Vera Garaj-Vrhovac

Vera Garaj-Vrhovac
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health · Mutagenesis Unit

PhD molecular biologist

About

182
Publications
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Publications

Publications (182)
Article
Imatinib mesylate (IM) is an anticancer drug that belongs to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We report the results of the first investigation of the chronic exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to IM. The exposure to IM (0.01, 1 and 100 μg/L) was initiated in adult fish and continued through hatching and the offspring generation for seven months. In add...
Article
Objectives The beneficial influence of a vegetarian diet in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome has been evidenced. However, adiponectin production and secretion are scarcely studied in vegetarians, despite the important role in recovering metabolic homeostasis by reducing visceral obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. This study aimed...
Chapter
Securing potable water and preserving aquatic ecosystems are growing problems that will become even more important in the near future. Well-defined environmental pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals, or organic matter have been thoroughly examined, but over the recent decade, a spotlight was put on a new and emerging group of pollutants – ph...
Article
Imatinib mesylate (IM) is the first developed protein kinase inhibitor and recently it has topped consumption rates among targeted and total anticancer drugs. Although there are indications that IM possesses cyto/genotoxic activities against normal non-target cells as well, there is a lack of information regarding the underlying mechanism involved...
Article
Multielemental analysis of whole blood can provide significant information for the evaluation of nutritional status and diagnosis of certain diseases as well as for the assessment of exposure to potentially toxic metals. However, the quantification of multiple elements in whole blood is not easy partly because of the wide variation in element conce...
Article
The non-proteinogenic amino acid ß-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS-PDC) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. BMAA is known to induce neurotoxic effects leading to neurodegeneration via multiple...
Article
Full-text available
Apigenin is found in several dietary plant foods such as vegetables and fruits. To investigate potential anticancer properties of apigenin on human breast cancer, ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA MB-231 cells were used. Moreover, toxicological safety of apigenin towards normal cells was evaluated in human lymphocytes. Cytotoxicity of apige...
Article
Full-text available
Apigenin is a natural flavonoid found in several dietary plant foods such as vegetables and fruits. A large number of studies conducted over the past years have shown that this particular natural compound has potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Therefore, apigenin has generated a great deal of interest as a possible...
Article
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay was used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the general population (average age, 38.28 ± 12.83 years) in relation to age, sex, body mass index, seasonal variations (season of sampling, period of sampling and different meteorological p...
Article
Cytostatic drugs are highly cytotoxic agents used in cancer treatment and although their benefit is unquestionable, they have been recognized as hazardous to healthcare professionals in occupational settings. In a working environment, simultaneous exposure to cytostatics may occur creating a higher risk than that of a single substance. Hence, the p...
Article
Since there are several predicting factors associated with the comet assay parameters, we have decided to assess the impact of seasonal variations on the comet assay results. A total of 162 volunteers were retrospectively studied, based on the date when blood donations were made. The groups (winter, spring, summer and autumn) were matched in terms...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For last couple of decades, natural products have served us well in combating different types of cancer. The main sources of these useful compounds are from both animal and plant origin. Here we will present anticancer ability of bee venom (BV) and apigenin (API) towards different types of cancer cells in vitro. BV from honey bees is a complex mixt...
Article
Thyroid cancer represents 2.1% of new cancer cases, yet it is the most common endocrine cancer and one of the fastest growing cancer types in the world. The incidence of thyroid cancer is the highest in elderly population (60-69 years), but novel data suggest decline in age when this cancer is frequently diagnosed to 50-59 years. Thyroid cancer is...
Article
Telomeres are dynamic chromosome-end structures that serve as guardians of genome stability. They are known to be one of the major determinants of aging and longevity in higher mammals. Studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between telomere length and life expectancy, stress, DNA damage, and onset of aging-related diseases. This review dis...
Article
The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM) is a widely used anticancer drug. Recent studies showing that IM can induce DNA and chromosomal damage in crustaceans and higher plants prompted us to re-examine its potential genotoxicity. IM was not mutagenic in the Ames assay (Salmonella typhimurium). Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity we...
Article
Since the incidence of cancer has increased over the years, adequate prevention programmes are needed. Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing cancer types in the world. In this study we performed a case-control study of 100 untreated patients with thyroid diseases (papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid adenoma, and other thyroid diseas...
Article
Since the production of printed circuit boards (PCBs) generates wastewater contaminated with heavy metals and organic matter, PCB factories represent potential pollution sites. The wastewater toxicologically tested in this study contained several metals and the most abundant were copper and iron. At two exposure times tested (4 and 24 h) PCB wastew...
Article
Circulating platinum (Pt) is detectable in the blood of Pt-treated cancer patients for over a decade after the treatment. Prolonged exposure to Pt, in combination with adverse compounds from nutrition and lifestyle, such as cadmium (Cd), could increase the risk from second cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simultaneou...
Article
In an effort to improve local bladder cancer control, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of quercetin on human bladder cancer T24 cells. The cytotoxic effect of quercetin against T24 cells was examined by MTT test, clonogenic assay as well as DNA damaging effect by comet assay. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of quercetin on the...
Article
Atovaquone (ATO) and proguanil hydrochloride (PROG) is the fixed combination for the prevention and treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Since safe and effective antimalarial drugs are needed in both the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, the present study was performed to investigate their possible cyto/genotoxic potential towards human...
Article
In the present study toxicity of Frangula alnus Mill. bark, widely used as laxative, was investigated. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) were treated with F. alnus bark extract or emodin (emodin is bark component with laxative property), and cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed. Also, polyphenol conte...
Article
The aim of the present study was to assess whether naringin or curcumin can influence oxidative stress induced DNA damage in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Naringin or curcumin preparations (50 mg kg-1) were given intraperitoneally for 7 days. The antioxidant capacity of curcumin and naringin in vitro was evaluated using three assays which cov...
Article
Due to their increasing use, the residues of anti-neoplastic drugs have become emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Most of them directly or indirectly interfere with the cell's genome, which classifies them into a group of particularly dangerous compounds. The aim of the present study was to conduct a comparative in vitro toxicological cha...
Article
Thyroid cancer is one of the fastest growing cancer types worldwide. Using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assays, we performed a case-control study of 23 untreated papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients and 23 healthy volunteers. PTC patients showed higher basal DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CBMN assay indica...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Beneficial influence of vegetarian dietary habits in reducing common risk factors of metabolic syndrome has been recently evidenced. However, adiponectin production and secretion has been scarcely studied in vegetarians, despite its important potential in recovering metabolic homeostasis by reducing inflammation and insulin resistance...
Article
Cisplatin (cDDP) is one of the most widely used anticancer-drugs in both therapy and research. However, cDDP-resistance is the greatest obstacle for the successful treatment of cancer patients. In the present study, the possible joint anticancer effect of bee venom (BV), as a natural toxin, and cDDP towards human glioblastoma A1235 cells was evalua...
Article
Residues of anti-neoplastic drugs represent new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Many of these drugs are genotoxic, and it has been postulated that they can cause adverse effects in aquatic ecosystems. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most extensively used anti-neoplastic drugs in cancer therapy, and this article describes the re...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin (CHL) against cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by mycotoxins ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). CHL (0.1-100μg/ml) alone had no impact on cell viability and genome damage in the primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) and exh...
Article
In the present study, we investigated the possible combined anticancer ability of bee venom (BV) and cisplatin towards two pairs of tumour cell lines: parental cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and their cisplatin-resistant HeLa CK subline, as well as laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells and their cisplatin-resistant CK2 subline. Additionally, we identified...
Article
The purpose of this work was detailed physicochemical, radiological, and toxicological characterization of the composite sample of water intended for human consumption in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area before and after a combined electrochemical/advanced oxidation treatment. Toxicological characterization was conducted on human...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background The main objective of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and possible cyto/genotoxic potential of several medical implant materials commonly used in total hip joint replacement. Methods and Results For that purpose medical implant metal alloy (Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo) and high density polyethylene particles we...
Article
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used in the production of poly-(vinyl) chloride (PVC) materials. It is a reproductive and developmental toxicant in animals and a suspected endocrine modulator in humans. DEHP is not covalently bound within the PVC molecule, which is why migration into a suitable medium can be expected. Sin...
Article
Atovaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone, is an anti-parasite drug, selectively targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of malaria parasite. It is used for both the treatment and prevention of malaria, usually in a fixed combination with proguanil. Although atovaquone has not often been associated with severe adverse reactions in the recommended d...
Article
In the present study the alkaline comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay were used to evaluate the baseline frequency of cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 50 healthy children from the general population in Croatia (age, 11.62±1.81 years). Mean values of tail length, tail intensity and t...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to characterize chemical properties of clay bricks containing 20 % of sewage sludge. After detection of potentially hazardous metals, we simulated precipitation exposure of such material to determine the amount of heavy metals that could leach out of the bricks. Metals, such as copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, chromium, etc., w...
Article
Bee venom (BV) has toxic effects in a variety of cell systems and oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism of its toxicity. This study investigated the in vitro effect of BV on glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and their association with BV-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral bl...
Conference Paper
: Forty years after the use of DDT has been restricted to malaria affected areas, this pesticide and its metabolites can be detected in water, food, and human tissue around the world. People chronically exposed to DDT have higher risk of suffering from hormonal, reproduction, and psychiatric illnesses. Also, DDT has possible carcinogenic effect on...
Conference Paper
Landfill leachate contains high amount of pollutants that can contaminate ecosystems, and in that manner can pose a risk not only to environment but to human health as well. The aim of this research was toxicological characterization of the landfill leachate prior/after the treatment using two different approaches on human lymphocytes as sensitive...
Article
Many natural products that have been used for centuries in traditional medicine fromAsia are becoming increasingly popular as potential alternative treatment approaches inWestern hemisphere. Among them are venoms, as rich sources of several bioactivecompounds with therapeutic potentials. Venom derived form Apis mellifera, andespecially its major co...
Chapter
Many natural products that have been used for centuries in traditional medicine from Asia are becoming increasingly popular as potential alternative treatment approaches in Western hemisphere. Among them are venoms, as rich sources of several bioactive compounds with therapeutic potentials. Venom derived form Apis mellifera, and especially its majo...
Article
Gangliosides, the sialic acid-containing glycosphyngolipids, are amphiphilic compounds which in micellar form affect the properties and functions of a cellular membrane. The aim of this study was to test whether exogenous gangliosides supplied to cryopreservation media before freezing could protect sperm cells from cryopreservation-induced DNA dama...
Chapter
It is known that the exposure to various environmental mutagens increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The increase of ROS production with the consequent disturbance of the oxidative balance in the cell, called oxidative stress, perturbs the metabolism of macromolecules. As such, oxidative stress leads to various protein, lipid and D...
Article
Radiation protection depends on many factors that can be divided on the ground of technical and human factors that are both equally relevant for the radiation protection. To provide the best care for the young patients the effects of radiation should be minimized in accordance with ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Chest radiograms...
Chapter
Radiation protection depends on many factors that can be divided on the ground of technical and human factors that are both equally relevant for the radiation protection. To provide the best care for the young patients the effects of radiation should be minimized in accordance with ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. Chest radiograms...
Article
Human exposure to microcystins, which are produced by freshwater cyanobacterial species, is of growing concern due to increasing appearance of cyanobacterial blooms as a consequence of global warming and increasing water eutrophication. Although microcystins are considered to be liver-specific, there is evidence that they may also affect other tiss...
Article
Low-dose ionizing radiation used for medical purposes is one of the definite risk factors for cancer development, and children exposed to ionizing radiation are at a relatively greater cancer risk as they have more rapidly dividing cells than adults and have longer life expectancy. Since cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay has be...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate cytogenotoxic effects of bee venom to human lymphocytes and take a look into the mechanisms behind them. Bee venom was tested in concentrations ranging from 0.1μg/ml to 20μg/ml over different lengths of time. Cell viability, type of the cell death, and morphological alterations were evaluated using phase-contra...
Article
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent cyanobacterial cytototoxin produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria, is regularly found in water supplies in many parts of the world, and has been associated with the intoxication of humans and livestock. The few genotoxicity studies available indicate that CYN is genotoxic, generally implying that it is pro-g...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the mutagenic and antigenotoxic effects of different doses of the flavonoid, apigenin, alone and in combination with the antitumor drugs, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin, in vitro and in vivo. Using bacterial reverse mutation inhibition in vitro, with and without metabolic activation, the effect of apigenin...
Article
Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high production of reactive oxygen species, which may cause oxidative DNA damage. High levels of genomic damage have been associated with liver and renal failure as well as immune-system decline. Flavonoids are effective antioxidants and may protect against several chronic diseases including diabetes. This stu...
Article
Due to increased usage of microwave radiation, there are concerns of its adverse effect in today's society. Keeping this in view, study was aimed at workers occupationally exposed to pulsed microwave radiation, originating from marine radars. Electromagnetic field strength was measured at assigned marine radar frequencies (3 GHz, 5.5 GHz and 9.4 GH...
Article
Introduction Recent development of IVM, as well as with oocyte and ovarian tissue vitrification technologies, afford the possibility of preserving fertility for cancer patients or women who need to expand their reproductive lifespan. The purpose of this study was to learn the prospect for normal development of immature oocytes from the ovary. We en...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of proguanil, a chemical substance used for treatment and prevention of malaria on viability and DNA integrity in human lymphocytes in vitro. Two different concentrations of proguanil obtained from the plasma concentrations were used: 130ng/ml used for prophylactic treatment and 520ng/ml used in treatment of...
Article
The present study was aimed to investigate the impact of bee venom on frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and viability in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, the proportion of lymphocytes that undergo one, two or three cell divisions as well as proliferative rate index (PRI) have been determined. Aqueous solution of...
Article
The application of statin today represents one of the basic approaches to the treatment of the disease connected to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Statins are a widely used group today found in different generic names of cholesterol-lowering agents that act by inhibiting 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) reductase, an enzyme which...
Article
Full-text available
The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes is one of the most important methods employed in cytogenetic biomonitoring. For the purposes of biological dosimetry, it is important to know the spontaneous frequency of a biomarker and its normal values in general population. These values are used for population datab...