Vasilis Kokkoris

Vasilis Kokkoris
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Department of Ecological Science

PhD

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27
Publications
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284
Citations

Publications

Publications (27)
Article
While establishment and persistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal inoculants in agriculturalfields are critical to their success, little is known about how farming practices can affect their establishment in field. We developed a probe assay specific to a commercial AM fungal inoculant (Rhizoglomus irregulareDAOM197198) and tested its estab...
Article
Six wild edible mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, A. bitorquis, A. gennadii, Coprinus comatus, Psathyrella candolleana and Volvopluteus gloiocephalus, were collected from the Greater Athens area (Greece), together with their soil substrates (two depth-layers) for studying bioaccumulation of heavy metals in a densely populated urban environment....
Article
Full-text available
That arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi covary with plant communities is clear, and many papers report non‐random associations between symbiotic partners. However, these studies do not test the causal relationship, or “codependency”, whereby the composition of one guild affects the composition of the other. Here we outline underlying requirements fo...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are plant root symbionts that continuously carry thousands of nuclei in their spores and hyphae. This unique cellular biology raises fundamental questions regarding their nuclear dynamics. This review aims to address these by synthesizing current knowledge of nuclear content and behavior in these ubiquitous soil f...
Article
The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are involved in one of the most ecologically important symbioses on the planet, occurring within the roots of most land plants.¹ Knowledge of even basic elements of AM fungal biology is still poor, with the discovery that AMF may in fact have a sexual life cycle being only very recently reported.2, 3, 4, 5 AMF...
Article
Full-text available
The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs) are obligate root symbionts in the subphylum Glomeromycotina that can benefit land plants by increasing their soil nutrient uptake in exchange for photosynthetically fixed carbon sources. To date, annotated genome data from representatives of the AMF orders Glomerales, Diversisporales and Archaeosporales have...
Article
Full-text available
There is a global industry built upon the production of “bioinoculants,” which include both bacteria and fungi. The recent increase in bioinoculant uptake by land users coincides with a drive for more sustainable land use practices. But are bioinoculants sustainable? These microbes are believed to improve plant performance, but knowledge of their e...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread obligate root symbionts that assist plants in obtaining nutrients and protection against environmental stresses. In the model species Rhizophagus irregularis, dikaryotic strains carry thousands of nuclei originating from two parental strains whose frequency varies depending on strains and host ident...
Article
Full-text available
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate plant symbionts that have the potential to improve crop yield. These multinucleate organisms are either “homokaryotic” or “dikaryotic”. In AMF dikaryons, thousands of nuclei originating from two parental strains coexist in the same cytoplasm. In other fungi, homokaryotic and dikaryotic strains show di...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play a key role in determining ecosystem functionality. Understanding how diversity in the fungal community affects plant productivity is therefore an important question in ecology. Current research has focused on understanding the role of functional complementarity in the fungal community when the host plant faces...
Article
Full-text available
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method used to detect and quantify nucleic acids even when present in exceptionally low numbers. While it has proven to be valuable for clinical studies, it has failed to be widely adopted for environmental studies but despite some limitations, ddPCR may represent a better option than classical...
Article
Full-text available
Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with most plants and can increase nutrient uptake. As a result, commercial inoculants called “biofertilizers” containing AM fungi have been developed and marketed to increase plant performance. However, successful establishment of these inoculants remains a challenge, and may be negatively impa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method used to detect and quantify nu-cleic acids even when present in exceptionally low numbers. While it has proven to be valuable for clinical studies, it has failed to be widely adopted for environmental and applied studies. Due to the complexity of the chemical and biological composition o...
Article
Full-text available
1) Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbiotic organisms that help plants acquire nutrients from the soil in exchange for photosynthetic carbon. Commercial AM fungal inoculants are widely available and are used extensively in agriculture including wine grape production. However, positive growth responses from inoculants are more con...
Article
Full-text available
While foliar application of copper (Cu) containing fungicides can protect vines from fungal infections such as downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), it can increase soil Cu content which increases disease susceptibility, especially in acidic soils. In this study, we hypothesized that lime (CaCO3 + MgCO3) addition may minimize Cu toxicity in vines by...
Article
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) harbor thousands of nuclei in a large syncytium at all times. Although mating processes have not been observed in AMF, their cells and genomes show many signatures of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how some of these signatures could also arise from parasexual processes in these widespread plant symbionts....
Article
Full-text available
Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provide benefits to plants, especially under stressful growing conditions. These symbiotic fungi can be applied as biofertilizers prior to transplant in order to increase establishment success in the field. Roots are often trimmed at the time of transplant to reduce the probability of J-rooting, the upward or...
Article
Estimating the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi relies entirely on indirect methods, meaning all measures are associated with some variability. The most common methods use microscopic estimates of the relative proportion of root length colonized by fungal structures. These methods typically examine root subsamples. While such methods are i...
Article
Full-text available
Transformed root cultures (TRC) are used to mass produce arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal propagules in vitro. These propagules are then used in research, agriculture, and ecological restoration. There are many examples from other microbial systems that long-term in vitro propagation leads to domesticated strains that differ genetically and funct...
Article
Full-text available
Ilyonectria is a weak pathogen known for causing black foot disease in young vines, infecting roots and vascular tissues at the basal end of the rootstock and restricting the movement of water and nutrients. This negatively impacts vine establishment during transplant into the vineyard. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are symbiotic fungi that ass...
Article
Full-text available
We proposed a theoretical framework predicting mutualistic outcomes for the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis based on host provenance (crop versus wild). To test the framework, we grew two isolates of Rhizoglomus irregulare (commercial versus an isolate locally isolated), with five crop plants and five wild plants endemic to the region that co...
Article
Grazers and the AM symbiosis share a long evolutionary history, grazing effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses remain unresolved despite decades of dedicated research. Studies show fungal growth to increase, decrease and remain unchanged in response to grazing pressure. We argue that studies focusing on single fungal traits may fail to de...
Article
In vitro propagation of AM fungi using transformed root cultures (TRC) is commonly used to obtain pure AM fungal propagules for use in research and industry. Early observations indicate that such an artificial environment can alter traits and function of AM fungi over time. We hypothesized that increased in vitro cultivation may promote ruderal str...
Article
Full-text available
Cultivating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in vitro is an efficient way to produce material for industry and research. However, such artificial growing conditions may impose selective pressure on fungi grown in vitro over many generations. We hypothesized that isolates subjected to long term propagation in vitro may develop increasingly ruderal...
Preprint
Full-text available
We proposed a theoretical framework predicting mutualistic outcomes for the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis based on host identity (crop versus wild). To test the framework, we grew two isolates of R hizoglomus irregulare (commercial versus an isolate locally sourced from a site in Saskatchewan), with five crop plants and five wild plants tha...
Preprint
We proposed a theoretical framework predicting mutualistic outcomes for the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis based on host identity (crop versus wild). To test the framework, we grew two isolates of R hizoglomus irregulare (commercial versus an isolate locally sourced from a site in Saskatchewan), with five crop plants and five wild plants tha...
Article
Full-text available
Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities increasingly relies on high throughput sequencing (HTS) datasets, but whether sequence data accurately depict AM fungal communities is unknown. We sequenced mock communities of 16 AM fungal morphospecies from six families that varied in relative abundance. To assess sequence variati...

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