Vanessa Ratten

Vanessa Ratten
La Trobe University · Management, Sport and Tourism

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596
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Publications

Publications (596)
Book
Full-text available
Context plays an important role in entrepreneurship and this is increasingly being acknowledged both in research, practice, and policy considerations. Where, why, and how entrepreneurship occurs can be considered when studying the effects of context. This book focuses on the role of context in entrepreneurship by analyzing different factors, includ...
Book
Full-text available
Latin American and Iberian entrepreneurship represents a special kind of innovation, risk-taking, and futuristic business activity based on a common cultural heritage. There has been an increased interest in entrepreneurship related to specific cultural groups, and this edited book will be among the first to provide a Latin American and Iberian per...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to explore the role of cognitive styles and intrapreneurship in health professionals' innovation outputs, as well the mediated effect of intrapre-neurship between cognitive styles and innovation output. This study used the survey method of data collection, through a self-administered questionnaire. Partial least square st...
Article
There has been an increased usage and popularity of digital platforms during the COVID-19 crisis. This has resulted in many new types of digital platforms emerging that are tied to specific localities and based on emergent needs. This article presents the results of a study on the ClickforVic digital platform that was started during the first 2020...
Chapter
Culture and economic settings are often perceived as key influential elements in formulating the entrepreneurial ecosystem, either on the organisations level or the entire social system. In their different forms, culture and economic conditions have always been critical drivers for innovation and entrepreneurship. Understanding the community’s cult...
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Portugal and Spain are countries in southern Europe that share a geographic border. They are amongst the oldest countries in the world and share a rich cultural history. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the world heritage sites in both countries, thereby providing a useful overview about the role tourism plays in a countries economic and cultu...
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Entrepreneurship happens in a variety of contexts but is closely linked to the culture, cultural heritage, and history of a region. The aim of this chapter is to examine the role of entrepreneurship in Latin America and Iberia, thereby highlighting the unique way specific social and political conditions have affected entrepreneurial rates and procl...
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Latin America is a large geographic area comprising a diverse range of countries. This means there are many tourist places that have World Heritage listing. This chapter will explore the importance of tourism to Latin America by focusing on the role of entrepreneurship, thereby enabling an investigation into how heritage influences tourism populari...
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Whilst everyone wants to write a good entrepreneurship and small business article, it requires skill, dedication and perseverance. Not to mention tenacity and intelligence in obtaining the right words to convey the intended meaning. This article discusses what to do in order to make sure authors write in a appropriate way regarding publishing in th...
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A company’s goal in addition to achieving predetermined performance targets is also to maintain its existence. The sustainability of a business is related to its long-term performance, including for MSMEs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the determinants of MSME growth in a business growth strategy theoretical perspective. The total number...
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ASEAN is an important regional trading bloc that will grow in prominence in the future. The aim of this chapter is to discuss future research ideas regarding ASEAN innovation. Thereby emphasing the way the region can focus on innovation as a source of global competitiveness. This means higlighting how firms, individuals, governments and communities...
Chapter
ASEAN countries need to utilise innovative marketing and management techniques in order to remain competitive. To do this requires a consideration of the different types of innovation from product, process to service in order to encapsulate new business practices. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the role innovation plays in the success of ASE...
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Entrepreneurship normally involves a financial motive in terms of how it occurs in society. This means money is the primary reason for engaging in entrepreneurial behaviour. However, increasingly environmental and social initiatives are included in financial motivations in entrepreneurship. This chapter will focus on sustainability initiatives in e...
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Entrepreneurs need to be creative in order to compete in the international marketplace. To do this they need to constantly derive new ideas that encourage others to think about things in a different way. This chapter focuses on the process of creation in terms of describing what it is and how it can be done in society, thereby highlighting the need...
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Entrepreneurship in order to gain momentum requires in the input and help of others. This means it is a system of events that takes place based on societal interaction. This chapter highlights the need to think about entrepreneurship from an ecosystem perspective in terms of it changing and adapting to suit current events. This provides a more holi...
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Entrepreneurship of any form needs to have a leader to make it a reality. This involves a person managing a project but also devising strategic plans. This chapter will focus on the role of entrepreneurial leadership in society in terms of thinking about future action. This means incorporating innovative, risk-taking and proactive ideas that go aga...
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Entrepreneurship can be focused on profit maximization, but increasingly, it has a social element. This chapter highlights the importance of social entrepreneurship in society that incorporates value creation activity that has a social nature. Other types of entrepreneurship are also identified that help to showcase the diverse nature of entreprene...
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Marketing is an essential firm activity that normally leads to competitive benefits. This chapter focuses on entrepreneurial forms of marketing that incorporate some degree of innovation, proactiveness and risk-taking, thereby emphasizing the way marketing can incorporate new ideas in communication techniques. Different ways this can occur are stat...
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Much of the media attention on entrepreneurship is focused on corporate entities that are engaged in technological innovation. This means it is important to analyse how corporate entrepreneurship occurs in the business world and to understand best practices. This chapter stresses the need to build a positive mindset in business and to develop a bus...
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Entrepreneurship is critical to the effective functioning of society. This chapter discusses the role of entrepreneurship in business by highlighting its key attributes. Thereby analysing the different ways entrepreneurship can be interpreted based on contextual situations. This includes focusing on the key elements of entrepreneurship in terms of...
Chapter
In any entrepreneurial endeavour, there are a group of entities working together that can be considered as stakeholders. This chapter focuses on the role of stakeholders in entrepreneurial business ventures as a way to understand the role of collaboration. Increasingly this also includes competition as entities need to share information but also co...
Chapter
Innovation can happen in a number of different ways and contexts. Therefore, it is important to analyse innovation by considering the situation in which it occurs. This chapter will focus on the way innovation can be understood in society, thereby including incremental or simple forms of innovation together with more radical ways of innovation. Thi...
Article
By applying the stakeholder theory and institutional theory approach, this study aimed to develop a more refined understanding of primary and secondary stakeholder pressure by considering social and environmental responsibility, the role of barriers to adoption as a mediator, and the differences of firm size on social businesses. This research show...
Article
Full-text available
Organizations characterized by a climate and culture of competition and overwork facilitate the emergence of the workaholism phenomenon, as they provide favorable conditions for employees to spend more time in the workplace. Many of these employees are successful in their careers both in financial terms and in job satisfaction. This article aims to...
Article
Full-text available
Sport is one of the most international industries in the world and relies on entrepreneur-ship to ensure its competitiveness. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the sport industry had to rapidly change and adjust to international border closures and reduced physical contact activity. Many people involved in the sport industry are located outside of thei...
Article
Purpose – The scope of this study was to underline the specific aspects of positive consumer attitude and behavior related to sports sponsorship. In more detail, the purpose of this study was to establish a comprehensive sponsorship framework integrating Beliefs about sponsorship, Sponsor’s Image, Fans’ Attachment with the team, Team’s Performance,...
Book
Full-text available
This contributed volume introduces the innovative landscapes and business models used in tourism entrepreneurship initiatives of Portugal and Spain. It provides benchmarks for entrepreneurial initiatives covering tourism services, place-branded tourism, social networks, spiritual tourism, cross-border tourism initiatives, and tourism in low-density...
Chapter
The current disastrous situation enforced globally by the COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated researchers’ efforts to develop solutions and tools to mitigate the pandemic’s social and economic destructive implications. In this vein, this chapter endeavours to investigate the practices developing social system resilience and risk management as effectiv...
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Entrepreneurial innovation provides a way for individuals and businesses to act in a competitive manner in the global marketplace. This is crucial during and after the COVID-19 pandemic due to the shifts in working conditions and societal life. The aim of this chapter is to discuss what entrepreneurial innovation is in light of changing environment...
Chapter
Most of us would think that Muslimpreneur is a Muslim who carries out commercial activities. This assumption is not completely correct. Muslimpreneur here is a Muslim or non-Muslim carrying out commercial activities by following the values exemplified by the Prophet Muhammad SAW, which makes the essence of the term of muslimpreneur.
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The present examination zeroed in on the investigation of the attitudinal and behavioural designs with regards to sport sponsorship. All the more accurately, the focal point of the exploration was to provide certain clarifications of the impact of fans’ engagement with sport, the level of their connection with their preferred team, their views abou...
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As an archipelago country with population reaching 270.2 million, Indonesia is predicted to become a considerable economic drive in Asia-Pacific region (Oberman et al., 2012). This can never be achieved without the natural resources of Indonesia. Administratively, Indonesia consists of 34 Provinces with 514 regalities and cities. The population of...
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Translating enterprises in Indonesia has not been affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. The work procedure of a translator is in line with the health enforced by the Indonesian government that urge people to avoid from community gathering and maintain social distancing. The Indonesian public is very supportive in the development of the translating fie...
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Micro, small and medium enterprises in Indonesia are still constrained in obtaining information and access to finance for business development and in supporting their day-to-day business operation. Lack of sufficient collateral and strict, complicated banking administrative requirements, and also lack of information about have constrained the MSMEs...
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Advanced development in information technology has accelerated entrepreneurship in financial sector. The study of technology entrepreneurship therefore serves an important function beyond satisfying intellectual curiosity. By utilizing the frontier technology and practicing more adaptive entrepreneurship approach, various start-up companies have be...
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The traditional Batak Toba people live in a very famous tourism area namely Lake Toba and has a great opportunity towards the development as an international-class tourism. Batak Toba people have a lot of uniqueness of the products they made, but ironically, they are less aware of the importance of forming a community business. This chapter outline...
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Stakeholder theory is one of the most popular theories in the management field to understand the influence of others on an organisation’s strategy. For this reason, it is important to link the concept to new fields in order to develop thinking around what it is and why it matters in society. This chapter moves the field of stakeholder theory forwar...
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Stakeholder innovation is a way to bring attention to the need for collaboration in innovative endeavours. Innovation does not generally occur from one individual deriving an idea but from that individual partnering with others in order to commercialise the idea. This form of stakeholder engagement can occur in a formal or informal way but does hap...
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Research on entrepreneurship education is growing due to its practical significance and its role in fostering economic growth. The aim of this chapter is to highlight and present an overview of the current state of entrepreneurship education (challenges and opportunities) and how COVID-19 can be a transformational opportunity for entrepreneurship e...
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Partnerships are essential to entrepreneurship as they provide a way to share relevant resources and information. Stakeholders are a form of partnership although they might be less evident than traditional relational agreements. This is due to stakeholders having formal and informal roles in the development of a business. The role of this chapter i...
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In any discussion or analysis of entrepreneurship, there needs to be some degree of consideration for stakeholders. This is due to the need for most entrepreneurial endeavours to collaborate whilst compete with others for marketshare. Stakeholders as a concept have been studied extensively in the management and marketing fields, but are less explic...
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Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are the engines of the largest economy in the world, including in Indonesia. Nowadays, various research and studies have been carried out by researchers regarding the application of entrepreneurial marketing among MSME actors. Entrepreneurial marketing is believed to be one of the approaches that can help...
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There has been increasing recognition that for regional competitiveness in rural areas there needs to be a focus on sustainable farming initiatives especially for family farms that are competing with global conglomerates. Family farms, whilst declining in number, are the purpose of this paper studying the rural entrepreneurship in family farms as t...
Book
This book explores and asserts that there are many different types of innovation but in order to bring about fundamental change to society the innovation must be entrepreneurial. The aim of this edited book is to focus on different elements of entrepreneurial innovation in order to understand emerging issues and trends. This book shows how this ena...
Chapter
Australia is recognised as a world leader in university education. This has meant there is an increased emphasis on entrepreneurship in all areas of university activity. This chapter will discuss the role of entrepreneurial universities in Australia in terms of educational development. The role of the group of eight, innovative, technology and regi...
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Tourism is critical to the ongoing economic and social success of a geographic region. Countries in Oceania are amongst the most popular countries in the world to visit and are increasingly relying on tourism. In order to stay competitive, tourism needs to be innovative in order to take advantage of new cultural and societal trends. This chapter wi...
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected society in a way that has never occurred before. This has made it important for businesses in Oceania to develop resilience in order to cope with the change. This chapter focusses on the role of crisis management and resilience in the Oceania context. Thereby enabling a better understanding of the role re...
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The purpose of this chapter is to review the existing literature on Oceania entrepreneurship by identifying major trends. This enables key issues to be highlighted that relate to the trajectory of research on this field. The findings suggest that research on Oceania and entrepreneurship is in existence but tends to focus more on country-level pheno...
Book
This book focuses on the growth of entrepreneurship in Oceania. This means focusing on cultural endeavors as well as digital and technology-based forms of entrepreneurship. It is the first to explore how Oceania has a distinctive type of business appeal given its strategic position in the world. Whilst other regions such as North America, Europe an...
Chapter
Full-text available
Innovation should by design have a strategic purpose in order to make a difference to society. The strategic purpose can have an associated positive or negative connotation depending on its impact and usefulness. The aim of this chapter is to understand how strategic innovation can be utilised for entrepreneurial purposes thereby adding to the exis...
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The Indonesian Government regulation direction in alleviating the economic added value in 2020–2024 focuses on strengthening MSME entrepreneurship, which includes cooperatives and small and medium enterprise (SME) centers. The strategy of strengthening MSME entrepreneurship implemented is through increasing business partnership between MSMEs and me...
Article
Abstract Purpose Risk is part of corporate activity and a consequence of the businesses' demands, the market and the changes in companies and their surroundings. The way that risk is managed is different between family and non-family businesses. The paper aims to compare the different risk types experienced in the context of the coronavirus disease...
Article
Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the profile of the Portuguese regarding the perception of financial literacy. Design/methodology/approach: The utilized methodology is based on a questionnaire survey that assesses the perception of financial literacy. The sample is composed of 830 Portuguese individuals over 18 years old....
Chapter
This chapter highlights the importance of tourism for the sustainable development and economic growth of the Iberian Peninsula, both as a destination market and as a destination for investment and technological innovation, particularly through the accelerated digitalization of business models. The importance of fostering opportunity entrepreneurshi...
Article
Subsistence small business entrepreneurs operate to fulfil the necessities of life but do so on a smaller scale with fewer resources and capital. In this paper, we will explore the domains of entrepreneurial ecosystems in Pakistan, to understand the support needed for subsistence entrepreneurs. Following a qualitative research approach, data are co...
Chapter
Entrepreneurs are individuals who pursue opportunities in the marketplace. In order to be a successful entrepreneur, some degree of connectivity within society is needed. This connectivity enables entrepreneurs to share ideas and information in the hope of some form of mutual exchange. Thus, connectivity in essence refers to collaboration or linkag...
Chapter
Full-text available
Risk management scholars typically define risk as the consequences of uncertainty, which could hold either threat or opportunity. Based on the risk definition, this research aimed to investigate the Saudi Arabia approach in confronting the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the different components of the Saudi economy, such as...
Chapter
Buying housing is often the biggest transaction in the families’ lives. Therefore, this is an important reason to know and to study the determining factors of that purchase. This chapter aims to analyze which factors contribute to the choice of apartments in Portugal the most. To carry out this study, a quantitative methodology based on a questionn...
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The tourism industry is crucial to the competitiveness of the Spanish and Portuguese economy. This chapter focuses on how tourism is becoming increasingly innovative in order to derive better performance outcomes. The need for a better contextual understanding of tourism based on country contexts will be discussed. This will enable the emergence of...

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Event Management Guest Editor: Vanessa Ratten Email: v.ratten@latrobe.edu.au Special Issue: Events and Social Entrepreneurship Extended abstract due: 30 October 2022 Final full paper due: 30 January 2023 Events can be used as a way to achieve social objectives at the community, national and international level (Duignan, 2021). Increasingly social entrepreneurs are utilising events as a platform to communicate a non-profit or societal initiative (Mackellar, 2006). Social entrepreneurs have always coalesced around the production and delivery of events, but the linkage between events and social entrepreneurship has been recentlyhighlighted by Gurlek (2022) who stressed the need for more research in this area. Social entrepreneurship is useful at events as it involves any form of business activity that has a non-profit or altruistic goal (Al-Qudah, Al-Okaily and Alqudah, 2022). The focus of social entrepreneurship is normally on trying to help society by combining societal needs through business practices (Dacin, Dacin and Tracey, 2011). This comes at a time when event owners and organisers are increasingly and explicitly placing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs) at the heart of social sustainability objectives. As a concept social entrepreneurship is well developed due to its usefulness in terms of engaging with entrepreneurial activity via public and private partnerships (Klarin and Suseno, 2022). This means it can involve private entities as well as government bodies engaging in social events that provide a sense of collaborative governance that have a commercial purpose (Krane, Ebdon and Franklin, 2020). Initially social entrepreneurship focused on non-profit activity that small and community enterprises engaged in but more recently it has been studied to understand more larger scale projects that enable a particular issue or cause to gain attention. This has led to more diversity in the way it is studied and practiced as researchers, practitioners and policy makers acknowledge that it can be done in a small-scale context such as through local markets and community fairs or farmers markets but also in large scale context in terms of international sporting events. Social entrepreneurship events are a distinct form of events that enable the combination of not-for profit or social objectives within an event setting (Mauksch, 2017). There are many ways social entrepreneurship can be utilised in an event context in terms of how an event incorporates a social and innovative goal in terms of how, when and why the event is conducted (Duignan and Pappalepore, 2021). For example, Miragaia, Ferreira and Pombo (2017) discuss how the sponsorship of sport events can be a form of social entrepreneurship. This provides a way for corporations to highlight their social responsibility obligations through sport event sponsorship (Miragaia, Ferreira and Ratten, 2017). An example of this is Reebok sponsoring women’s running events with proceeds going to the Cancer Council and McDonalds sponsoring local community sports. However, some events have been sponsored by companies as a way to divert attention from less savoury business activity. In the past this was evident with Benson & Hedges a cigarette company sponsoring many cricket events. Generally most sport sponsorship events are considered positive as they enable a way for business to link social entrepreneurship to sport programs through social capital development at the community level (Miragaia, Martins, Kluka and Havens, 2015). Events that incorporate a social entrepreneurship element can do this in a direct or indirect way.For example, a direct social entrepreneurship activity at an event might be the selling of merchandise such as clothing that supports a charity or a percentage of the ticket sales being used to fund Ukrainians in need due to the Russia/Ukraine crisis. Indirect social entrepreneurship can take on a variety of different forms such as the profits of an event being then given to a homeless shelter or religious organisation. This means when considering how social entrepreneurship occurs in an event context, a holistic understanding and acknowledgement of its complexity needs to be taken. This includes focusing on when the social entrepreneurship at an even happens. Mostly it is conjunction with an event such as fun run events being tied to a social enterprise such as one that helps migrants find employment or alternatively a farmers market taking the entry proceeds to be used in a social enterprise that such as Habitat for Humanity that builds houses for those in need. The why part of the social entrepreneurship and event concerns the reason considered as being important to highlighting the non-profit or social aspect of an event. This can include events that are liked to certain crises such as bushfires and the COVID-19 pandemic that seek to help social enterprises fund their ventures. Every year the Mallacoota Fundraising Group organises events such as the production of their calendar that is produced with the proceeds going to fund emergency services and wildlife welfare (https://www.mallacootafundraisinggroup.com.au). During the COVID-19 pandemic Keith Urban organised a drive in music event where health care workers could drive in their cars to the Stardust Drive-In in Watertown, Tennessee to listen to him perform his concert (https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-country/keith-urban-drive-in-concert-social-distancing-1000791/). There are innovative ways events are being conducted particularly in terms of technology utilised and strategies adopted (Colombo and Richards, 2017). Moreover, some events are utilising entrepreneurial leveraging in order to increase participation rates (Duignan, Down and O’Brien, 2020). Events might be held in person whilst others in a hybrid or online form (Hall, 2006; Larson, 2009). Therefore, there can also be engagement activities between the event organizers, participants, sponsors and government entities (Schubler, Grabher andMuller-Seitz, 2015). This can occur through crowdfunding activities or innovative financial platforms that enable people to participate in events in a face-to-face or online format. Technology entrepreneurship in the form of financial technology has changed the way people pay for and consume services. This has led to social entrepreneurs developing online platforms that utilise technology to advertise events. An example of this is the platform (gigsemcasa.com), which started during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to enable a online concert to take place without an audience (https://www.macaubusiness.com/portugal-platform-for-live-music-shows-at-home-launches-with-free-gig-on-friday/). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic events have had to be more entrepreneurial in the way they are managed (Ratten, 2021). This brings in interesting new ideas about the reason and motives for holding an event. Whilst most events are profit-orientated increasing numbers of events also have a social objective in terms of fulfilling some form of community need. This means events such as koala conservation day to raise funds to plant trees for koalas and girls night in pajama party that raises funds for women’s cancers combine social entrepreneurial activities. Other social enterprises such as the Surfrider Foundation are making facemasks and other merchandise to be sold at surf contests (see https://shop.surfrider.org/collections/face-masks) The United Nations Sustainable Development goals can be linked to the use of social entrepreneurship at events. This includes goal 3 about good health and wellbeing being a focus of events such as Keep Australia Clean day in which people walk around and pick up rubbish. Goal 13 about climate action and goal 14 about life below water relate to events that are organised by The Marine Mammal Center and Sea Life Trust that often take the form of entertainment events such as concerts. Goal 11 about industry, innovation and infrastructure is emphasised through the sponsorship of events by businesses for a particular cause. This includes the Auskick events sponsored by banks that aim to encourage children to be involved in football. Other goals such as 11 about sustainable cities and communities and goal 12 about responsible consumption and production are evident in other social enterprise events such as those focusing on energy consumption such as dark night events in which areas of the city turn off their lights for a night to conserve energy and focus attention on climate change (https://www.earthhour.org.au/). The aim of this special journal issue is to focus on how events can be used as a source for social good. This means achieving social objectives through staging different kinds of events related to culture, sports and other topics. This special journal issue welcomes articles from a range of methodological perspectives including case study and empirical as well as theoretical and conceptual articles. Each article submitted should integrate the social entrepreneurship and events management literature and if possible incorporate a discussion on the United Nations sustainable development goals. The practical and theoretical importance of the research should be evident in each article submitted to the special journal issue. Examples of potential topics include but are not limited to: • Community fairs and social event initiatives • Online event management and philanthropy • Social entrepreneurship at regional events • Sport events and the role of social-based endeavours • Entrepreneurial responses to COVID-19 related events • Entrepreneurial social marketing at events • The usage of sustainable development goals at events Initial extended abstract should be submitted to the guest editor then full papers via the journal’s online platform with a note on the title page saying that this is part of the special journal issue. Any questions can be directed to the guest special journal issue editor. References Al-Qudah, A. A., Al-Okaily, M., & Alqudah, H. (2022). The relationship between social entrepreneurship and sustainable development from economic growth perspective: 15 ‘RCEP’countries. Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 12(1), 44-61. Colombo, A., and Richards, G. (2017). Eventful cities as global innovation catalysts: The Sónar Festival network. Event Management, 21(5), 621-634. Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization science, 22(5), 1203-1213. Duignan, M.B. (2021). Leveraging Tokyo 2020 to re-image Japan and the Olympic city, post-Fukushima. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, In Press. Duignan, M.B., and Pappalepore. I. (2021). How do Olympic cities strategically leverage New Urban Tourism? Evidence from Tokyo. Tourism Geographies, In Press. Duignan, M.B., Down, S., and O’Brien, D. (2020). Entrepreneurial leveraging in liminoidal Olympic transit zones. Annals of Tourism Research, In Press. Gürlek, M. (2022). Social Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Hospitality and Events: A State of the Art. Planning and Managing Sustainability in Tourism, 59-78. Hall, C. M. (2006). Urban entrepreneurship, corporate interests and sports mega-events: the thin policies of competitiveness within the hard outcomes of neoliberalism. The Sociological Review, 54(2_suppl), 59-70. Klarin, A., & Suseno, Y. (2022). An Integrative Literature Review of Social Entrepreneurship Research: Mapping the Literature and Future Research Directions. Business & Society, 00076503221101611. Krane, D., Ebdon, C., & Franklin, A. L. (2020). Social entrepreneurship and the challenge of collaborative governance of civic events: Brazil, Korea, and the United States. In Urban studies and entrepreneurship (pp. 119-142). Springer, Cham. Larson, M. (2009). Festival innovation: Complex and dynamic network interaction. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 9(2-3), 288-307. Mackellar, J. (2006). An integrated view of innovation emerging from a regional festival. International Journal of Event Management Research, 2(1), 37-48. Mauksch, S. (2017). Managing the dance of enchantment: An ethnography of social entrepreneurship events. Organization, 24(2), 133-153. Miragaia, D., Ferreira, J., & Pombo, I. (2017). Sponsorship of sports Events: A tool to develop social entrepreneurship and the corporate social responsibility. In Social Entrepreneurship in Non-Profit and Profit Sectors (pp. 107-121). Springer, Cham. Miragaia, D. A., Ferreira, J., & Ratten, V. (2017). Corporate social responsibility and social entrepreneurship: Drivers of sports sponsorship policy. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 9(4), 613-623. Miragaia, D. A. M., Martins, C. I. N., Kluka, D. A., & Havens, A. (2015). Corporate social responsibility, social entrepreneurship and sport programs to develop social capital at community level. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 12(2), 141-154. Ratten, V. (2021). Sport entrepreneurial ecosystems and knowledge spillovers. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 19(1), 43-52. Schüßler, E., Grabher, G. and Müller-Seitz, G. (2015). Field-configuring events: arenas for innovation and learning?. Industry and Innovation, 22(3), 165-172. https://www.earthhour.org.au/, last visited 7th July 2022. https://www.macaubusiness.com/portugal-platform-for-live-music-shows-at-home-launches-with-free-gig-on-friday/, last visited 7th July 2022. https://www.mallacootafundraisinggroup.com.au, last visited 7th July 2022. https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-country/keith-urban-drive-in-concert-social-distancing-1000791/, last visited 7th July 2022. https://shop.surfrider.org/collections/face-masks, last visited 7th July 2022.