Victor Raskin

Victor Raskin
Purdue University | Purdue · Department of English

PhD

About

170
Publications
59,916
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5,197
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
1972 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (170)
Book
This book focuses on an overview of the AI techniques, their foundations, their applications, and remaining challenges and open problems. Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques do not explain their recommendations. Providing natural-language explanations for numerical AI recommendations is one of the main challenges of modern AI. To provide s...
Chapter
Basic studies in denotational mathematics and mathematical engineering have led to the theory of abstract intelligence (aI), which is a set of mathematical models of natural and computational intelligence in cognitive informatics (CI) and cognitive computing (CC). Abstract intelligence triggers the recent breakthroughs in cognitive systems such as...
Chapter
Cognitive Computing (CC) is a contemporary field of studies on intelligent computing methodologies and brain-inspired mechanisms of cognitive systems, cognitive machine learning and cognitive robotics. The IEEE conference ICCI*CC'17 on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing was focused on the theme of neurocomputation, cognitive machine lear...
Chapter
The paper addresses the fuzzy status of verbal humor for the first time in studies of fuzziness as well as in humor research. After a brief introduction to a dominant class of linguistic theories of humor, it focuses on the ontological semantic theory of humor, where the relationship is made obvious and reaches the computational level of formality....
Article
This article, an extended version of ICCI∗CC-2017 paper, co-authored by biomedical engineers specializing in brain blood circulation modeling and by experts in meaning-based NLP. This article suggests a cognitive computing technology for medical imaging analysis that removes image artifacts resulting in visual deviations from reality, such as disco...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive Computing (CC) is a contemporary field of studies on intelligent computing methodologies and brain-inspired mechanisms of cognitive systems, cognitive machine learning and cognitive robotics. IEEE ICCI*CC’17 on Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing was focused on the theme of neurocomputation, cognitive machine learning and brain-...
Article
The paper offers a substantive view of humor and claims that Davies' comparison of humor testifies to his interest in substance as well.
Article
Full-text available
Basic studies in denotational mathematics and mathematical engineering have led to the theory of abstract intelligence (aI), which is a set of mathematical models of natural and computational intelligence in cognitive informatics (CI) and cognitive computing (CC). Abstract intelligence triggers the recent breakthroughs in cognitive systems such as...
Conference Paper
At the 2014 AAAI, Pat Langley, one of the founders of machine learning and, recently, of its detractors, publicly lamented the current abandonment of the "big issues" in AI. Indeed, from emulating human intelligence in the process of learning more about it, AI is often confused with non-intelligent emulation of human intelligent activities. Both in...
Article
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This paper explores the notion of non-cooperation by a robot or an intelligent agent within a HARMS hybrid-team project. There is surprisingly little research on this topic which should actually acquire a considerable urgency in the light of cyber security and threats. To understand non-cooperation, one has to define cooperation more substantively...
Conference Paper
The meat of the paper is a small innovation in Ontological Semantic Technology describing how to calculate weights in text meaning representations. It is reset here as a component of a complex and apparently unprecedented global logic of natural language, a topic that was abortively entertained in the 1960–70s and since then mostly abandoned.
Conference Paper
The paper explores the mechanism of following scripts in inferencing and reasoning, both in humor and, generally, in natural language, as a way of creating a base for acquisition and use of scripts in the computer.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper is another step towards the recognition of conceptual defaults based on the presence or absence of modification for the nominal direct object of semi-transitive verb events. A default is defined as any piece of information that is obvious enough to be omitted in every day communication or within a domain of interest familiar to the speak...
Article
Full-text available
This paper makes several uncommon claims. First, it suggests a theoretical approach, even though the theory comes with a clear methodology and implementation, so that we know what we do, how we do it, and why it is best to do it that way. Second, it pushes forward HARMS communication in natural language and explains why it is better that way. Third...
Article
This paper deals with a contribution of computational analysis of verbal humor to natural language cognition. After a brief introduction to the growing area of computational humor and of its roots in humor theories, it describes and compares the results of a human-subject and computer experiment. The specific interest is to compare how well the com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper details a method for detecting senses (meaning) of entries for an English lexicon. The examples are based on size adjectives within a semantic-based natural language processing system such as the Ontological Semantic Technology system described in [1] and developed and improved elsewhere [2]-[6]. The method attempts to calculate the appr...
Conference Paper
The paper deals with the notion of ‘script’. Scripts have been essential for the dominant formal theories of verbal humor since their inception in the late 1970s, and the formal theories gave rise to meaningful computational humor a decade or so later. Recent developments in computational semantics and computational humor have required a tighter de...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a contemporary multidisciplinary field spanning across computer science, information science, cognitive science, brain science, intelligence science, knowledge science, cognitive linguistics, and cognitive philosophy. Cognitive Computing (CC) is a novel paradigm of intelligent computing methodologies and systems based...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper compares the results of computer and human efforts to determine whether an email is legitimate or a phishing attempt. For this purpose, we have run two series of experiments, one for the computer and the other for human subjects. Both experiments addressed the same corpora, one of phishing emails, and the other of legitimate ones. Both t...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses the complicated issue of social roles in a formal theory of cognition as well as in the methodology and implementation of natural language meaning representation in various computational applications. We start with analyzing a specific set of operational and substantive difficulties encountered in processing social roles in com...
Article
Information and language processing in a growing variety of computer applications can achieve the accuracy/precision and reliability that human users require if based on human-like understanding. While statistical and/or machine learning methods in text processing have been perfected in the last two decades (see, for instance, [1, 2] and references...
Article
This chapter introduces natural language information assurance and security (NL IAS), a new front in information security effort enabled by applying the Ontological Semantics approach to natural language processing to the existing and new applications. It reviews the earlier (1999-2004) application implementations, their increasing and expanding co...
Conference Paper
This paper deals with a contribution of computational analysis of verbal humor to natural language cognition. After a brief introduction to the growing area of computational humor and of its roots in humor theories, it describes and compares the results of a human-subject and computer experiment. The specific interest is to compare how well the com...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive Informatics CI is a contemporary multidisciplinary field spanning across computer science, information science, cognitive science, brain science, intelligence science, knowledge science, cognitive linguistics, and cognitive philosophy. CI aims to investigate the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain, the un...
Conference Paper
The paper starts out with an observation that, in the domain of fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, computing with words, etc., the charges from the outside that fuzziness equals probability are routinely and calmly rebuffed, but confusing fuzziness with vagueness has not been ultimately dealt with even inside the community. We leave completely aside the cate...
Conference Paper
Prepositional phrase attachment has been explored as a source of both ambiguity and (not unrelated) processing errors. To date, the approaches to resolve this problem in syntactic parsing have been crisp and/or probabilistic, though some approaches look promising for the integration of fuzzy processing. Prepositions, as function words, can be descr...
Conference Paper
Following the Computing With Words, in its wider sense, this paper examines the treatment of prepositions with fuzzy logic. In particular, the paper looks at the treatment of two prepositions, in and on, from both the theoretical perspective and that of a text sample analysis. We have shown that the fuzzy analysis of prepositional meaning is helpfu...
Article
Full-text available
The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence was pleased to present the 2012 Fall Symposium Series, held Friday through Sunday, November 2-4, at the Westin Arlington Gateway in Arlington, Virginia. The titles of the eight symposia were as follows: AI for Gerontechnology (FS-12-01), Artificial Intelligence of Humor (FS-12-02), Disc...
Article
The paper addresses the need for an ontology- and meaning-based approach for natural-language-understanding and information-processing computational systems. After a discussion of an oft-ignored form/content dichotomy that offers an explicit understanding of what meaning is and is not, a specific approach, the Ontological Semantic Technology, is in...
Article
The paper addresses the important issue of (enhancing) robotic intelligence and enhancing the robots' communication with humans, intelligent agents, sensors and machines. First, it proposes a way to achieve communication in natural language for the agents in hybrid groups with the help of the Ontological Semantic Technology (OST), currently the onl...
Article
In addressing a verb bias in syntactic analysis we present the beginnings of a noun-driven analysis paradigm. Such a paradigm may complement and compensate for some weaknesses in the existing verb-driven paradigm (in which the noun is subordinated) as applied to information sources or contexts in which the data is structured in objects and more tha...
Conference Paper
Firefighters put themselves in harm's way while saving others and may even lose their lives in certain situations, such as toxic fumes, extreme heat, or inhaling smoke. In order to protect firefighters from the risks and, at the same time, to save others' lives, firefighting and firefighter assistant robots have been developed. This paper will comp...
Conference Paper
Natural language understanding systems are increasingly needed for intuitive, efficient interaction with large information stores. The object-centered nature of these stores - that they encode states, attributes, and relationships of objects - may not be best served by the current verb-driven syntactic paradigm. We develop a highly-parallelizable n...
Conference Paper
This paper revises the classic Ontological Semantics theory with regard to the output of the analyzer. We argue that it is not enough to produce semantic interpretation of text, and syntactic trees should serve not only as clues for semantic processing but also as an output in its own right. We show that it is useful to combine both results of synt...
Conference Paper
Our premise is that an intelligent system should be able to structure all the information that can be obtained from natural language text, and it should do it in such a manner that the structured information be useful for further processing. This paper presents an experiment in structuring information from the natural language incomplete descriptio...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we report on a part of a large experiment in structuring information from natural language descriptions of animals from a children's dictionary. The structuring included the recognition and postulation of properties and capturing the is-a hierarchy from the descriptions. The material was taken from the 2007 edition of the American He...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Willingly or unwillingly, consciously or unconsciously, we all live scripted lives. This is not to say that one can look ahead into the next chapter and find out what one will have for dinner a month later. Life also brings surprises, but the scripts we are talking about are not the "scripts of life," but rather much smaller groupings of events tha...
Article
Full-text available
Based on formal theories of humor and a computational semantic technology for information and text meaning analysis, computers could be programmed to detect and generate humor and determine the patterns of individual humor preferences both for the joke tellers or posters and for the people that comment on jokes. These patterns do not only reveal in...
Conference Paper
The paper makes a case for expanding the range of words that Computing With Words typically considers to, eventually, all the words in a natural language, thus accounting accurately for the inherent vagueness of natural language meaning and creating an overlap with computational semantics. The claim is illustrated with examples of a few English nou...
Article
This exercise in metatheory presents what any theory consists of and what properties it should have. It, then, adjust the general recipe to a theory of humor and computational humor. In this light, it reviews the state of the art in computational humor and suggests the main lines of development. Copyright © 2012, Association for the Advancement of...
Conference Paper
Models of communications in heterogeneous systems support exchange between agents of different types. A key component is making the heterogeneous agents appear indistinguishable to and from each other in terms of language, to normalize communication. A goal is to act as an open system, where the agents can come and exit as needed by the requirement...
Conference Paper
The paper describes a semi-automatic method of identifying common-sense knowledge by running an ontological semantic system and focusing on its failures to interpret sentences that a human is not challenged by. Without common-sense knowledge, "He put a banana in his trunk" produces 6 representations, corresponding to 6 senses of "trunk" recorded in...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the process of deriving the meaning of an unknown word within the framework of meaning based natural language processing. It uses the clues supplied by the rest of the sentence, taking into account various degrees of possibilities of what the unknown word can mean, according to the previously acquired knowledge resources. The p...
Article
This paper outlines the methods of practical preautomatic and automatic verification of evolving lexicons and an ontology used to process natural language meaning, and several approaches that can be taken to speed up the process and decrease the cost of such verification. The main methodological direction of this type of verification is increased a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A recent Facebook update informed a user's friends that, on a night out at a bar, “a white dude was hitting on me all night”. It occurred to a couple of us independently that the user was not white or at least very likely not to be white, which was actually confirmed by those in the know. This paper is an attempt to explore and explain, the nature...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper analyzes multiple noun expressions, or compound nouns, as part of the implementation of Ontological Semantic Technology, which uses a lexicon, an ontology, and a semantic text analyzer to access and represent the meaning of text. Because the analysis and results depend on the lexical senses of words, general principles of lexical acquisit...
Conference Paper
The paper outlines a framework for a full incorporation of fuzziness into a comprehensive system of natural language meaning processing with the help of ontological semantic technology. It goes far beyond the traditional examples of fuzziness for natural language modifiers, claiming that fuzziness is pervasive throughout natural language and cannot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the knowledge engineering principles for the resources of an ontological semantic natural language processing system. Two central mechanisms, disambiguation and unattested named entity understanding are discussed in detail to show how their functioning informs the decisions for engineering and acquisition of the resources in con...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the ontological semantic technology for computing the meaning of number expressions in English. After introducing the theory, a typology of number expressions is explored theoretically and then tested on a small sample from the Enron corpus.
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a computational system for detecting unintentional inferences in casual unsolicited and unrestricted verbal output of individuals, potentially responsible for leaked classified information to people with unauthorized access. Uses of the system for cases of insider threat and/or social engineering are discussed. Brief introducti...
Article
Full-text available
The main thrust of this paper is to present to an important adjacent scholarly community of literary scholars how humor can be treated by the current strand of contemporary linguistics, or – more specifically – by linguistic semantics. In the process, we will show how a major theory of humor, the Semantic Script-based Theory of Humor (Raskin, Seman...
Conference Paper
Extending the idea of computing with words in place of numbers to computing with words in a free, unstructured text, the paper presents the ontological semantics theory, methodology and technology for accessing, formally representing, and computing natural language to achieve a near-human understanding of it. It also demonstrates how ontological se...
Article
Full-text available
When engineering content is created and applied during the product life cycle, it is often stored and forgotten. Since search remains word based, engineers do not have the effec-tive means to harness and reuse past designs and experiences. Current information re-trieval approaches based on statistical methods and keyword matching do not satisfy use...
Article
Full-text available
At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled “Transnational Ridicule and Response” focused on the implications for humor research of the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a theoretical approach for deep-meaning representation, ontological semantics (OntoSem), for a specific, complex NLP application: a meaning-based Internet search engine. It introduces the resources and technologies of OntoSem and their development into OntoSem2. The aim is to provide a general overview of the specific methods in...
Article
This extended abstract focuses on the crucial task of accessing meaning directly in natural language texts (NLT) and databases for the purposes of information assurance and security (IAS) and, especially, information intelligence. It is pretty obvious to all those involved in these areas that much if not most of the information that is pertinent fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How well the privacy policy follows a regulation is one of the current concerns of the user. Such a task can be accomplished by directly querying the policy statement with the regulation text. Automation of the process requires an expressive meaning-based framework for Natural Language Processing (NLP). This paper discusses the Ontological Semantic...
Article
Full-text available
When engineering content is created and applied during the product lifecycle, it is often stored and forgotten. Since search remains text-based, engineers do not have the means to harness and reuse past designs, experiences, and mistakes. On the other hand, current information retrieval approaches based on statistical methods and keyword matching a...
Article
A study was conducted comparing the organization of chlorophyll during development of the photosynthetic apparatus in dark-grown and light-grown pine and barley. The rationale was that gymnosperms, but not angiosperms, have a capacity to synthesize chlorophyll in darkness. Seedlings of Pinus brutia were germinated and grown in darkness or under pho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computational humor is a subdiscipline of computational linguistics with applications in human computer interfaces, edutainment, affective computing, intelligent agents, and other areas. Based on ontological semantics, we develop the resources and algorithms the computer needs to understand and produce humor, in principle and on a detailed example....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This panel will address users' perceptions and misperceptions of the risk/benefit and benefit/nuisance ratios associated with information security products, and will grope for a solution, based on the psychology of personality trait-factoring results, among other multidisciplinary approaches, to the problem of user non-acceptance of information sec...
Article
Full-text available
The paper deals with the latest application of natural language processing (NLP), specifically of ontological semantics (ONSE) to natural language information assurance and security (NL IAS). It demonstrates how the existing ideas, methods, and resources of ontological semantics can be applied to detect deception in NL text (and, eventually, in dat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper deals with the latest application of natural language processing (NLP), specifically of ontological semantics (ONSE) to natural language information assurance and security (NL IAS). It demonstrates how the existing ideas, methods, and resources of ontological semantics can be applied to detect deception in NL text (and, eventually, in dat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the creation of a script in the framework of ontological semantics as the formal representation of the complex event BANKRUPTCY. This script for BANKRUPTCY serves as the exemplary basis for a discussion of the general motivations for including scripts in NLP, as well as the discovery process for, and format of, scripts for the...
Article
Tiffs work belongs to a family of research cfforts, called microtleories and aimed at describing the static mereting of all lexical categories in several lang. uages in the fr,-unework of the MikroKosnos project on computational semantics. The latter also involves other static microtheories describ- ing word knowledge and syntax-semantics mapping a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes several aspects of the process of lexical acquisition for one of the most com-prehensive applications in natural language processing knowledge-based machine translation. Specifically, the paper concentrates on those components of the lexicon that centrally relate to the task of processing meaning. The usability of the comprehen...
Article
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This paper deals with a particular microtheory developed in the framework of the Mikrokosmos computational semantic project.The microtheory of adjectival semantics is considered in one specific aspect, namely, the optimization and facilitation of the lexical entries for deverbal adjectives with the help of lexical rules deriving such entries from t...
Conference Paper
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Two main results in the area of information hiding in natural language text are presented. A semantically-based scheme dramatically improves the information-hiding capacity of any text through two techniques: (i) modifying the granularity of meaning of individual sentences, whereas our own previous scheme kept the granularity fixed, and (ii) halvin...
Article
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The paper introduces the ways in which methods and resources of natural language processing (NLP) can be fruitfully employed in the domain of information assurance and security (IAS). IAS may soon claim a very prominent status both conceptually and in terms of future funding for NLP, alongside or even instead of established applications, such as ma...
Article
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this paper, as well as utilizing such new and promising resources as on-line dictionaries. Recent work on machine-readable dictionaries offers new and interesting possibilities both for the computerassisted lexicology (see Walker 1984) and for construct- ing lexical databases derived from the definitions in machine-readable dictionaries and utilize...
Article
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This paper deals with the discovery, representation, and use of lexical rules (LRs) during large-scale semi-automatic computational lexicon acquisition. The analysis is based on a set of LRs implemented and tested on the basis of Spanish and English business- and finance-related corpora. We show that, though the use of LRs is justified, they do not...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a scheme for watermarking natural language text by embedding small portions of the watermark bit string in the syntactic structure of a number of selected sentences in the text, with both the selection and embedding keyed (via quadratic residue) to a large prime number. Meaning-preserving transformations of sentences of the text (e.g.,...
Conference Paper
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The paper introduces and advocates an ontological semantic approach to information security. Both the approach and its resources, the ontology and lexicons, are borrowed from the field of natural language processing and adjusted to the needs of the new domain. The approach pursues the ultimate dual goals of inclusion of natural language data source...
Conference Paper
Ontological semantics is a theory of meaning in natural languageand an approach to natural language processing (NLP) which uses anontology as the central resource for extracting and representingmeaning of natural language texts, reasoning about knowledgederived from texts as well as generating natural language textsbased on representations of their...
Article
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This research paper explores a promising interface between natural language processing (NLP) and information assurance and security (IAS). More specifically, it is devoted to possible applications to, and further dedicated development of, the accumulated considerable resources in NLP for, IAS. The expected and partially accomplished result is in ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper introduces and advocates an ontological semantic approach to information security. Both the approach and its resources, the ontology and lexicons, are borrowed from the field of natural language processing and adjusted to the needs of the new domain. The approach pursues the ultimate dual goals of inclusion of natural language data source...
Article
Full-text available
. This work belongs to a family of research efforts, called microtheories and aimed at describing the static meaning of all lexical categories in several languages in the framework of the MikroKosmos project on computational semantics. The latter also involves other static microtheories describing world knowledge and syntax-semantics mapping as wel...
Article
Full-text available
. Word sense disambiguation continues to be a di#cult problem in machine translation #MT#. Current methods either demand large amounts of corpus data and training or rely on knowledge of hard selectional constraints. In either case, the methods have been demonstrated only on a small scale and mostly in isolation, where disambiguation is a task by i...
Article
The paper deals with the acquisition of static knowledge sources #ontology and the lexicons# for an NLP system. Acquiring the ontology and lexicon together enables immediate feedbackbetween the two acquisition teams, involving shared semi-automatic acquisition tools. The acquisition tools can be technological #mostly corpus-processing and interface...

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