Veikko Surakka

Veikko Surakka
Tampere University | UTA · Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences

Professor (PhD Psychology)

About

165
Publications
38,680
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,420
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2008 - July 2008
Stanford University
Position
  • Visiting professor

Publications

Publications (165)
Chapter
Unconventional displays, such as 3D displays, projection screens formed of flowing light-scattering particles (fogscreens), and virtual reality (VR) headsets, can create illusions of images floating in mid-air. Paired with hand tracking, gestural interaction with floating user interfaces (UI) is possible on this permeable imagery, thus creating rea...
Article
Full-text available
Midair gestural interaction has gained a lot of attention over the past decades, with numerous attempts to apply midair gestural interfaces with large displays (and TVs), interactive walls, and smart meeting rooms. These attempts, reviewed in numerous studies, utilized differing gestural techniques for the same action making them inherently incompa...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effect of the dog–owner relationship on dogs’ emotional reactivity, quantified with heart rate variability (HRV), behavioral changes, physical activity and dog owner interpretations. Twenty nine adult dogs encountered five different emotional situations (i.e., stroking, a feeding toy, separation from the owner, reunion with the own...
Chapter
Online news comments are a crucial part of how journalistic organizations engage their audiences. However, uncivil commenting has become a persistent problem that can have detrimental effects both to journalistic organizations and the people who participate in the discussions as journalists, moderators, and commenters. This chapter addresses the pr...
Article
Emotions are an important element of human interactions, including those in social media. Despite the prominence of text-based messages in online communication, little is known about how the emotional tone of the messages affects the emotions of the recipients. With three experiments, the current study investigated these effects in the context of o...
Article
Full-text available
Police work requires making suitable observations which form the basis of situational awareness (SA) of the encounter in progress. Incomplete early-stage SA (i.e., perception) can lead to errors in subsequent judgement and decision-making that can have severe consequences for performance, learning, and occupational health. SA in police contexts is...
Article
When on-site classification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is required, a portable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) is a suitable choice. However, the IMS readings often show transient phases before they stabilize. Even so the importance of transient phase and features extracted from it has been highlighted in the literature, it has not, to ou...
Article
Full-text available
Movement sensor data from seven static and dynamic dog behaviours (sitting, standing, lying down, trotting, walking, playing, and (treat) searching i.e. sniffing) was collected from 45 middle to large sized dogs with six degree-of-freedom movement sensors attached to the collar and the harness. With 17 dogs the collection procedure was repeated. Th...
Conference Paper
As the automotive industry transitions to electric and autonomous vehicles (SAE 2-3) more and more information needs to be reviewed by the driver in real-time. Conventional information presentation techniques are not ideal for reviewing this type of information as it lacks multimodal and cross modal presentation. Haptics, one of the key interaction...
Conference Paper
Mid-air ultrasound skin stimulation is a known technology used to provide haptic feedback for touchless communication. Even though some in-car interaction already takes place with mid-air gestures, the utilization of this type of feedback is still uncommon. In this study we evaluated how environmental vibration affects the recognition of ultrasound...
Article
Full-text available
Leaving a dog home alone is part of everyday life for most dog owners. Previous research shows that dog–owner relationship has multifarious effects on dog behavior. However, little is known about the interplay between dog–owner relationship, physical activity of the dog, and affective experiences at the time of the owner leaving home and reunion wh...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Facial nerve palsy causes blurred vision and ocular discomfort due to deficits in blinking and eye closure. The objective of this study was to determine whether eye-blinks could be elicited by electrical stimulation and whether electrically induced blink would have an effect on the visual acuity and ocular symptoms in patients with acut...
Article
Online news comments are intended to cultivate an interdependent relationship between news organizations and their audiences. However, uncivil online comments have become a persistent problem that requires constant intervention through moderation. In this paper, to better understand these interventions, we analyze interviews of eleven managers of o...
Article
Decades of research in environmental psychology have shown that contact with natural environments has restorative, stress-ameliorating effects. At present, researchers in the emerging field of virtual natural environments are studying whether these restorative health effects can be reproduced with simulated environments, raising new possibilities f...
Article
Dog owners’ understanding of the daily behaviour of their dogs may be enhanced by movement measurements that can detect repeatable dog behaviour, such as levels of daily activity and rest as well as their changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of supervised machine learning methods utilising accelerometer and gyroscope data...
Article
Full-text available
The present aim was to investigate emotion-related physiological responses and subjective ratings of two groups of active gamers (N=24) in response to both playing and watching a video of a first-person shooter game. Participants of one group had high preferences for game dynamics in first-person shooter games, whereas the other group disliked such...
Article
Full-text available
The present aim was to investigate if angry, neutral, and happy facial expressions have different effects on haptic responses. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 24) were to respond as fast as they could to images of angry, neutral, and happy faces using a haptic device that measured the amount of applied force in ne...
Article
Full-text available
The present aim was to compare the accuracy of several algorithms in classifying data collected from food scent samples. Measurements using an electronic nose (eNose) can be used for classification of different scents. An eNose was used to measure scent samples from seven food scent sources, both from an open plate and a sealed jar. The k-Nearest N...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ultrasonic tactile stimulation can give the user contactless tactile feedback in a variety of human-computer interfaces. Parameters, such as duration, rhythm, and intensity, can be used to encode information into tactile sensation. The present aim was to investigate the differentiation of six ultrasonic tactile stimulations that were varied by form...
Article
Facial pacing systems aim to reanimate paralyzed facial muscles with electrical stimulation. To aid the development of such systems, the frontalis muscle responsible for eyebrow raising was transcutaneously stimulated in 12 healthy participants using four waveforms: square wave, square wavelet, sine wave, and sinusoidal wavelet. The aim was to inve...
Article
This experiment investigated whether eye contact would evoke similar attention and emotion related psychophysiological responses in virtual reality (VR) as in a face-to-face interaction. Participants viewed a confederate in a live interaction (Live condition) and a confederate's avatar in VR (VR condition). In both conditions, the confederate/avata...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a study comparing physiological and psychological restoration in matched real and virtual natural environments. Participants (n=24) experienced a real forest, or one of two audiovisual virtual forests wearing a head-mounted display: A 3D forest or a 360-degree video. The results showed that some of the benefits of the real forest could a...
Article
Studies on the effects of the pulse waveform used in electrical muscle stimulation on the activations and perceived discomfort of the waveform have been mainly executed on limb muscles with variable results, however, knowledge of these effects on facial muscles is currently lacking. We studied two waveforms, square wave and sinusoidal wavelet, for...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim was to validate the functionality and subjective experiences of timer-triggered electrical blink stimulation with participants (N = 6) suffering from dry eye symptoms caused by chronic unilateral facial palsy. In a stimulation condition, the muscles responsible for eye blinking were stimulated at fixed intervals while watching a video for a...
Conference Paper
Semiautonomous driving still requires the driver's control and attention in certain situations. Especially control transitions, i.e. take-over and hand-over situations, are important for safety. Our aim was to study control transitions supported by unimodal (i.e. visual, auditory, or haptic) or multimodal (i.e. visual, auditory and haptic) signals...
Article
Full-text available
For ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS)-based electronic noses (eNose) samples of scents are markedly time-dependent, with a transient phase and a highly volatile stable phase in certain conditions. At the same time, the samples depend on various environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity. This makes fast classification of scents challengi...
Article
Reanimation of paralysed facial muscles by electrical stimulation has been studied extensively in animal models, but human studies in this field are largely lacking. Twenty-four subjects with a peripheral facial nerve palsy with a median duration of three years were enrolled. We studied activations of four facial muscles with electrical stimulation...
Chapter
According to certain player typologies, players report preferring some game dynamics more than others [1]. However, it is unclear whether these self-reported preferences show carryover effects during actual playing. For instance, do players who report liking dynamics of killing and shooting show positive emotions during playing games that incorpora...
Article
Respiration is vital to land-dwelling mammals and important information is encoded in the respiratory rate. Objective assessment of the respiratory rate is difficult in dogs, in particular if unobtrusive measurement is desired. The goal of this work was to develop and evaluate a method for unobtrusive sensing of respiratory rate in dogs. For this,...
Article
Full-text available
The present aim was to investigate transcutaneous facial muscle stimulation in order to take further steps in developing facial pacing technology, which can offer a new treatment option for patients with unilateral facial paralysis. This technology ultimately measures muscle activations from one side of the face and simultaneously activates the cor...
Conference Paper
Dog owners are highly motivated in understanding behavior and physiology of their pets and monitoring their wellbeing. Monitoring with a commercially available activity trackers reveals levels of daily activity and rest but recognizing the behavior of the dog would provide additional information, especially when the dog is not under supervision. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Measuring the heart rate of animals is an important area of research which can be applied to numerous analyses. In this work we evaluate the performance of two dry contact electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode structures for monitoring the heart rate of domestic pets. The aim was to improve the operation of previously evaluated electrodes with some mod...
Conference Paper
Today, the markets are populated with dozens of devices for dog activity tracking and monitoring. Our aim was to get detailed insights on how dog owners use these devices in their everyday life. Two studies, an interview study with Finnish dog owners (N=7) and an international online questionnaire (N=35) were done to capture the motivations for usi...
Conference Paper
The aim was to study if odors evaporated by an olfactory display prototype can be used to affect participants' cognitive and emotionrelated responses to audio-visual stimuli, and whether the display can benefit from objective measurement of the odors. The results showed that odors and videos had significant effects on participants' responses. For i...
Article
Various classifiers for scent classification based on measurements using an electronic nose (eNose) have been studied recently. In general, classifiers rely on a static database containing reference eNose measurements for known scents. However, most of these approaches require retraining of the classifier every time a new scent needs to be added to...
Article
Production of easily controllable and measurable odor stimuli is needed when studying human olfaction, olfaction-related physiology and psychological reactions to odors. Controlled odor producing instruments are called olfactometers. For testing and calibrating new olfactometers or sensor arrays, a reliable input signal has to be produced to verify...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the proliferation of small-screen computing devices, there has been a continuous trend in reducing the size of interface elements. In virtual keyboards, this allows for more characters in a layout and additional function widgets. However, vision-based interfaces (VBIs) have only been investigated with large (e.g., full-screen) keyboards. To un...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Facial paralysis due to damage of the facial nerve affects the function of facial muscles, including the muscles responsible for eye blinking. The absence of the eye blink can lead to severe and permanent corneal damage as the protection and lubrication of the eye is decreased. Thus, it would be highly important to provide an aid to sustain the eye...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An adaptive method for reliable and fast detection of muscle activity from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals is introduced. The aim of this research was to minimize the delay of the onset and termination detection, while still retaining the reliability and simplicity of the detection algorithm. The proposed algorithm is based on a double-thr...
Article
Full-text available
The functionality of three dry electrocardiogram electrode constructions was evaluated by measuring canine heart rate during four different behaviors: Standing, sitting, lying and walking. The testing was repeated (n = 9) in each of the 36 scenarios with three dogs. Two of the electrodes were constructed with spring-loaded test pins while the third...
Article
OBJECTIVE To study the effects of veterinarian communication (ie, the information provided and gaze and body direction) and vaccination style on the emotions and physiologic reactions experienced by clients and on clients' evaluation of the expertise and trustworthiness of the veterinarian. DESIGN Simulation study. PARTICIPANTS 20 small animal cl...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presented as a part of MUM 2017 conference, made based on the paper in the conference proceedings (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3152832.3156628 ).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current aim was to introduce and initially evaluate the performance of a system called Extended Cognition, which was developed for enhancing the filtering of emotionally meaningful information from visual lifelogging data. The system is proposed to add facial expression markers to the stream of visual lifelogging data in order to later find special...
Conference Paper
This workshop focuses on the use and influence of technology on human-animal bonding, and how to facilitate them with technology. We explore the elements and characteristics of human-animal bonding, and how technology is connected to emotions and bonding between the human and the animal. We are particularly interested in animal's experiences, emoti...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how potential customers (N = 28) respond to two types of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) regarding the same product. The study simulated reality by having participants read either mainly negative comments from an independent discussion forum (n = 14) or mainly positive comments from a marketer's website (n=14). The results s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A survey on the feasibility of surface electromyography (EMG) measurements in facial pacing is presented. Pacing for unilateral facial paralysis consists of the measurement of activity from the healthy side of the face and functional electrical stimulation to reanimate the paralyzed one. The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of surf...
Article
The objective of the current driving simulator study (N = 20) was to assess brake reaction time (BRT) and subjective experiences of visual (V), tactile (T), and visual–tactile (VT) collision warnings when the drivers’ visual orientation was manipulated between four locations (i.e., road and three different mirror locations). V warning was a blinkin...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional reactions to basic, artificial, yet carefully controllable point-light displays (PLDs) were investigated with ratings of valence, arousal, approachability and dominance. PLDs were varied by movement location (upper and lower) and intensity ($10^{\circ }$, $20^{\circ }$ and $30^{\circ }$ angular change) for angular upward and downward move...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Facial pacing ultimately aims at improving the quality of life of people suffering from unilateral facial paralysis. A device to study facial pacing is presented. It is able to measure electromyography signals from the healthy side of the face and simultaneously activate the corresponding muscles on the paralyzed side with electrical stimulation. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study presents the results of a longitudinal study on multimodal text entry where objects were selected by gazing and smiling. Gaze was used to point at the desired characters and smiling movements were performed to select them. Participants (N=12) took part in the experiments where they entered text for a total of 2.5 hours in ten 15-minute-l...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of three facial actions (i.e. frowning, raising the eyebrows, and smiling) in selecting objects on a computer screen when gaze was used for pointing. Dwell time is the most commonly used selection technique in gaze-based interaction, and thus, a dwell time of 400 ms was used as a reference selection tec...
Article
Full-text available
The present aim was to investigate functionality of vibrotactile stimulation in mimicry-based behavioral regulation during physical exercise. Vibrotactile stimuli communicated instructions from an instructor to an exerciser to perform lower extremity movements. A wireless prototype was tested first in controlled laboratory conditions (Study 1) and...
Article
Full-text available
Existing car navigation systems require visual or auditory attention. Providing the driver with directional cues could potentially increase safety. We conducted an experiment comparing directional haptic and non-speech audio cues to visual cueing in a navigation task. Participants (N=16) drove the Lane Change Test simulator with different navigatio...
Article
This study aimed to develop and test a hands-free video game that utilizes information on the player’s real-time face position and facial expressions as intrinsic elements of a gameplay. Special focus was given to investigating the user’s subjective experiences in utilizing computer vision input in the game interaction. The player’s goal was to ste...
Conference Paper
While car environment is often noisy and driving requires visual attention, still navigation instructions are given with audio and visual feedbacks. By using rhythmic tactons together with audio, navigation task could be supported better in the driving context. In this paper we describe haptic-audio interface with simple two-actuator setup on the w...
Article
Full-text available
A wide range of applications can benefit from the measurement of facial activity. The current study presents a method that can be used to detect and classify the movements of different parts of the face and the expressions the movements form. The method is based on capacitive measurement of facial movements. It uses principal component analysis on...