# Victor S. L’vovWeizmann Institute of Science | weizmann · Department of Chemical Physics

Victor S. L’vov

PhD in theor. and math physics

## About

338

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Introduction

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Education

September 1959 - December 1965

## Publications

Publications (338)

Nonlinear interactions are crucial in science and engineering. Here, we investigate wave interactions in a highly nonlinear magnetic system driven by parametric pumping leading to Bose--Einstein condensation of spin-wave quanta -- magnons. Using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy in yttrium-iron garnet films, we found and identified a set of n...

We use the Dyson-Wyld diagrammatic technique to analyze the infinite series for the correlation functions of the velocity in the hydrodynamic turbulence. We highlight the fundamental role played by the triple correlator of the velocity as all higher order correlation functions are expressed through it. This fact is shown through the resummation of...

Advances in quantum computing and telecommunications stimulate the search for classical systems allowing partial implementation of a similar functionality under less stringent environmental conditions. Here, we present a classical version of several quantum bit (qubit) functionalities using a two-component magnon Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) form...

We develop a theory of strong anisotropy of the energy spectra in the thermally driven turbulent counterflow of superfluid ⁴ He. The key ingredients of the theory are the three-dimensional differential closure for the vector of the energy flux and the anisotropy of the mutual friction force. We suggest an approximate analytic solution of the result...

We propose to enable a set of room-temperature quantum computing functionalities using two room-temperature magnon Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) existing at two distinct wavevectors in a Yttrium-Iron-Garnet ferrimagnetic film. The macroscopic wavefunctions of the two BECs, which have a group velocity of zero and are therefore stationary, serve a...

The alternating current (ac) Josephson effect in a time-independent spatially inhomogeneous setting is manifested by the occurrence of Josephson oscillations—periodic macroscopic phase-induced collective motions of the quantum condensate. So far, this phenomenon was observed at cryogenic temperatures in superconductors, in superfluid helium, and in...

The appearance of spontaneous coherence is a fundamental feature of a Bose-Einstein condensate and an essential requirement for possible applications of the condensates for data processing and quantum computing. In the case of a magnon condensate in a magnetic crystal, such computing can be performed even at room temperature. We study the process o...

Interaction between quasiparticles of a different nature, such as magnons and phonons in a magnetic medium, leads to the mixing of their properties and the formation of hybrid states in the areas of intersection of individual spectral branches. We recently reported the discovery of a new phenomenon mediated by the magnon-phonon interaction: the spo...

We develop an analytic theory of strong anisotropy of the energy spectra in the thermally-driven turbulent counterflow of superfluid He-4. The key ingredients of the theory are the three-dimensional differential closure for the vector of the energy flux and the anisotropy of the mutual friction force. We suggest an approximate analytic solution of...

Interaction between quasiparticles of a different nature, such as magnons and phonons in a magnetic medium, leads to the mixing of their properties and the formation of hybrid states in the areas of intersection of individual spectral branches. We recently reported the discovery of a new phenomenon mediated by the magnon-phonon interaction: the spo...

The appearance of spontaneous coherence is a fundamental feature of a Bose-Einstein condensate and an essential requirement for possible applications of the condensates for data processing and quantum computing. In the case of a magnon condensate in a magnetic crystal, such computing can be performed even at room temperature. So far, the process of...

We use particle tracking velocimetry to study Eulerian and Lagrangian second-order statistics of superfluid He-4 grid turbulence. The Eulerian energy spectra at scales larger than the mean distance between quantum vortex lines behave classically with close to Kolmogorov-1941 scaling and are almost isotropic. The Lagrangian second-order structure fu...

The alternating current (ac) Josephson effect in a time-independent spatially-inhomogeneous setting is manifested by the occurrence of Josephson oscillations - periodic macroscopic phase-induced collective motions of the quantum condensate. So far, this phenomenon was observed at cryogenic temperatures in superconductors, in superfluid helium, and...

Magnon Bose–Einstein Condensates (BECs) and supercurrents are coherent quantum phenomena, which appear on a macroscopic scale in parametrically populated solid state spin systems. One of the most fascinating and attractive features of these processes is the possibility of magnon condensation and supercurrent excitation even at room temperature. At...

We report on a combined theoretical and numerical study of counterflow turbulence in superfluid He4 in a wide range of parameters. The energy spectra of the velocity fluctuations of both the normal-fluid and superfluid components are strongly anisotropic. The angular dependence of the correlation between velocity fluctuations of the two components...

We report on a combined theoretical and numerical study of counterflow turbulence in superfluid $^{4}$He in a wide range of parameters. The energy spectra of the velocity fluctuations of both the normal-fluid and superfluid components are strongly anisotropic. The angular dependence of the correlation between velocity fluctuations of the two compon...

We report the experimental realization of a space-time crystal with tunable periodicity in time and space in a magnon Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), formed in a room-temperature yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film by a microwave space-homogeneous magnetic field. The magnon BEC is prepared to have a well-defined frequency and nonzero wave vector. We dem...

Magnon Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) and supercurrents are coherent quantum phenomena, which appear on a macroscopic scale in parametrically populated solid state spinsystems. One of the most fascinating and attractive features of these processes is the possibility of magnon condensation and supercurrent excitation even at room temperature. At t...

A macroscopic collective motion of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is commonly associated with phenomena such as superconductivity and superfluidity, often generalised by the term supercurrent. Another type of motion of a quantum condensate is second sound—a wave of condensate’s parameters. Recently, we reported on the decay of a BEC of magnons ca...

Three-dimensional anisotropic turbulence in classical fluids tends towards isotropy and homogeneity with decreasing scales, allowing—eventually—the abstract model of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence to be relevant. We show here that the opposite is true for superfluid He4 turbulence in three-dimensional counterflow channel geometry. This flow b...

Three-dimensional anisotropic turbulence in classical fluids tends towards isotropy and homogeneity with decreasing scales, allowing --eventually-- the abstract model of "isotropic homogeneous turbulence" to be relevant. We show here that the opposite is true for superfluid $^4$He turbulence in 3-dimensional counterflow channel geometry. This flow...

We report a detailed analysis of the energy spectra, second- and high-order structure functions of velocity differences in superfluid He4 counterflow turbulence, measured in a wide range of temperatures and heat fluxes. We show that the one-dimensional energy spectrum Exz(ky) (averaged over the xz plane, parallel to the channel wall), directly meas...

We report the experimental realization of a space-time crystal with tunable periodicity in time and space in the magnon Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), formed in a room-temperature Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) film by radio-frequency space-homogeneous magnetic field. The magnon BEC is prepared to have a well defined frequency and non-zero wavevector....

We report a detailed analysis of the energy spectra, second- and high-order structure functions of velocity differences in superfluid $^4$He counterflow turbulence, measured in a wide range of temperatures and heat fluxes. We show that the one-dimensional energy spectrum $E_{xz} (k_y)$ (averaged over the $xz$-plane, parallel to the channel wall), d...

The term supercurrent relates to a macroscopic dissipation-free collective motion of a quantum condensate and is commonly associated with such famous low-temperature phenomena as superconductivity and superfluidity. Another type of motion of quantum condensates is second sound - a wave of the density of a condensate. Recently, we reported on an enh...

In the thermally driven superfluid 4He turbulence, the counterflow velocity Uns partially decouples the normal and superfluid turbulent velocities. Recently we suggested [J. Low Temp. Phys. 187, 497 (2017)] that this decoupling should tremendously increase the turbulent energy dissipation by mutual friction and significantly suppress the energy spe...

Evolution of an overpopulated gas of magnons to a Bose-Einstein condensate and excitation of a magnon supercurrent, propelled by a phase gradient in the condensate wave function, can be observed at room-temperature by means of the Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy in an yttrium iron garnet material. We study these phenomena in a wide range of...

We studied the transient behavior of the spin current generated by the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in a set of platinum-coated yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films of different thicknesses. The LSSE was induced by means of pulsed microwave heating of the Pt layer and the spin currents were measured electrically using the inverse spin Hall ef...

The large scale turbulent statistics of mechanically driven superfluid $^4$He was shown experimentally to follow the classical counterpart. In this paper we use direct numerical simulations to study the whole range of scales in a range of temperatures $T \in[1.3,2.1]$K. The numerics employ self-consistent and non-linearly coupled normal and superfl...

Complete Hamiltonian formalism is suggested for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluid. Resonance three-wave interaction processes -- decay instability and confluence of two waves -- are shown to play a key role in the weakly nonlinear dynamics and statistics of inertial waves in the rapid rotation case. Future applications of the Hamilton...

Describing superfluid turbulence at intermediate scales between the inter-vortex distance and the macroscale requires an acceptable equation of motion for the density of quantized vortex lines $\cal{L}$. The closure of such an equation for superfluid inhomogeneous flows requires additional inputs besides $\cal{L}$ and the normal and superfluid velo...

An ensemble of magnons, quanta of spin waves, can be prepared as a Bose gas of weakly interacting quasiparticles. Furthermore, the thermalization of the overpopulated magnon gas through magnon-magnon scattering processes, which conserve the number of particles, can lead to the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate at the bottom of a spin-wave spe...

Based on our current understanding of statistics of quantum turbulence as well as on results of intensive ongoing analytical, numerical and experimental studies we overview here the following problems in the large-scale, space-homogeneous, steady-state turbulence of superfluid $^4$He and $^3$He: 1) Energy spectra of normal and superfluid velocity c...

We report preliminary results of the complementary experimental and numerical studies on spatiotemporal tangle development and streamwise vortex line density (VLD) distribution in counterflowing $^4$He. The experiment is set up in a long square channel with VLD and local temperature measured in three streamwise locations. In the steady state we obs...

Below the phase transition temperature Tc≃10−3K He3-B has a mixture of normal and superfluid components. Turbulence in this material is carried predominantly by the superfluid component. We explore the statistical properties of this quantum turbulence, stressing the differences from the better known classical counterpart. To this aim we study the t...

Below the phase transition temperature $Tc \simeq 10^{-3}$K He-3B has a mixture of normal and superfluid components. Turbulence in this material is carried predominantly by the superfluid component. We explore the statistical properties of this quantum turbulence, stressing the differences from the better known classical counterpart. To this aim we...

It is known that an ensemble of magnons, quanta of spin waves, can be prepared as a Bose gas of weakly interacting quasiparticles with conservation of the particle number. Furthermore, the thermalization of the overpopulated magnon gas can lead to the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate at the bottom of a spin-wave spectrum. However, magnon-pho...

We report complementary experimental, numerical, and theoretical study of turbulent coflow, counterflow, and
pure superflow of superfluid 4He in a channel, resulting in a physically transparent and relatively simple model
of decaying quantum turbulence that accounts for interactions of coexisting quantum and classical componentsof turbulent superfl...

We report complementary experimental, numerical, and theoretical study of turbulent coflow, counterflow, and pure superflow of superfluid He4 in a channel, resulting in a physically transparent and relatively simple model of decaying quantum turbulence that accounts for interactions of coexisting quantum and classical components of turbulent superf...

This is a Reply to Nemirovskii's Comment [Phys. Rev. B 94, 146501 (2016)] on Khomenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 180504 (2015)] in which a new form of the production term in Vinen's equation for the evolution of the vortex-line density L in the thermal counterflow of superfluid He4 in a channel was suggested. To further substantiate the suggested for...

The letter summarizes recent experiments on thermal counterflow turbulence in superfluid 4He, empha-
sizing the observation of turbulence in the normal fluid and its effect on the decay process when the heat flux
is turned off. We argue that what is observed as turbulence in the normal fluid is a novel form of coupled
turbulence in the superfluid a...

Recently E. Sonin commented [arXiv:1607.04720] on our preprint "Supercurrent in a room temperature Bose-Einstein magnon condensate" [arXiv: 1503.00482], arguing that our "claim of detection of spin supercurrent is premature and has not been sufficiently supported by presented experimental results and their theoretical interpretation." We consider t...

A supercurrent is a macroscopic effect of a phase-induced collective motion of a quantum condensate. So far, experimentally observed supercurrent phenomena such as superconductivity and superfluidity have been restricted to cryogenic temperatures. Here, we report on the discovery of a supercurrent in a Bose–Einstein magnon condensate prepared in a...

We summarize recent experiments on thermal counterflow turbulence in superfluid 4He, emphasizing the observation of turbulence in the normal fluid and its effect on the decay process when the heat flux is turned off. We argue that what is observed as turbulence in the normal fluid is a novel form of coupled turbulence in the superfluid and normal c...

In mechanically driven superfluid turbulence, the mean velocities of the normal- and superfluid components are known to coincide: Un=Us. Numerous laboratory, numerical, and analytical studies showed that under these conditions, the mutual friction between the normal- and superfluid velocity components also couples their fluctuations: un′(r,t)≈us′(r...

In classical turbulence the kinematic viscosity $\nu$ is involved in two
phenomena. The first is the energy dissipation and the second is the mechanical
momentum flux toward the wall. In superfluid turbulence the mechanism of energy
dissipation is different, and it is determined by an effective viscosity which
was introduced by Vinen and is denoted...

In mechanically driven superfluid turbulence the mean velocities of the
normal- and super-fluid components are known to coincide: $\mathbf{
U_{\text{n}}} =\mathbf{ U_{\text{s}}}$. Numerous laboratory, numerical and
analytical studies showed that under these conditions the mutual friction
between the normal- and super-fluid velocity components coupl...

The quantization of vortex lines in superfluids requires the introduction of their density L(r,t) in the description of quantum turbulence. The space homogeneous balance equation for L(t), proposed by Vinen on the basis of dimensional and physical considerations, allows a number of competing forms for the production term P. Attempts to choose the c...

The quantization of vortex lines in superfluids requires the introduction of
their density $\C L(\B r,t)$ in the description of quantum turbulence. The
space homogeneous balance equation for $\C L(t)$, proposed by Vinen on the
basis of dimensional and physical considerations, allows a number of competing
forms for the production term $\C P$. Attemp...

We discuss the energy and vorticity spectra of turbulent superfluid 4He in the entire temperature range from
T = 0 up to the phase transition “λ point,” Tλ= 2.17 K. Contrary to classical developed turbulence in which
there are only two typical scales, i.e., the energy injection L and the dissipation scales η, here, the quantization
of vorticity int...

We discuss the energy and vorticity spectra of turbulent superfluid $^4$He in
all the temperature range from $T=0$ up to the phase transition "$\lambda$
point", $T_\lambda\simeq 2.17\,$K. Contrary to classical developed turbulence
in which there are only two typical scales, i.e. the energy injection $L$ and
the dissipation scales $\eta$, here the q...

We present a comprehensive statistical study of free decay of the quantized
vortex tangle in superfluid $^4$He at low and ultra-low temperatures,
$0\leqslant T \leqslant 1.1\,$K. Using high resolution vortex filament
simulations with full Biot-Savart vortex dynamics, we show that for ultra-low
temperatures $T\lesssim 0.5 \,$K, when the mutual frict...

We consider the evolution of a tangle of quantized vortex lines in ultra cold
superfluid $^3$He, created by a nuclear reaction with a single Neutron. This
reaction causes a fast non-equilibrium phase transition due to the local
overheating of He-3B, followed by the expansion and subsequent cooling of the
hot region, in a certain analogy with the Bi...

Turbulence in superfluid helium is unusual and presents a challenge to fluid dynamicists because it consists of two coupled, interpenetrating turbulent fluids: the first is inviscid with quantized vorticity, and the second is viscous with continuous vorticity. Despite this double nature, the observed spectra of the superfluid turbulent velocity at...

In the vicinity of the superfluid transition in liquid 4He, we explore the relation between two apparently
unrelated physical quantities—the kinematic viscosity, ν, in the normal state and the quantum of circulation,
κ, in the superfluid state. The model developed here leads to the simple relationship ν ≈ κ/6, and links
the classical and quantum fl...

Experimental and simulational studies of the dynamics of vortex reconnections in quantum fluids showed that the distance d between the reconnecting vortices is close to a universal time dependence d=D[κ|t_{0}-t|]^{α} with α fluctuating around 1/2 and κ=h/m is the quantum of circulation. Dimensional analysis, based on the assumption that the quantum...

Experimental and simulational studies of the dynamics of vortex reconnections
in quantum fluids showedthat the distance $d$ between the reconnecting vortices
is close to a universal time dependence $d=D[\kappa|t_0-t|]^\alpha$ with
$\alpha$ fluctuating around 1/2 and $\kappa=h/m$ is the quantum of circulation.
Dimensional analysis, based on the assu...

We study, numerically and analytically, the relationship between the Eulerian spectrum of kinetic energy, E
E(k, t), in isotropic turbulence and the corresponding Lagrangian frequency energy spectrum, E
L(ω, t), for which we derive an evolution equation. Our DNS results show that not only E
L(ω, t) but also the Lagrangian frequency spectrum of the...

Superfluid Turbulence is unusual and presents a challenge to fluid
dynamicists because it consists of two coupled, inter penetrating turbulent
fluids: the first is inviscid with quantised vorticity, the second is viscous
with continuous vorticity. Despite this double nature, the observed spectra of
the superfluid turbulent velocity at sufficiently...

A superfluid in the absence of a viscous normal component should be the best realization of an ideal inviscid Euler fluid. As expressed by d'Alembert's famous paradox, an ideal fluid does not drag on bodies past which it flows, or in other words it does not exchange momentum with them. In addition, the flow of an ideal fluid does not dissipate kine...

A superfluid in the absence of a viscous normal component should be the best realization of an ideal inviscid Euler fluid. As expressed by d'Alembert's famous paradox, an ideal fluid does not drag on bodies past which it flows, or in other words it does not exchange momentum with them. In addition, the flow of an ideal fluid does not dissipate kine...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.109901

The main goal of this paper is to present a comprehensive characterization of
well developed vortex tangles in a turbulent counterflow in quantum fluids
(with a laminar normal fluid component). We analyze extensive numerical
simulations using the vortex filament method, solving the full Biot-Savart
equations for the vortex dynamics in a wide range...

We consider the intermittent behavior of superfluid turbulence in ^{4}He. Because of the similarity in the nonlinear structure of the two-fluid model of superfluidity and the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, one expects the scaling exponents of the structure functions to be the same as in classical turbulence for temperatures close to the superfl...

We consider the intermittent behavior of superfluid turbulence in 4 He. Because of the similarity in the nonlinear structure of the two-fluid model of superfluidity and the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, one expects the scaling exponents of the structure functions to be the same as in classical turbulence for temperatures close to the superflui...

We comment on the paper by Sonin [Phys. Rev. B 85, 104516 (2012)] with most statements of which we disagree. We use this option to shed light on some important issues of a theory of Kelvin-wave turbulence, touched on in Sonin's paper, in particular, on the relation between the Vinen spectrum of strong and the L'vov-Nazarenko spectrum of weak turbul...