Vadim Paka

Vadim Paka
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology · Atlantic Branch

Prof. Dr.

About

117
Publications
7,522
Reads
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789
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2000 - present
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Lecturer for discipline: Methods of experimental hydrophysics
March 1959 - present
Russian Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Principal Investigator
Description
  • Meso- and microscale processes in deep and shallow water, direct measurements; fate of seadumped chemical weapons.
Education
September 1953 - January 1959

Publications

Publications (117)
Article
This article publishes the memoirs about Andrei Sergeevich Monin – an outstanding scientist in geophysics, oceanologist, public figure, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences (1956), professor (1963), academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2000), director of the of the Shirshov Institute of oceanology of RAS in 1965–1987. A.S. Monin...
Article
Closely spaced CTDO profiling on the pathway of saltwater flow in the southeastern Baltic Sea in August and December 2019 revealed low oxygen intermediate layers-plumes with dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC) less than 2 mg/l under the upper boundary of permanent halocline. At the same time, DOC in the underlying layers was higher and reached 5.0...
Article
В 55-м рейсе ПС “Академик Иоффе” (29 июня–15 июля 2020 г.) получены новые данные по структуре водной толщи, верхнего слоя донных осадков и биологическим сообществам Гданьской, Готландской впадин и Финского залива Балтийского моря. Ниже перманентного галоклина было отмечено развитие гипоксийных условий, нарушающееся на восточном склоне Готландской в...
Article
The article is devoted to the 90th anniversary of the prominent Russian oceanographer and former senior researcher at the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science Boris Alexandrovich Tareev, (1931–1972). A brief information about the main fields and results of his creative scientific activity is gi...
Article
Achievements in development of the technique of operational measurements of the water structure in the bottom layer, based on vertical profiling of the water column using standard multiparameter probes operated with an armored cable in a free fall mode from surface to bottom are presented. Instead of cable winches, simpler devices operating on the...
Article
Full-text available
The leakage of any substances at the sea bottom consequently leads to contamination. The polluted area will strongly depend on the type of pollution which can be dissolved, material and the physical state of the bottom layers. Although the systems that monitor the particles or pollution on the sea surface already exists, there is no similar tool fo...
Article
The new universal sampler for selection of cores of bottom sediments in shallow reservoirs from low-dimensional vessels or from ice is presented. The tube is immersed manually by means of a partitioned boom. The immersion into the sediment depending on its softness/ denseness is produced by pressing or by rotating. For that, the tube is equipped wi...
Article
Full-text available
The 44th cruise of the RV Akademik Boris Petrov to the Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak Strait was carried out from 5 to 30 October, 2018. The studies included the study of the structure of water mass, near bottom currents, bottom sediments and biological communities.
Article
In the 34th and 36th cruises of the r/v Akademik N. Strakhov, performed in the summer and autumn of 2017, the structure of the waters was studied on transects located along the route of inflow of saline North Sea waters into the Baltic Sea. Vertical profiling was performed with intervals between stations no more than 2 miles, in the free-fall mode,...
Article
The article describes the advanced design of Tilt Current Meter (TCM), developed in the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. This type of meters is used in recent years mainly in Western countries due to low cost, ease of manufacture and the possibility of replication. In most designs the device is a physical pendulum in the form of a long floating cy...
Article
Full-text available
A solution to the problem of determination of spatial variability of oceanographic fields, which contained a fine structure resolution higher than what was possible previously using towed scanning probes, was presented for the Baltic Sea. Another concurrently solved problem consisted in obtaining data on the structure of waters in the bottom layer,...
Article
The task of targeted sampling of sediments in the immediate vicinity of objects presumed to be sources of chemical pollution of the sea has been solved. A cassette sampler with six grabs was built, which is constantly controlled by cable under video surveillance. The device is operated from a light boat, which can be kept in place over the object a...
Article
Using a regional circulation model of the Baltic Sea with the horizontal resolution of 0.5 nautical miles and with an open western boundary, time series of bottom friction velocity and bottom salinity were simulated for the period of April 2010–July 2016 and analysed at specific points of interest along the inflow water pathway. The model reproduce...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter summarizes the methods used within the MODUM project for monitoring chemical munition dumpsites. It includes general introduction to monitoring process, listing the requirements that are a basis for the establishment of full scale monitoring programme. It describes survey procedures, for locating dumped munitions, Sampling and analytic...
Article
The data of the CTD survey conducted in the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea in May–June 2009 are used to calculate the vertical profiles of the turbulent overturning scale, which are then used to estimate the dissipation and entrainment rates in the overflow plume. The resulting estimates of the entrainment rate varied widely from 2 × 10–7 to 7 × 1...
Article
Full-text available
The data of the CTD survey conducted in the Denmark Strait and Irminger Sea in May–June 2009 are used to calculate the vertical profiles of the turbulent overturning scale, which are then used to estimate the dissipation and entrainment rates in the overflow plume. The resulting estimates of the entrainment rate varied widely from 2 × 10 –7 to 7 ×...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we estimate diffusive nutrient fluxes in the northern region of Cape Ghir upwelling system (Northwest Africa) during autumn 2010. The contribution of two co-existing vertical mixing processes (turbulence and salt fingers) is estimated through micro- and fine-structure scale observations. The boundary between coastal upwelling and open...
Article
Full-text available
To examine processes controlling the entrainment of ambient water into the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO) plume/gravity current, measurements of turbulent dissipation rate were carried out by a quasi-free-falling (tethered) microstructure profiler (MSP). The MSP was specifically designed to collect data on dissipation-scale turbulence and fine therm...
Article
Full-text available
To examine processes controlling the entrainment of ambient water into the Denmark Strait overflow (DSO) plume/gravity current, measurements of turbulence dissipation rate were carried out by a quasi free-falling (tethered) microstructure sounde (MSS).The MSS was specifically designed to collect data on dissipation-scale turbulence and fine thermoh...
Article
Full-text available
The Denmark Strait overflow contributes roughly half (~3.4 Sv) of the total volume transport of the Nordic overflows. The overflows double their volume by entraining ambient water as they descend into the subpolar North Atlantic, and together with Labrador Sea Water feed the deep branch of the AMOC. The variability of the overflows is thus expected...
Article
Full-text available
A data set of closely spaced CTD profiling performed aboard Russian and Polish research vessels during 1993-2009 and numerical modeling are applied to study the variability in the asymmetric transverse structure of salinity/density in the Słupsk Furrow (SF) overflow of the Baltic Sea. The numerical simulations show that, on the one hand, the overfl...
Article
Full-text available
One oceanographic survey was carried out within a project multidisciplinary (PROMECA) from 18 to 29 October 2010 in the Canary Basin. During three days, Conductivity -Temperature depth (CTD), Expandable Bathytermograph (XBT) and Microstructure turbulence (free fall profilers: turboMAP and Baklán) data were obtained in several stations in the Cape G...
Article
Full-text available
An oceanographic survey was carried out from 18 to 29 October 2010 in the Canary Basin (PROMECA project). Near Cape Ghir, in the Northwest Africa coastal upwelling, 17 CTD casts were made to obtain continuous records of conductivity and temperature with depth, and to collect waters samples for nutrients analyses. Additionally, free-fall turbulence...
Article
Full-text available
Results of modeling of the migration of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their decay products from the initial chemical weapons dump site are presented. The aim was to find idealized sediment redistribution schemes in deep basins of the Baltic Sea corresponding to different wind conditions and to model the concentration of dissolved CWA in a cont...
Article
Full-text available
The species composition and biomass of the phytoplankton, as well as the hydrophysical and hydrochemical characteristics of the water masses, were estimated for different areas of the White Sea at 24 stations for the period of August 26 to September 3, 2007. The micronutrient concentrations were lower compared to the average long-term values for th...
Article
Full-text available
Closely spaced CTD transects across the Słupsk Furrow displayed a ‘downward- bending’ of salinity contours below the salinity interface on the southern flank due to a transverse circulation in the saline water overflow. Numerical simulation of a gravity current in an idealized channel with geometry, dimensions and initial density stratification all...
Article
Full-text available
Closely spaced CTD transects across the Słupsk Furrow displayed a ‘downward- bending’ of salinity contours below the salinity interface on the southern flank due to a transverse circulation in the saline water overflow. Numerical simulation of a gravity current in an idealized channel with geometry, dimensions and initial density stratification all...
Article
A cruise of the Soviet R/V “Dmitry Mendeleyev” in the Mediterranean Sea in 1989 is mentioned as the first step towards an international cooperation for high energy neutrino astrophysics in the Mediterranean. New proposals are considered related to carrying out common investigations connected with the construction of a large-scale neutrino telescope...
Article
Full-text available
A random-walk model for a nonuniform diffusivity media coupled with an ocean circulation model has been applied to describe the pathways of suspended particles transport in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) of the southern Baltic Sea. The circulation model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model, in which the vertical grid size is logarithmically refin...
Article
Full-text available
Large quantities of German trophy chemical weapons (CW) 1 were dumped after World War II in the Bornholm Deep of the Baltic Sea. Four ships wrecks were found on the bottom of the central part of the Bornholm Deep at depths of 90-100 m. The bottom of the deep is covered by mud with thickness of 1-3 m. The heavy metal contents (iron, manganese, zinc,...
Article
Full-text available
Internal waves are studied in two high-latitude regions of the Kara Sea. The measurements were carried out with a towed CTD profiler and a distributed temperature sensor on a mooring. The lack of internal waves with an M2 tidal period and the presence of high-frequency waves are demonstrated on the basis of the measurements and numerical modeling.
Article
Full-text available
During cruise 54 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh to the southwestern Kara Sea (September 6 to October 7, 2007), a large amount of hydrophysical data with unique spatial resolution was obtained on the basis of measurements using different instruments. The analysis of the data gave us the possibility to study the dynamics and hydrological struc...
Article
The principal physical research tasks addressing environmental problems of the Baltic Sea are the study of ventilation of the deep water and of vertical mixing. To achieve a progress, direct measurements of fine- and microstructure of water are necessary. Instrumentation to do this has been developed successfully; nevertheless the water structure i...
Article
A new tool is developed to provide deep ocean microstructure measurements in combination with standard CTD profiling/water sampling with only a minor increase in deployment time. A microstructure probe is mounted on a standard Rosette system like a sampling bottle. The probe is carried down to a proper depth attached to the Rosette that is performi...
Article
Does the post-WWII burial at sea of chemical weapons still pose a human and environmental risk?
Article
Full-text available
A need for experimental data about the entrain� ment of waters from the Irminger Sea into the jet of cooler and denser waters from the Arctic Basin partic� ipating in the formation of deep waters of the North Atlantic became pressing in relation to the research into climatically important meridional water circula� tion in the North Atlantic within...
Article
Internal waves are extremely common phenomena in seas and oceans. However, they are poorly studied in the White Sea. It seems that the dedicated measurements performed in the 80th expedition of R/V "Professor Shtokman" in August 2006 were the first ones on studying internal waves in the White Sea. The measurements were carried out at the diurnal mo...
Article
Sequences of high resolution transects of temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration measured from the Arkona Basin through the Bornholm Deep and the Slupsk Furrow to the Gulf of Gdansk in the summer of 2006 are discussed. The measurements were made using U-tow CTD probe with an oxygen sensor. The measurements revealed peculiar features in the...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze towed CTD measurements, numerical model calculations, and radar images in the Strait of Kara Gates. The measurements were made during an expedition in September 2007. Strong internal tides propagating from the Kara Strait to the Barents Sea were recorded. The internal waves are intensified by the opposite current from the Barents Sea. An...
Conference Paper
Presented here are some actual tasks for improving environmental technologies. Our efforts were applied (1) to the protracted monitoring of nonstationary internal waves (IW), and (2) to estimating the mixing intensity in shallow and deep seas. Both of these tasks are not new for modern hydrography, nevertheless the progress of the measurement techn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Reliable estimate of eddy diffusivity in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) of the Bornholm Deep is the issue of practical importance because it would control dispersion of the chemical warfare agents dumped in the Deep after WW II [Helcom, 1994]. The most common way to arrive at an estimate of the eddy diffusivity, K is to apply a well-known paramete...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Results of two comprehensive internal wave experiments carried out at the shelf edge in the mid-atlantic bight (JUSREX-92 and SWARM-95) are analyzed. Evidence of soliton features of the observed intense internal waves are discussed with special attention to the propagation speed and amplitude dispersion of solitons. A method for estimation of phase...
Article
Intrusions observed in the regions of intense mesoscale eddies of the Baltic Sea are studied. The study is based on the data of the closely spaced CTD profilings performed in the Eastern Gotland Basin after the major inflow of 1993. The results obtained supplement the interleaving analysis presented in [6]. Special attention is focused on the descr...
Article
An analysis of the data of measurements of the fine structure and microstructure fluctuations of hydrophysical fields in the upper 200-m layer of the Black Sea carried out using CTD profilers and a Baklan free falling microstructure and turbulence profiler revealed the existence of a positive correlation between the intensity of the fine structure...
Article
The flows of brackish waters in the upper layer and saline watersin the lower layer meet above the Słupsk Sill, which makes thisone of the most significant features of the Baltic Sea, controllingas it does the ventilation of the deep basins in its centralregion. Earlier high-resolution measurements using towed scanningprobes conducted here for more...
Article
Full-text available
The ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep wateris driven by either gale-forced barotropic or baroclinic salt water inflows.During the past two decades, the frequency of large barotropic inflows(mainly in winter) has decreased and the frequency of medium-intensity baroclinic inflows(observed in summer) has increased. As a result of entrainment of ambie...
Article
Full-text available
The mesoscale structure of the upwelling near the Russian coast and in the adjacent regions of the southeastern Baltic Sea is studied from the results of numerical experiments on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model and satellite IR images. The IR images reveal that the easterly and northerly winds generate a perturbation of the longshore upwelli...
Conference Paper
The development of technologies for the Baltic research should be grounded on understanding of the complicity of the Baltic water structure. Each Baltic basin is characterized by its individual properties. To discover these properties, high-resolution repeated regularly measurements are necessary, which should be practicable for any research vessel...
Article
Closely spaced CTD transects performed in the summertime reveal simultaneous downward/upward bendings of temperature/salinity contours in the seasonal thermocline/permanent halocline of the Stolpe Channel and the Gulf of Gdansk, which may be interpreted as geostrophically balanced cyclonic eddies in the intermediate layer. To examine processes capa...
Article
Full-text available
From late July to mid-September 2001, detailed measurements of thermohaline (temperature, salinity, density) and hydrochemical (oxygen, silicates) fields were carried out in the White Sea. The data over sections with high resolution, together with traditional measurements, were obtained at selected points in the main regions and bays of the White S...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An intercomparison study of oceanic turbulent measurements was performed with Russian-made, electromagnetic probes, capable of measuring three components of turbulent velocity, and airfoil shear probes. These turbulence measurements were taken in the Baltic Sea with the probes mounted on a towbody and a dropped profiler. Data from strong, intermedi...
Article
Closely spaced CTD measurements performed in the southeast Baltic Sea during summertime reveal localized simultaneous deepenings of the seasonal thermocline and swellings of the permanent halocline which result in localized convergences of isopycnals towards the intermediate layer. In view of geostrophic balance, such mesoscale baroclinic disturban...
Article
A sigma (σ)-coordinate ocean model by Blumberg and Mellor (POM) is applied to study the formation processes of mesoscale cyclones observed in the Eastern Gotland Basin following the dense water inflows. The initial conditions simulate a situation when the Arkona and Bornholm basins and partially the Slupsk Furrow are already filled with the inflow...
Article
A numerical model of ocean circulation by Blumberg and Mellor (POM) is applied to study the formation of mesoscale cyclonic eddies in the Baltic Sea that follow the inflow events of the North Sea water. Prognostic calculations show that an intense cyclonic eddy is generated east of the Slupsk Furrow when inflow waters spread into the Gotland Basin...