Usha Goswami

Usha Goswami
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Psychology

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291
Publications
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Publications

Publications (291)
Article
Full-text available
All human infants acquire language, but their brains do not know which language/s to prepare for. This observation suggests that there are fundamental components of the speech signal that contribute to building a language system, and fundamental neural processing mechanisms that use these components, which are shared across languages. Equally, diso...
Article
Full-text available
According to the sensory-neural Temporal Sampling theory of developmental dyslexia, neural sampling of auditory information at slow rates (<10 Hz, related to speech rhythm) is atypical in dyslexic individuals, particularly in the delta band (0.5–4 Hz). Here we examine the underlying neural mechanisms related to atypical sampling using a simple repe...
Preprint
The amplitude envelope of speech carries crucial low-frequency acoustic information that assists linguistic decoding. The sensory-neural Temporal Sampling (TS) theory of developmental dyslexia proposes atypical encoding of speech envelope information <10 Hz, leading to atypical phonological representations. Here a backward linear TRF model and stor...
Article
Full-text available
Here we duplicate a neural tracking paradigm, previously published with infants (aged 4 to 11 months), with adult participants, in order to explore potential developmental similarities and differences in entrainment. Adults listened and watched passively as nursery rhymes were sung or chanted in infant-directed speech. Whole-head EEG (128 channels)...
Preprint
Here we report preliminary analyses of the linguistic tasks selected for the Cambridge UK BabyRhythm project, data to be made available online via OSF. BabyRhythm is a study of 122 infants as they age from 2 – 30 months, investigating cortical tracking and sensorimotor synchronisation to acoustic and visual rhythm in relation to language acquisitio...
Article
Phonological difficulties characterise individuals with dyslexia across languages. Currently debated is whether these difficulties arise from atypical neural sampling of (or entrainment to) auditory information in speech at slow rates (<10 Hz, related to speech rhythm), faster rates, or neither. MEG studies with adults suggest that atypical samplin...
Preprint
Human neurocognitive mechanisms track the acoustic temporal landmarks of the speech signal to enable comprehension. It is also well-known that adults adapt their speech when addressing children to facilitate comprehension. However, the temporal statistics of child-directed speech (CDS) have not been directly contrasted with those of adult-directed...
Preprint
The foundations for language acquisition are laid in infancy. A key feature of infant-directed speech (IDS) is that the slowest modulations of its amplitude envelope (~2 Hz) contain more energy than in adult-directed speech. These slow modulations may provide a cross-language rhythmic scaffold for the neural tracking of speech in infancy. To invest...
Article
Full-text available
Amplitude rise times play a crucial role in the perception of rhythm in speech, and reduced perceptual sensitivity to differences in rise time is related to developmental language difficulties. Amplitude rise times also play a mechanistic role in neural entrainment to the speech amplitude envelope. Using an ERP paradigm, here we examined for the fi...
Preprint
Computational models that successfully translate neural activity into speech are multiplying in the adult literature, with non-linear convolutional neural network (CNN) approaches joining the more frequently-employed linear and mutual information (MI) models. Despite the promise of these methods for uncovering the neural basis of language acquisiti...
Article
The amplitude envelope of speech carries crucial low-frequency acoustic information that assists linguistic decoding at multiple time scales. Neurophysiological signals are known to track the amplitude envelope of adult-directed speech (ADS), particularly in the theta-band. Acoustic analysis of infant-directed speech (IDS) has revealed significantl...
Article
The highest frequency for which the temporal fine structure (TFS) of a sinewave can be compared across ears varies between listeners with an upper limit of about 1400 Hz for young normal-hearing adults (YNHA). In this study, binaural TFS sensitivity was investigated for 63 typically developing children, aged 5 years, 6 months to 9 years, 4 months u...
Article
Temporally accurate perception and production of rhythmic patterns are key factors related to language development and reading acquisition. Here we investigate rhythm discrimination and rhythm production in children who are at family risk or not at family risk for dyslexia, to compare group performance in these tasks prior to the start of reading i...
Article
Currently there are no reliable means of identifying infants at-risk for later language disorders. Infant neural responses to rhythmic stimuli may offer a solution, as neural tracking of rhythm is atypical in children with developmental language disorders. However, infant brain recordings are noisy. As a first step to developing accurate neural bio...
Preprint
Impaired sensorimotor synchronisation (SMS) to acoustic rhythm may be a marker of atypical language development. Here, Motion Capture was used to assess gross motor rhythmic movement at six timepoints between five- and 11-months-of-age. Infants were recorded drumming to acoustic stimuli of varying linguistic and temporal complexity: drumbeats, repe...
Preprint
Amplitude rise times play a crucial role in the perception of rhythm in speech, and reduced perceptual sensitivity to differences in rise time is related to developmental language difficulties. Amplitude rise times also play a mechanistic role in neural entrainment to the speech amplitude envelope. Using an ERP paradigm, here we examined for the fi...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the neurocognitive predictors of response to intervention with GraphoGame Rime (GG Rime), an adaptive software game designed to aid the learning of English phonics. A cohort of 398 children (aged 6–7 years) who had participated in a recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) of GG Rime in the United Kingdom were studied. Half were...
Article
This review presents a critical appraisal of high-quality studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, focusing on design issues that are critical for establishing effective educational neuroscience. I argue that cognitive neuroscience studies of cognitive development need to respect important experimental constraints. The use of l...
Article
Visual-verbal-paired associate learning (PAL) is strongly related to reading acquisition, possibly indexing a distinct cross-modal mechanism for learning letter-sound associations. We measured linguistic abilities (nonword repetition, vocabulary size) longitudinally at 3.5 and 4.0 years, and visual-verbal PAL and letter knowledge at 4.0 and 4.5 yea...
Preprint
Full-text available
The amplitude envelope of speech carries crucial low-frequency acoustic information that assists linguistic decoding at multiple time scales. Neurophysiological signals are known to track the amplitude envelope of adult-directed speech (ADS), particularly in the theta-band. Acoustic analysis of infant-directed speech (IDS) has revealed significantl...
Article
Full-text available
Phonological difficulties characterize children with developmental dyslexia across languages, but whether impaired auditory processing underlies these phonological difficulties is debated. Here the causal question is addressed by exploring whether individual differences in sensory processing predict the development of phonological awareness in 86 E...
Preprint
Statistical learning by the human brain plays a core role in the development of cognitive systems like language and music. Both music and speech have structured inherent rhythms, however the acoustic sources of these rhythms are debated. Theoretically, rhythm structures in both systems may be related to a novel set of acoustic statistics embedded i...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we report further analysis of data drawn from a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) run in the United Kingdom designed to evaluate the efficacy of an adaptive software game to aid the learning of English phonics, GraphoGame Rime. We evaluate the efficacy of GraphoGame Rime for the “top half” of players in the RCT, children aged 6 to 7 years who...
Article
Full-text available
When mothers speak to infants at risk for developmental dyslexia, they do not hyperarticulate vowels in their infant‐directed speech (IDS). Here, we used an innovative cross‐dyad design to investigate whether the absence of vowel hyperarticulation in IDS to at‐risk infants is a product of maternal infant‐directed behavior or of infants’ parent‐dire...
Article
Children of reading age diagnosed with dyslexia show deficits in reading and spelling skills, but early markers of later dyslexia are already present in infancy in auditory processing and phonological domains. Deficits in lexical development are not typically associated with dyslexia. Nevertheless, it is possible that early auditory/phonological de...
Article
Phonological constancy refers to infants' ability to disregard variations in the phonetic realisation of speech sounds that do not indicate lexical contrast, e.g., when listening to accented speech. In typically-developing infants, this ability develops between 15- and 19-months of age, coinciding with the consolidation of infants' native phonologi...
Article
Language lies at the heart of our experience as humans and disorders of language acquisition carry severe developmental costs. Rhythmic processing lies at the heart of language acquisition. Here, I review our understanding of the perceptual and neural mechanisms that support language acquisition, from a novel amplitude modulation perspective. Ampli...
Article
Children's ability to reflect upon and manipulate the sounds in words (“phonological awareness”) develops as part of natural language acquisition, supports reading acquisition, and develops further as reading and spelling are learned. Children with developmental dyslexia typically have impairments in phonological awareness. Many developmental facto...
Article
Here we report, for the first time, a relationship between sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time in infants and their later vocabulary development. Recent research in auditory neuroscience has revealed that amplitude envelope rise time plays a mechanistic role in speech encoding. Accordingly, individual differences in infant discrimination of...
Article
Full-text available
In oral language, syntactic structure is cued in part by phrasal metrical hierarchies of acoustic stress patterns. For example, many children’s texts use prosodic phrasing comprising tightly integrated hierarchies of metre and syntax to highlight the phonological and syntactic structure of language. Children with developmental language disorders (D...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal modulation structure of speech plays a key role in neural encoding of the speech signal. Amplitude modulations (AMs, quasi-rhythmic changes in signal energy or intensity) in speech are encoded by neuronal oscillations (rhythmic variations in neural excit-ability in large cell networks) that oscillate at matching temporal rates. To date...
Data
Scatterplot of rhyme awareness and delta-theta PSI correlation. (TIF)
Data
Scatterplot of vocabulary and delta-theta PSI correlation. (TIF)
Data
Scatterplot of vocabulary and theta-beta/low gamma PSI correlation. (TIF)
Data
Scatterplot of rhyme awareness and theta-beta/low gamma PSI correlation. (TIF)
Article
Recent models of the neural encoding of speech suggest a core role for amplitude modulation (AM) structure, particularly regarding AM phase alignment. Accordingly, speech tasks that measure linguistic development in children may exhibit systematic properties regarding AM structure. Here the acoustic structure of spoken items in child phonological a...
Article
Full-text available
Recent models of the neural encoding of speech suggest a core role for amplitude modulation (AM) structure, particularly regarding AM phase alignment. Accordingly, speech tasks that measure linguistic development in children may exhibit systematic properties regarding AM structure. Here, the acoustic structure of spoken items in child phonological...
Article
Developmental dyslexia is a multifaceted disorder of learning primarily manifested by difficulties in reading, spelling, and phonological processing. Neural studies suggest that phonological difficulties may reflect impairments in fundamental cortical oscillatory mechanisms. Here we examine cortical mechanisms in children (6-12 years of age) with o...
Article
Full-text available
Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization) shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditor...
Article
Individual differences in ’phonological awareness’ or speech sound awareness between children predict reading and spelling development across languages, and children with dyslexia have impaired phonological awareness. Recent advances in our understanding of the neural basis of speech encoding suggest one possible sensory/neural basis for these indi...
Article
Full-text available
Tapping in time to a metronome beat (hereafter beat synchronization) shows considerable variability in child populations, and individual differences in beat synchronization are reliably related to reading development. Children with developmental dyslexia show impairments in beat synchronization. These impairments may reflect deficiencies in auditor...
Article
The temporal modulation structure of adult-directed speech (ADS) is thought to be encoded by neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex that fluctuate at different temporal rates. Oscillatory activity is thought to phase-align to amplitude modulations in speech at corresponding rates, thereby supporting parsing of the signal into linguistically r...
Article
The temporal modulation structure of adult-directed speech (ADS) is thought to be encoded by neuronal oscillations in the auditory cortex that fluctuate at different temporal rates. Oscillatory activity is thought to phase-align to amplitude modulations in speech at corresponding rates, thereby supporting parsing of the signal into linguistically r...
Article
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt...
Article
Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder manifested in deficits in reading and spelling skills that is consistently associated with difficulties in phonological processing. Dyslexia is genetically transmitted, but its manifestation in a particular individual is thought to depend on the interaction of epigenetic and environmental factors. We adopt...
Article
In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers? assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in t...
Article
Full-text available
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this ‘phonological deficit’ in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in sh...
Article
Full-text available
In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers’ assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in t...
Article
Full-text available
Over 30 years ago, it was suggested that difficulties in the 'auditory organization' of word forms in the mental lexicon might cause reading difficulties. It was proposed that children used parameters such as rhyme and alliteration to organize word forms in the mental lexicon by acoustic similarity, and that such organization was impaired in develo...
Article
Full-text available
Phase entrainment of neuronal oscillations is thought to play a central role in encoding speech. Children with developmental dyslexia show impaired phonological processing of speech, proposed theoretically to be related to atypical phase entrainment to slower temporal modulations in speech (< 10Hz). While studies of children with dyslexia have foun...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia is consistently associated with difficulties in processing phonology (linguistic sound structure) across languages. One view is that dyslexia is characterised by a cognitive impairment in the ‘‘phonological representation” of word forms, which arises long before the child presents with a reading problem. Here we investigate a...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental dyslexia is consistently associated with difficulties in processing phonology (linguistic sound structure) across languages. One view is that dyslexia is characterised by a cognitive impairment in the ''phonological representation " of word forms, which arises long before the child presents with a reading problem. Here we investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children's processing of slow (<4 Hz) versus faster (∼33 Hz) temporal modulations in speech. We compare groups of children with either developmental dyslexia (Experiment 1) or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2) to groups of typically-developing (TD) children age-matched to each...
Article
Full-text available
Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The tra...
Article
Full-text available
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterised by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this “phonological deficit” in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in sh...
Article
Full-text available
Children with specific language impairments (SLIs) show impaired perception and production of language, and also show impairments in perceiving auditory cues to rhythm [amplitude rise time (ART) and sound duration] and in tapping to a rhythmic beat. Here we explore potential links between language development and rhythm perception in 45 children wi...
Article
Full-text available
When acquiring language, young children may use acoustic spectro-temporal patterns in speech to derive phonological units in spoken language (e.g., prosodic stress patterns, syllables, phonemes). Children appear to learn acoustic-phonological mappings rapidly, without direct instruction, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms remain unclear. A...
Data
Root-mean-square (RMS) power and cross-correlation across spectral channels. (DOCX)
Data
CDS Corpus 1 metadata, stimulus description & acoustic parameters. (DOCX)
Data
Individual speakers' rectified loading patterns for the spectral PCA. (DOCX)
Data
Results of PCA analyses with other speech corpora (CDS and ADS). (DOCX)
Data
Detailed breakdown of S-AMPH performance at each phonological level. (DOCX)
Data
S-AMPH Matlab code and functions. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
La neurociencia podría transformar la educación, pues proporciona nuevos métodos para comprender el aprendizaje y el desarrollo cognitivo, sus mecanismos causales y una forma empírica de evaluar la eficacia de diferentes pedagogías. No obstante, éste sería un objetivo a largo plazo. Desde la neurociencia educativa se debería empezar estudiando cómo...
Article
Children with specific language impairments (SLIs) show impaired perception and production of language, and also show impairments in perceiving auditory cues to rhythm (amplitude rise time [ART] and sound duration) and in tapping to a rhythmic beat. Here we explore potential links between language development and rhythm perception in 45 children wi...
Article
Full-text available
When acquiring language, young children may use acoustic spectro-temporal patterns in speech to derive phonological units in spoken language (e.g., prosodic stress patterns, syllables, phonemes). Children appear to learn acoustic-phonological mappings rapidly, without direct instruction, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms remain unclear. A...
Article
Full-text available
Children with specific language impairments (SLIs) show impaired perception and production of spoken language, and can also present with motor, auditory, and phonological difficulties. Recent auditory studies have shown impaired sensitivity to amplitude rise time (ART) in children with SLIs, along with non-speech rhythmic timing difficulties. Lingu...
Article
We investigate whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in children with spe...
Chapter
Children with developmental dyslexia have specific problems with reading and spelling. These problems have no apparent environmental or neurological cause, and are thought to be due to difficulties in the accurate specification and neural representation of the sound structure of speech. The normal development of lexical representation across langua...
Article
Purpose: We investigate whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in children...
Article
Full-text available
This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Oxford University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu296