Vassilios Vassilakis

Vassilios Vassilakis
The University of York · Department of Computer Science

About

128
Publications
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Introduction
Vassilios is a Lecturer in Cyber Security in the Department of Computer Science at the University of York, UK. His main research interests are in the areas of network security, 5G wireless and mobile networks, software-defined networks, and Internet of things (IoT). He also teaches the GCQH-certified MSc in Cyber Security (University of York).

Publications

Publications (128)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, the world has witnessed a significant increase in the number of IoT devices, with a global and continuous rise in the demand for their multipurpose applications. However, malicious use of IoT devices began to emerge among cyber-criminals. IoT-enabled cyberattacks and botnets, such as the Mirai botnet and its variants and imitators,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although IoT security is a field studied extensively, recent attacks such as BotenaGo show that current security solutions cannot effectively stop the spread of IoT attacks. Machine Learning (ML) techniques are promising in improving protection against such attacks. In this work, three supervised ML algorithms are trained and evaluated for detectin...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of images with embedded text shared on Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Twitter or Facebook has been growing in recent years. It is becoming important to analyse the images uploaded into these platforms, as adversaries may spread images with toxic content or misinformation (i.e. spam). Optical character recognition (OCR) systems ha...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a rapidly evolving technology, and being highly mobile, UAV systems are able to cooperate with each other to accomplish a wide range of different tasks. UAVs can be used in commercial applications, such as goods delivery, as well as in military surveillance. They can also operate in civil domains like search-and-...
Conference Paper
Twitter trending hashtags are a primary feature, where users regularly visit to get news or chat with each other. However, this valuable feature has been abused by malicious campaigns that use Twitter hashtags to disseminate religious hatred, promote terrorist propaganda, distribute fake financial news, and spread healthcare rumours. In recent year...
Article
Full-text available
Routing attacks are a major security issue for Internet of Things (IoT) networks utilising routing protocols, as malicious actors can overwhelm resource-constrained devices with denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, notably rank and blackhole attacks. In this work, we study the impact of the combination of rank and blackhole attacks in the IPv6 routing...
Chapter
Full-text available
We introduce a method for protection against a side-channel attack made possible by the use of a cloud-computing feature called memory deduplication. Memory deduplication improves the efficiency with which physical memory is used by the virtual machines (VMs) running on the same server by keeping in memory only one copy of the libraries and other s...
Article
Full-text available
This work focuses on infiltration methods, such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing, where adversaries sends fabricated ARP messages, linking their Media Access Control (MAC) address to a genuine device’s Internet Protocol (IP) address. We developed a Software-Defined Networking (SDN)-based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS)...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, many ransomware attacks had the ability to spread within local networks or even outside them. At the same time, software defined networking (SDN) has provided a major boost to networks by transferring intelligence from network devices to a programmable logically centralised controller. The latter can be programmed to be compatib...
Article
This work focuses on infiltration methods, such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing, where adversaries sends fabricated ARP messages, linking their Media Access Control (MAC) address to a genuine device’s Internet Protocol (IP) address. We developed a Software-Defined Networking (SDN)-based Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices makes it increasingly important to be able to fingerprint them, for example in order to detect if there are misbehaving or even malicious IoT devices in one's network. However, there are many challenges faced in the task of fingerprinting IoT devices, mainly due to the huge variety of the devic...
Preprint
Full-text available
The popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices makes it increasingly important to be able to fingerprint them, for example in order to detect if there are misbehaving or even malicious IoT devices in one's network. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic categorisation of machine learning augmented techniques that can be used for f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been designed to handle routing in IoT. We investigate the detection of blackhole and greyhole attacks in RPL networks. We evaluate the existing heartbeat-based detection method for blackhole attacks and propose its modification for greyhole attacks. Extensive experiments have been pe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN) has been standardized to support IP over lossy networks. RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) is the common routing protocol for 6LoWPAN. Among various attacks on RPL-based networks, the wormhole attack may cause severe network disruption and is one of the hardest t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) is already playing a significant role in our lives, as more and more industries are adopting IoT for improving existing systems and providing novel applications. However, recent attacks caused by Mirai and Chalubo botnets show that IoT systems are vulnerable and new security mechanisms are required. In this work, we design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the use of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) in the detection and mitigation of malware threat, focusing on the example of ExPetr ransomware. Extensive static and dynamic analysis of ExPetr is performed in a purpose-built SDN testbed. The results acquired from this analysis are then used to design and implement an SDN-based...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many IoT devices, especially those deployed at the network edge have limited power resources. A number of attacks aim to exhaust these resources and drain the batteries of such edge nodes. In this work, we study the effects of a variety of battery draining attacks against edge nodes. Through simulation, we clarify the extent to which such attacks a...
Article
Full-text available
Many IoT devices, especially those deployed at the network edge have limited power resources. In this work, we study the effects of a variety of battery draining attacks against edge nodes. Specifically, we implemented hello flooding, packet flooding, selective forwarding, rank attack, and versioning attack in ContikiOS and simulated them in the Co...
Chapter
Following the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology worldwide, the integration of the IoT to the cloud, referred to as the Cloud of Things (CoT), has become essential for easy access and management of remote resources. However, security and malicious intrusions must be seriously considered to ensure network reliability and da...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, the number of images uploaded into Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Facebook and Twitter has been growing, which presents challenges to Machine Learning-based spam detector. Most current detection models use text-based, statistic info-based and graph-based features can easily be fooled by image-based spam. These approaches do...
Conference Paper
Detecting image-based spam in Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Facebook and Twitter, is an ongoing problem. Spam is prevalent in all forms of online communication (such as email and the web) However, researchers’ and practitioners’ attention has increasingly shifted to spam in OSNs, due to the growing number of spammers and the possible negat...
Article
Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Facebook and Twitter, have become a very important part of many people's daily lives. Unfortunately, the high popularity of these platforms makes them very attractive to spammers. Machine learning (ML) techniques have been widely used as a tool to address many cybersecurity application problems (such as spam a...
Article
Full-text available
IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is a popular routing protocol used in wireless sensor networks and in the Internet of Things (IoT). RPL was standardized by the IETF in 2012 and has been designed for devices with limited resources and capabilities. Open-source RPL implementations are supported by popular IoT operating sy...
Article
Full-text available
Modern day ransomware families implement sophisticated encryption and propagation schemes, thus limiting chances to recover the data almost to zero. We investigate the use of software-defined networking (SDN) to detect and mitigate advanced ransomware threat. We present our ransomware analysis results and our developed SDN-based security framework....
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, we have been experiencing fast proliferation of different types of ransomware targeting home users, companies and even critical telecommunications infrastructure elements. Modern day ransomware relies on sophisticated infection, persistence and recovery prevention mechanisms. Some recent examples that received significant attention i...
Article
Full-text available
Over recent years, we have observed a significant increase in the number and the sophistication of cyber attacks targeting home users, businesses, government organizations and even critical infrastructure. In many cases, it is important to detect attacks at the very early stages, before significant damage can be caused to networks and protected sys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to significantly advance the technology development in many application domains such as agriculture, home automation, and healthcare. However, in the IoT era, this development faces serious research challenges in terms of handling large amounts of data, designing efficient system architectur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) is envisioned as a trans-formative approach with a wide range of applications in various sectors such as home automation, industrial control, and agriculture. It promises innovative business models and improved user experience. However, as evidenced by recent attacks such as the Mirai botnet, IoT networks and systems remain...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays ransomware presents a huge and the fastest growing problem for all types of users from small households to large corporations and government bodies. Modern day ransomware families implement sophisticated encryption and propagation schemes, thus limiting chances to recover the data almost to zero. In order to design and develop appropriate...
Article
Full-text available
Novel networking paradigms, such as software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualisation (NFV), introduce new opportunities in the design of next-generation mobile networks. The present work investigates the benefits of the emerging SDN and NFV technologies on the radio resource management (RRM) in mobile cellular networks. In part...
Article
Full-text available
Next-generation cellular networks are expected to enable the coexistence of macro and small cells, and to support differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) of mobile applications. Under such conditions in the cell, due to a wide range of supported services and high dependencies on efficient vertical and horizontal handovers, appropriate management of...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a two-link system that accommodates Poisson arriving calls from different service-classes and propose a multirate teletraffic loss model for its analysis. Each link has two thresholds, which refer to the number of in-service calls in the link. The lowest threshold, named support threshold, defines up to which point the link can support...
Article
The authors propose two multirate teletraffic loss models in a two-link system that accommodates Poisson arriving calls from different service-classes with different bandwidth-per-call requirements. Each link has two thresholds which refer to the number of in-service calls in the link. The lowest threshold named support threshold, defines up to whi...
Article
The authors consider a link accommodating batched Poisson arriving calls of different service classes. A batch of generally distributed number of calls arrive to the link at exponentially distributed time-points. Each call is treated separately from the rest, and its acceptance is decided, according to the available link bandwidth (partial batch bl...
Article
Full-text available
We consider a low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite system with "satellite-fixed" cells that accommodates new and handover calls of different service-classes. We provide an analytical framework for the efficient calculation of call blocking and handover failure probabilities under two channel sharing policies, namely the fixed channel reservation...
Article
Full-text available
The authors consider a low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite system (MSS) that accepts new and handover calls of multirate service-classes. New calls arrive in the system as batches, following the batched Poisson process. A batch has a generally distributed number of calls. Each call is treated separately from the others and its acceptance is deci...
Article
Full-text available
Novel networking paradigms, such as software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualisation (NFV), introduce new opportunities in the design of next-generation mobile networks. The present work investigates the benefits of the emerging SDN and NFV technologies on the radio resource management (RRM) in mobile cellular networks. In part...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dual connectivity (DC) has been included in the Release 12 of the long-term evolution (LTE) standard. In this paper, we perform a formal security verification of the key establishment protocol for DC in small cell LTE networks. In particular, the security verification is performed using a popular tool called Scyther. The considered security propert...
Article
The authors consider a low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite system (MSS) that accepts new and handover calls of multirate service-classes. New calls arrive in the system as batches, following the batched Poisson process. A batch has a generally distributed number of calls. Each call is treated separately from the others and its acceptance is deci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange is a well known method for secure exchange of cryptographic keys and has been widely used in popular Internet protocols, such as IPsec, TLS, and SSH. To enable authenticated key establishment, the DH protocol has been integrated with the digital signature algorithm (DSA). In this paper, we analyze three variants of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The smart grid (SG), generally referred to as the next-generation power system, is considered as a revolutionary and evolutionary regime of existing power grids. Among the emerging SG applications, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) enables automated, two-way communication between a smart meter (SM) and a public utility company. To authenti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The concept of software-defined networking (SDN) is able to offer important advantages over the traditional communication paradigms. This is achieved by decoupling the decision-making process from the underlying network infrastructure that forwards the traffic. Recently, there have been efforts in applying the SDN approach to wireless and cellular...
Article
We consider a reference cell of fixed capacity in a wireless cellular network while concentrating on next-generation network architectures. The cell accommodates new and handover calls from different service-classes. Arriving calls follow a random or quasi-random process and compete for service in the cell under two bandwidth sharing policies: i) a...
Article
We consider a reference cell of fixed capacity in a wireless cellular network while concentrating on next-generation network architectures. The cell accommodates new and handover calls from different service-classes. Arriving calls follow a random or quasi-random process and compete for service in the cell under two bandwidth sharing policies: i) a...
Conference Paper
The concept of software-defined networking (SDN) is able to offer important advantages over the traditional communication paradigms. This is achieved by decoupling the decision-making process from the underlying network infrastructure that forwards the traffic. Recently, there have been efforts in applying the SDN approach to wireless and cellular...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is well acknowledged that one of the key enabling factors for the realization of future 5G networks will be the small cell (SC) technology. Furthermore, recent advances in the fields of network functions virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) open up the possibility of deploying advanced services at the network edge. In the c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange is a well known method for secure exchange of cryptographic keys and has been widely used in popular Internet protocols, such as IPsec, TLS, and SSH. To enable authenticated key establishment, the DH protocol has been integrated with the digital signature algorithm (DSA). In this paper, we analyze three variants of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The smart grid (SG), generally referred to as the next-generation power system, is considered as a revolutionary and evolutionary regime of existing power grids. Among the emerging SG applications, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) enables automated, two-way communication between a smart meter (SM) and a public utility company. To authenti...
Conference Paper
A smart grid is a well-thought-out smart network of meta-systems and subsystems that aims at improving the efficiency the traditional power grid and at ensuring reliable energy delivery. To achieve its goals, a smart grid requires a two-way communication between the utility provider and the end user. One way to achive that is by incorporating the w...
Article
Full-text available
Following the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology worldwide, the integration of the IoT to the cloud, referred to as the Cloud of Things (CoT), has become essential for easy access and management of remote resources. However, security and malicious intrusions must be seriously considered to ensure network reliability and da...
Article
Full-text available
Next-generation cellular networks are expected to enable the coexistence of macro and small cells, and to support differentiated quality-of-service (QoS) of mobile applications. Under such conditions in the cell, due to a wide range of supported services and high dependencies on efficient vertical and horizontal handovers, appropriate management of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on next-generation 5G wireless networks is currently attracting a lot of attention in both academia and industry. While 5G development and standardization activities are still at their early stage, it is widely acknowledged that 5G systems are going to extensively rely on dense small cell deployments, which would exploit infrastructure and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Based upon the context of Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) actual research and within the innovative scope of the SESAME EU-funded research project, we propose and assess a framework for security analysis applied in virtualised Small Cell Networks, with the aim of further extending MEC in the broader 5G environment. More specifically, by applying the fu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Among the new communication paradigms recently proposed, information-centric networking (ICN) is able to na-tively support content awareness at the network layer shifting the focus from hosts (as in traditional IP networks) to information objects. In this paper, we exploit the intrinsic content-awareness ICN features to design a novel multi-source...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information-Centric Networking (ICN) is a new communication paradigm that shifts the focus from content location to content objects themselves. Users request the content by its name or some other form of identifier. Then, the network is responsible for locating the requested content and sending it to the users. Despite a large number of works on IC...