hyppig og kritisk aktivitet i moderne organisasjoner. Det er derfor viktig at aktørene har kompetanse i å tilrettelegge og gjennomføre forhandlinger på en konstruktiv måte. Det dominerende paradigmet i forskning på forhandlinger har imidlertid blitt kritisert for å ignorere viktige organisatoriske rammebetingelser og produsere k...
Article
This paper examines how cognitive motivation and positive affect influence outcome in integrative dyadic negotiations. The cognitive motivation and positive affect of sixty-four participants were measured prior to a simulated negotiation. Results showed both cognitive motivation and positive affect to be positively related to outcome. The effects i...
Article
Full-text available
Forhandlinger er en hyppig og kritisk aktivitet i moderne organisasjoner. Mange forhandlinger ender imidlertid opp med avtaler som ikke realiserer potensielle gevinster. Formålet med denne artikkelen er å gi en forståelse for hvordan gevinster kan identifiseres og realiseres gjennom det som populært kalles vinn – vinn forhandlinger.
Article
Full-text available
I forhandlinger blir målet om å ivareta egne interesser ofte forstyrret av et ønske om å slå motparten. En kan imidlertid vinne enhver forhandling - og paradoksalt nok likevel tape, både i forhold til å ivareta egne interesser og sammenlignet med motpartene. Dette fordi det ofte er bedre å få en rimelig andel av en stor kake gjentatte ganger, enn a...
Thesis
Denne avhandlingen fokuserer på forhandlinger i grupper. Formålet var å undersøke hvordan partenes målorienteringer påvirker forhandlingsresultat. Effektene av målorientering på resultat ble studert på to nivå. På individnivå undersøkte jeg hvordan en individuell orientering (maksimere eget resultat) eller en samarbeidsorientering (maksimere eget o...

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Project (1)
Project
The major aim of the project is to focus on how different forms of leadership are perceived by employees in organizations. Results obtained from the project are relevant to researchers and practitioners in fields such as leadership research, organizational behavior, human resource management (HRM), and human relations