Vartuhi Tonoyan

Vartuhi Tonoyan
California State University, Fresno | Fresno State · Management

Professor

About

26
Publications
5,812
Reads
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684
Citations
Citations since 2016
11 Research Items
520 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080

Publications

Publications (26)
Article
Despite the tremendous growth in research on gender stereotyping in the context of entrepreneurship, scholarly understanding of this phenomenon is far from complete. Accordingly, the overarching goal of this paper is to stimulate greater attention to topics that warrant fuller consideration. Of the many paths worth pursuing, we focus on those that...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Existing entrepreneurship literature has provided mixed evidence as to whether resource providers discriminate against female-led innovative start-up ventures in their resource commitment decisions either in terms of the likelihood or conditions of resource provision. While some studies revealed evidence indicative of negative discriminatio...
Article
We propose four papers that collectively contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of gender inequalities in entrepreneurship: they draw on different theoretical perspectives and conduct analyses at different levels of units: the first two papers will focus on macro-level conditions at country level, comparing how institutional and structura...
Article
Full-text available
Although scholars have long recognized the consequences of sex-based labor market segregation for gendered outcomes in conventional wage-and-salary employment, comparatively little is known about the implications for entrepreneurship. We call attention to implications stemming from manifestations at distinct levels of analysis, specifically to the...
Article
Full-text available
Der vorliegende Bericht stellt die Ergebnisse der Evaluation der BMBF-Fördermaßnahmen BioChance und BioChancePlus dar. Beide zielten als Vorläufer der Förderinitiative KMUinnovativ: Biotechnologie darauf ab, innovative und anspruchsvolle Forschungsvorhaben von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen in der Biotechnologie zu ermöglichen. Die beiden Förder...
Article
Full-text available
Der vorliegende Bericht stellt die Ergebnisse einer Systemevaluierung der Förderinitiative KMU-innovativ des BMBF dar. Die Evaluierung startete Ende 2008 und damit ein Jahr nach dem Beginn der Förderinitiative im Herbst 2007. Sie hatte zum Ziel, die Implementation, Zielerreichung und Wirkung der Förderinitiative sowie ihre Position in der Förderlan...
Article
Full-text available
In corruption research, it is often argued that in "high-trust" societies, i.e. societies with a high level of trust in anonymous others and institutions, there exist lower corruption rates than in "low-trust" societies. As demonstrated in this study, this holds true only for a generalized trust, i.e. trust which is neither situation nor person spe...
Article
This article explores the determinants of corruption in transition economies of the post-Soviet Union, Central-Eastern Europe, and Western industrialized states. We look in-depth at the East–West gap in corruption, and why entrepreneurs and small business owners become engaged in corrupt deals. Part of the answers lie in the country-specific formal...
Article
Using data from the World Business Environment Survey (2000), this study analyzes the determinants of corruption focusing on the country's institutional make-up and the role it plays for corrupt behavior of entrepreneurs. A cross-national comparison supports the hypothesis that the entrepreneurs' corrupt behavior is shaped by both formal (economic...
Chapter
Full-text available
Analyzing 1055 female- and 2207 male-owned businesses in Germany, we find that the former underperform the latter in terms of employment growth and firm innovativeness. Controlling for endogeneity, i.e. feedback effects between employment growth and innovation, we show that the lower employment growth in womenowned businesses is mainly due to women...
Article
The employment growth of small firms is an issueof interest to policy makers, but how gender affects this issue is littleexplored and the empirical studies yield mixed results. Thisstudyexamines the question whether female- or male-owned businessesgenerate more employment growth in small firms in Germany. Three major determinants of small venture g...
Article
Young research-intensive high-technology firms tend to cluster in regions, by establishing their companies nearby public scientific institutes, large industrial companies and venture capitalists. It is suggested that various factors such as low transaction costs, knowledge spillovers, and tacit knowledge flows which result from the spatial proximit...
Article
The ‘jack-of-all trades’ view of entrepreneurship posits that having a background in a large number of different fields increases the probability of becoming entrepreneur (Lazear, 2004). The intuition behind this is that entrepreneurs must have sufficient knowledge in a variety of fields to put together the many ingredients required for the surviva...
Article
Recent increases in women’s self-employment in (most) welfare states are accompanied by the expansion of women’s “atypical” or “non-standard” work (Lewis 2001). More specifically, self-employed women tend to practice part-time worksignificantly more often than men across Western, Eastern and Southern Europe (Strohmeyer & Tonoyan 2006). Against this...
Article
Previous work has not explicitly considered the heterogeneity of women’s self-employment when examining the effect of family characteristics (small children, partner’s status) on the entry into entrepreneurship (Budig 2006). Instead, empirical studies have rather pooled all types of women’s self-employment together, without considering the quality...

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