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Venkat R. Krishnan

Venkat R. Krishnan
Center for Oneness & Transforming Leadership

PhD (Temple U., Philadelphia)

About

88
Publications
155,824
Reads
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2,334
Citations
Citations since 2016
6 Research Items
1288 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
March 2006 - April 2014
Great Lakes Institute of Management
Position
  • Managing Director
December 1996 - February 2006
XLRI - Xavier School of Management
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 1991 - July 1996
Temple University
Field of study
  • Business Administration

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
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This study looked at the relationship between the four factors of transformational leadership -- charisma, inspirational leadership, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration -- and leader's preference for unethical behavior. Five ethical scenarios -- bribery, endangering the physical environment, lying, personal gain, and favoriti...
Article
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This study attempts to draw a value profile of a transformational leader – the leader who transforms people and organizations. It compares the terminal and instrumental value systems of leaders who are more transformational with those of leaders who are less transformational, using a sample of 95 pairs of leaders and subordinates of a non-profit or...
Article
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This study looked at the relationship between transformational leadership and three types of value system congruence – leader-organization congruence, leader-follower congruence,and follower-organization congruence, separately for terminal and instrumental values. Findings indicate that follower's terminal value system congruence with leader is pos...
Article
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Purpose – To show that relationship duration enhances the effect of transformational leadership on follower's terminal value system congruence and identification (cognitive outcomes), but not on attachment and affective commitment (affective outcomes). Design/methodology/approach – Data for this study were collected from the principal and 144 teach...
Article
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The impact of 2-year residential fulltime MBA program on students’ values was studied using a longitudinal design and data collected over 7 years from a business school in India. Values were measured when students entered the program, and again when they graduated. Sample in Study 1 consisted of 229 students from three consecutive graduating classe...
Article
We explore changes in newcomers’ values from the day they join their first job, over time. In an engineering company (N = 244), after 1 month of classroom training, newcomers showed an increase in self-enhancement values and a reduction in self-transcendence values. In a bank (N = 59), after 18 months on-the-job experience, newcomers’ values showed...
Chapter
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Power is a relationship that treats others as objects or things, while leadership does not. Knowledge consists of two parts. Studying the world as an object is the first half of knowledge called materialism, which is sufficient for power. Delving into the human being as the subject, as the knower, is the second half of knowledge called spirituality...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to see if women value power less than men do and if MBA education reduces this gender difference in power value. Design/methodology/approach The impact of a two-year residential full-time MBA program on students’ values was studied using a longitudinal design and data collected over two years from a business sc...
Article
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This study looks at procedural, distributive, and interactional justice as antecedents of perceived organisational support (POS) and leader-member exchange (LMX). It also looks at the effect of all these on positive and negative affect. It was hypothesised that all the three justice variables would be positively related to POS, and interactional ju...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to understand how transformational leadership is related to psychological empowerment and how it affects happiness index in a followers life. A total of 103 employees from various Indian information technology organizations rated their superiors transformational leadership behavior and their own empowerment and happines...
Article
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This study examined whether transformational leadership would be affected by the predominance of a particular guna (sattva, rajas and tamas) in a leader and his or her belief in Karma Yoga. An experiment was conducted using a sample of 110 marketing executives working in a financial services firm in eastern India. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design was u...
Article
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Leadership styles have been found to impact followers’ affective and normative commitment. The purpose of this study is to analyse the mediating and moderating role of transformational leadership in the relationship between servant leadership and followers’ affective and normative commitment. Data were collected from 105 employees (49 male, 56 fema...
Article
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This article attempts to study the positive relationship of the five factors of transformational leadership with leader’s need for power, activity inhibition, and Svadharma-orientation. It hypothesised that Svadharma- orientation will mediate the relationship that leaders’ need for power and activity inhibition have with transformational leadership...
Article
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The relationships between spirituality, values, and transformational leadership of managers and performance and organisational identification of subordinates were studied using a sample of 101 manager-subordinate dyads from a multinational bank in India. Managers answered questions on their own spirituality and values, and on their subordinates' ta...
Article
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A comprehensive model of moral development must encompass moral sensitivity, moral reasoning, moral motivation, and moral character. Western models of moral development have often failed to show validity outside the culture of their origin. We propose Karma-Yoga, the technique of intelligent action discussed in the Bhagawad Gita as an Indian model...
Article
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This empirical study explores the effects of supervisor’s altruism, ethical preferences, and transformational leadership on subordinate’s ethical preferences. Data were collected from 70 pairs of supervisors and subordinates working in several organizations in India. Preference for unethical behavior was captured from both supervisors and subordina...
Article
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The aim of this paper was to understand the relationships between perceived organizational support (POS) and positive and negative affect, and to test the moderating effect of locus of control. This study was carried out in a large multi-division Indian organization in the manufacturing space. Sample included 262 employees from different functions...
Article
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The relationships between transformational leadership, followers’ self-concept, and follower empowerment were studied using a sample of 113 employees of a network marketing organization in southern India that employs only women. It was hypothesized that transformational leadership is positively related to follower empowerment and that this relation...
Article
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Existing research indicates that leader-member exchange (LMX) mediates the relationship between interactional justice and various outcomes, without studying mediation separately for the two components of interactional justice -- interpersonal and informational. In one study on interpersonal justice, LMX was found to moderate its relationship with f...
Article
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Enhancing the belief in the abilities of employees to perform a particular task is the critical role played by a transformational leader subject to impression management strategies used by the employees. The purpose of this paper is to report a study on how self-efficacy of the subordinates is enhanced by their use of impression management strategi...
Article
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This experimental study investigated the impact of the leader's gender (femininity and masculinity) on transformational leadership and the follower's organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative) using a sample of 84 managers of a manufacturing company in eastern India. Participants were randomly assigned to the conditions of a...
Article
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This paper reports an empirical study that looked at the relationship between leader’s optimism, leader’s belief in the law of Karma, and transformational leadership. It was hypothesized that leader’s optimism enhances the strength of the relationship between transformational leadership and leader’s belief in the law of Karma. Data were collected f...
Article
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Relationships between transformational leadership, Strategic Human Resource (HR) practices, and firm performance were studied using a sample of 121 managers from different organizations in India. Transformational leadership was measured by requesting respondents to judge how frequently each of the 20 statements fitted the CEO or the head of the org...
Article
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We investigate the effects of beliefs in Indian philosophy (karma, atma, and moksha) on paternalism and citizenship behaviors. First, we studied the relationship between self-reported beliefs in Indian philosophy and sexism by studying a group of 257 students in a management institute. Second, we studied the relationship between self-reported belie...
Article
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Purpose Creating and maintaining sustainable businesses require an understanding of the role of leadership in enhancing personal outcomes of employees, and of the processes by which they can be enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to report a study on analyzing how transformational leadership is related to followers’ meaning in life and subjectiv...
Conference Paper
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This paper reports an empirical study of the impact of pay satisfaction and transformational leadership on employee engagement. Data were collected from 93 respondents across domains, the median age of respondents being 25 years. The variables were measured using the Utrecht scale of Schaufeli and Bakker (2003) for employee engagement, the pay sati...
Article
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Using a sample of 102 managers from a large nationalized bank in India, the study looked at the effect of leader femininity and masculinity on transformational leadership and the relationship between all the three with leader ethical behavior. Results show that leader’s femininity is the stronger predictor of transformational leadership and masculi...
Article
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This article attempts to validate James MacGregor Burns's hypothesis that transformational leaders raise followers to higher levels of mor-ality. Morality in the Indian context is conceptualised as Karma-Yoga, the Indian work ideal. Karma-Yoga is defined as a technique for per-forming actions such that the soul is not bound by the results of the ac...
Article
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In a study of 205 leader–follower pairs, we investigated the impact of the leader’s values and empathy on followers’ perception of transformational leadership and the effect of transformational leadership on followers’ values and empathy. The moderating effect of leader–follower relationship duration on the effect of transformational leadership on...
Article
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Karma-Yoga implies being duty-oriented which in turn leads to being indifferent to the rewards, and being equally open to pleasure and pain. A commonly expressed doubt about Karma-Yoga is: How can we put in efforts without expecting any reward in return for our efforts? Using a modified list of Rokeach's instrumental values, we investigate if 112 I...
Article
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Using a sample of 110 doctor-nurse dyads and data collected from 5 hospitals in southern India, this study shows how leader’s gender (femininity and masculinity) and emotional intelligence affect transformational leadership. Results show that leader’s emotional intelligence mediates the relationship between leader’s femininity and transformational...
Conference Paper
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Transformational leadership involves addressing the real needs and not just the stated wants of followers. Student evaluations focus on the process and not the outcome of teaching; they help fulfill stated wants but not the real needs. This paper reports a study that used a pre-test post-test design to measure teaching effectiveness.
Article
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This article validates James MacGregor Burns’ hypothesis that moral development is a critical qualification of transformational leaders. In India, morality is conceptualized as Karma-Yoga, a technique for performing actions such that the soul is not bound by the results of the actions. Karma-Yoga has three dimensions—duty-orientation, indifference...
Conference Paper
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Drawing a sample of 116 employees from three industries in India, the study uses structural equations modeling to show that follower's self-monitoring and social identity enhance follower femininity, and follower femininity enhances transformational leadership, which in turn enhances follower self-efficacy. Followers' femininity partially mediates...
Conference Paper
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Using a sample of 329 executives in India, this study shows that transformational leadership is positively related to two dimensions of followers' Karma-Yoga or moral development—duty-orientation, and indifference to rewards. Duration of leader-follower relationship moderates the effect on both the dimensions of Karma-Yoga, and frequency of leader-...
Article
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Impact of transformational leadership and five work-related beliefs (work ethic, Marxist, organizational, leisure ethic, and humanistic) on affective, continuance, and normative commitment was studied using 34 manager-subordinate pairs from information technology (IT) and 44 pairs from manufacturing organizations in India. Analyses of variance show...
Article
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Using a sample of 98 employees working in U.S., India, and China, the study shows that affective and normative commitment are positively related to transformational leadership. Normative commitment is higher in India-China combined than in the U.S. Transformational leadership is positively related to normative commitment in India and China but not...
Article
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The relationships between transformational leadership and followers’ Karma-Yoga (duty-orientation), spirituality (oneness with all beings), organizational identification, and normative organizational commitment were studied using a sample of 144 teachers of a prominent high school in western India. Spirituality is the goal of all existence accordin...
Article
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Purpose – To explore the mediating role of altruism in the relationship between self-sacrifice and transformational leadership, and to look at the effect of all three on followers' collective identity and perceptions of unit performance. Design/methodology/approach – For Study 1, survey responses were collected from 127 managers in India. They answ...
Article
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Karma-Yoga, the technique of performing action such that the soul of the actor is not bound by the results of the action, constitutes the Indian work ideal. The relationship of Karma-Yoga with the dimensions of empathy was explored through a study done on 108 students in a postgraduate programme of business management. Karma-Yoga was found to be re...
Article
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Using a sample of 93 superior-subordinate dyads from various organizations in India, this study looked at the relationships between leader's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), transformational leadership, and follower's OCB. It also looked at leader's public self-consciousness and self-monitoring as antecedents to leader OCB, and leader's s...
Article
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Not much work has been done to study the impact of various organizational variables on brand communities around various brands and consequently we have limited knowledge on how to build brand communities. Strong brand communities can be of tremendous value to organizations by generating increased customer loyalty towards their brands. This study at...
Article
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The construct of Karma-Yoga was validated using value systems and emotional intelligence in two studies. The first study on a group of 60 executives found that that the essence of Karma-Yoga is a sense of duty or obligation towards others and that believing in the law of karma, existence of a soul, and salvation lead to Karma-Yoga. Individuals who...
Article
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The relationships between leader’s power, transformational leadership, and followers’ duty-orientation (Karma-Yoga) and spirituality (oneness with all beings) were studied using a sample of 471 managers from two manufacturing organizations in western India. It was hypothesized that leader’s power enhances transformational leadership, and transforma...
Article
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This article reports on three studies that used a combination of methods to develop a measure of transformational leadership in India. The grounded theory approach was followed for generating the initial item-pool (n = 250). In the second study (n = 379), an exploratory factor analysis was conducted, followed by a confirmatory factor analysis, whic...
Article
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The impact of spirituality and political skills on transformational leadership was studied using a 2 x 2 experimental design. Spirituality was operationalized as oneness, keeping in mind the context of the Indian culture. The sample consisted of 81 employees working in a public sector services organization in India. Results of analysis of variance...
Article
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The doctrine of Karma Yoga forms the core of the Indian philosophy of work. By doing a content analysis of the Bhagavad-Gita and studying commentaries on the Gita, we identified two dimensions of Karma Voga-duty orientation and absence of desire for rewards, and we prepireo scales for the measurement of core beliefs in lndian philosophy and Karma Y...
Conference Paper
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Using a sample of 105 manager-subordinate dyads from a high power distance culture, the effects of power distance and transformational leadership on follower altruism were studied. Findings show a significant positive relationship between power distance and transformational leadership and between transformational leadership and follower altruism.
Conference Paper
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This paper reports two studies that assessed whether the six factors of assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, and reasoning best represent the domain of influence tactics in India. Data was collected from 281 graduate business students on their lateral influence tactics and value systems, and from 280 managers on the...
Conference Paper
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This paper distinguishes between self-sacrifice and altruism, and reports a cross-sectional survey of working managers (n = 127). The study tested how the two variables differentially affect transformational leadership. Results yielded evidence that altruism is a better predictor of transformational leadership than self-sacrifice is. The hypothesis...
Conference Paper
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This research examines how "higher levels of motivation" could be operationalized in Burns' (1978) definition of transformational leadership. Two lines of argument are examined empirically. The first, based on Shamir (1991) suggests an explanation based on a self-concept based motivation theory, and the second is based on traditional need based the...
Article
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This study looks at the relationship between family values, gender norms, and transformational leadership, using a sample of 56 manager-subordinate pairs from five organizations with headquarters in eastern India. Schwartz value survey, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire were used. The findings show that managers whose...
Article
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An important factor that contributes to successful organizational transformation is leadership. Transformational leaders shape such changes and help their organizations stay competitive. The core of transformational leadership is universal; however, its behavioral manifestations differ across cultures. This paper attempts to take a preliminary look...
Article
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This study looked at the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX), transformational leadership, and terminal and instrumental value system congruence between leader and follower, and their relative impact on four outcomes, using a sample of 100 pairs of managers and subordinates from a non-profit organization in the United States. The four...
Article
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This study looked at the effect of transformational leadership and leader's Karma-Yoga on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) of followers. Using the experimental design, transformational leadership and leader's Karma-Yoga were manipulated and OCB of followers was measured. The sample consisted of 86 managers of a large manufacturing organiza...
Article
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This study looked at the relationships between transformational leadership, leader's expectation from follower (Pygmalion effect), and follower's readiness for promotion using a sample of 101 managers from two organizations in India--a public sector engineering consultant and a private sector bank. Results indicate that leader's expectation is sign...
Article
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A scale was developed to measure Svadharma-orientation (following one's own Dharma or duty), which is a core element of Indian culture, and its effects on five transformational leadership factors--attributed charisma, idealized influence, inspirational leadership, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration--and follower's trust were...
Article
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An experiment was conducted to study the impact of leader's feminine traits and transformational leadership on organizational culture, using a sample of 109 MBA students from a leading management institute in India. A 2x2 design with four leadership scenarios--transformational feminine leader, transformational masculine leader, feminine leader, and...
Article
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Impact of organizational culture (strong and weak) and use of influence tactics (soft and hard) on transformational leadership was studied using a 2 x 2 experimental design and a sample of 120 executives in a large manufacturing firm in eastern India. Results of analyses of variance show that leaders are seen as more transformational if the organiz...
Article
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This study examined the relationship between socialization of subordinates, superiors' self-reported transformational leadership, and subordinate-rated quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship. Seven dimensions of socialization (tolerance towards unethical behaviors, assertiveness, working long hours, doing tasks well, emphasizing harmo...
Article
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This study investigated the impact of gender-role differences, as opposed to just sex differences, on transformational leadership, using a sample of 80 pairs of managers (52 men and 28 women) and subordinates from a large steel company in eastern India. A new culture-specific scale was developed to measure gender-roles based on the Indian conceptio...
Article
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The relationship between leadership and followers' Karma-Yoga, and how followers' gender affects this relationship were studied using a sample of 70 male and 31 female managers from several organizations in India. Transformational leadership, laissez-faire leadership, follower's Karma-Yoga, perceived effectiveness of leader and work unit, follower'...
Article
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This study uses an experimental design to look at the effects of followers' openness to experience, one of the Big Five personality traits and an organic organizational structure (operationalized as low configuration and large span of control) on transformational leadership. The five factors of transformational leadership measured are idealized inf...
Article
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This study looked at perceived power of men and women and how it is affected by their value systems and network centrality, using a sample of 84 customer service executives (42 men & 42 women) from two organizations in India. Results show that centrality is positively related to power for men but not for women. Analysis of variance reveals that wom...
Article
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Thought processes, implicit assumptions, beliefs, and attitudes of leaders can be meaningfully studied only if they are interwoven into a composite whole by a cultural thread wherefrom they emanate. This study explores the personality traits and worldview of transformational leaders from an Indian cultural perspective. Indian philosophy provides a...
Article
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This study looked at the relationships between charismatic leadership, job involvement, and corporate image building in the context of a service sector organization, using a sample of 70 employees of a multinational bank operating in India. Five factors of charismatic leadership--strategic vision and articulation (SVA), personal risk (PR), unconven...
Article
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This longitudinal study looked at the impact of top managers’ personal power and structural power on divestiture two years later, using a sample of 46 sales and spin-offs and a set of 46 control firms matched by size and industry in the USA. The impact of divestiture on top managers’ power during the two years following the divestiture was also loo...
Article
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Effects of leader-member exchange, transformational leadership, and perceived value system congruence between leader and follower on follower's six upward influence strategies-assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, and reasoning were studied using a sample of 281 managers working in various organizations in India. Res...
Chapter
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A general assumption is often made that modernization of a society or a group requires throwing away all their traditional beliefs and cultural artifacts and instead adopting those of the apparently advanced societies and groups. This paper argues that such an assumption is antithetical to the objectives of enduring and successful transformations....
Article
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The relationships between moral leadership, transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leaderships, and certain outcomes were studied using a sample of 116 managers of a large manufacturing organization in eastern India. Results reveal that transformational leadership partially mediates moral leadership's relationship with follower's extra...
Article
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(An earlier version of this paper was presented at the annual conference of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, London, Ontario, May 2001.) Abstract. Relationships between Gunas, Karma-Yoga, and transformational leadership were studied using a sample of 105 pairs of managers and subordinates of a large banking organization in India....
Chapter
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We developed a 20-item scale for values-based leadership and looked at its relationship with transformational leadership and two dimensions of organizational structure--formalization and decentralization--using a sample of 100 employees of a leading software-consulting firm in India. Results show that transformational leadership and values-based le...
Article
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This paper studies the impact of gender on frequency of use of influence strategies, amount of power and authoritarianism, using a sample of 109 managers from two organizations in India. Seven downward influence strategies (assertiveness, bargaining, coalition, friendliness, higher authority, reason, and sanctions) and five power bases (reward, ref...
Article
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This study looked at the relationship between need for power, need for affiliation and the level of inhibition on one hand, and the use of influence strategies on the other. The impact of all these on the speed in receiving promotions was also studied. Results indicate that those who have a high need for power use the influence strategy of reason m...
Article
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The effects of leader’s use of impression management strategies and leader-follower value system congruence on leader’s charisma as perceived by follower were studied using a sample of 52 pairs of managers and subordinates of an automobile company situated in North India. Three types of impression management strategies (self-focused, follower-focus...
Article
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Several studies have highlighted the importance of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational performance and follower commitment. This paper outlines four basic components of the Indian worldview--an understanding of the real nature of this world (theory of Maya), preference for action over inaction, perceiving the potentially divine...
Article
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This study explored the relationship between charismatic leadership and follower's self-efficacy and role clarity using a sample of 105 executives of a large manufacturing organization in eastern India. Charismatic leadership was taken as comprising five factors--strategic vision and articulation, sensitivity to the environment, sensitivity to memb...
Conference Paper
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A longitudinal study looked at the impact of a two-day leadership-training program on transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership in a large manufacturing organization in eastern India. Data was collected from 31 subordinates on the leadership behaviors of their managers before and six months after the managers attended a training...
Article
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We studied the relationship between transformational leadership, decision-making styles, and certain outcome using a sample of 98 officers of a large manufacturing organization in India. Results show that transformational leadership is related positively to rational style of decision-making and negatively to avoidant style, and that dependent style...
Conference Paper
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This study looked at the role of gender in consideration, initiating structure, and transformational leadership behaviors in a male-dominated organization. Findings indicate that women perceive themselves to be exhibiting lower levels of consideration and initiating structure than men do. There is however no difference between men and women when it...
Article
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The relationship between a person's values and his or her task and relations oriented leadership styles was examined in this study. Values were measured both independently of each other and in the form of a value system using the ipsative, rank-order design. Findings indicate that high-task leaders give greater importance to the value of achievemen...
Article
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The study explored the impact of task environment on influence strategies and the relationship between influence strategies and power. Results indicate that the frequency of use of four influence strategies—assertiveness, sanctions, higher authority, and coalition—differs significantly between the eight departments studied. Individuals in productio...
Article
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An attempt was made in this preliminary study to measure the sense of community among employees, and to look at its relationship with perceived leadership style of supervisor. Results indicate that nurturant, task-oriented, and participative styles of leadership are positively related to sense of community among employees. Organizations are realizi...
Article
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Training and development is often visualized as a means to facilitate learning of job-related behaviors in order to improve performance. The focus of training has traditionally been on teaching facts, modifying attitudes and behaviors, and developing skills. Value systems, which form the basis, as it were, of affective and behavioral domains, have...
Article
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The significance of transformational leadership has come to receive great attention during the last twelve years. A good amount of stud y has been done in this area, leading to a wider recognition that transformational leaders are extremely essential if we aim at corporate growth and economic development. For, it is the quality of leadership in bus...

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