Umit Sayin currently works at the Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University. H. Ümit Sayin, who is particularly specialized on neuro -psycho pharmacology and neuroscience, received his M.D. degree from İstanbul Medical Faculty in 1987, Pharmacology degree from Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty in 1993, and did his postdoctoral work on Neuroscience at the Neurology Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA (1994-1996). He has worked on cellular electrophysiology, electrophysiology of learning and LTP, experimental models of epilepsy, kindling and animal behavior, voltage and current clamp techniques, microdialysis and psychopharmacology, experimental psychology, human sexuality at various Universities, such as University of Newfoundland (Canada, 1989-1990), Oxford University (U
Skills and Expertise
Research Items (88)
Hedonism and pleasure are one of the main goals of human life. Pleasure can be accepted as a reward for the brain, while the major reward neurotransmitters are dopamine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and gluta-mate. Boost of dopamine in the "hedonic hot spots" creates euphoria, delight, pleasure, contentment and is associated with happiness. The reward circuitry and pleasure centers in the brain involve the ventral teg-mental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NA), substantia nigra (SN), ventral pallidum, insula, lateral thala-mus, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. Pleasure is a learned enjoyable phenomenon and pursuing the pleasure principle is one of the crucial goals of human life. However, to some extent of pleasure, due to the release of dopamine and glutamate and the activation of D1-like excitatory dopamine receptors and NMDA receptors, may induce different forms of psychological addiction. Sexual motivation, sexual drive and orgasm also use the same reward circuitry and similar neuro-chemicals in the brain. The experience of "getting high on dopamine" has been one of the primary longstanding goals for human beings, as well as for other higher primates and animals during the normal course of evolution. Today, it is known that pleasure and sexual hedonism may even alter synaptic plasticity , and may influence a variety of psychological responses and the personality of individuals, as Sigmund Freud had pointed out a century ago.
A Multidisciplinary Academic Journal Published Quarterly by CİSEATED-ASEHERT • www.ciseated.org • www.sexusjournal.com • Abstract: American Psychiatric Association (APA) revised and updated the DSM-IV into DSM-5 in 2013; DSM-6 is said to be on the way. DSM Manual is globally used for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. In 2013 APA was about to define a new psychiatric disorder, entitled as "Hypersexual Disorder" (HD); however, many criteria defined by Martin P. Kafka for the proposal were unclear, ambiguous and questionable, which was criticized by psychiatrists and medical doctors fiercely. APA dropped the proposal. In this article, we reassess the female perspectives of the HD and question whether such a new disorder is necessary. Norms of sexual behavior changes from culture to culture; "normal" is very difficult to define in sexual research, while many aspects of female sexuality has not been unraveled yet. Great extent of research and surveys should be realized before defining "what is pathological?" and "what is hypersexual disorder?" Otherwise, healthy women can easily be misdiagnosed as HD.
A Multidisciplinary Academic Journal Published Quarterly by CİSEATED-ASEHERT • www.ciseated.org • www.sexusjournal.com • Abstract: American Psychiatric Association (APA) revised and updated the DSM-IV into DSM-5 in 2013; DSM-6 is said to be on the way. DSM Manual is globally used for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. In 2013 APA was about to define a new psychiatric disorder, entitled as "Hypersexual Disorder" (HD); however, many criteria defined by Martin P. Kafka for the proposal were unclear, ambiguous and questionable, which was criticized by psychiatrists and medical doctors fiercely. APA dropped the proposal. In this article, we reassess the female perspectives of the HD and question whether such a new disorder is necessary. Norms of sexual behavior changes from culture to culture; "normal" is very difficult to define in sexual research, while many aspects of female sexuality has not been unraveled yet. Great extent of research and surveys should be realized before defining "what is pathological?" and "what is hypersexual disorder?" Otherwise, healthy women can easily be misdiagnosed as HD.
- Umit Sayin
- Carlos Schenck
Pleasure is a mental and emotional state that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, satisfying, giving joy and happiness or worth seeking. It may include other mind states such as happiness, entertainment, enjoyment, ecstasy, and euphoria, with peak experiences. According to the "incentive salience model" pleasure has three components: "wanting and motivation", "learning" and "liking-pleasure". Different brain regions cooperatively work together for each of these constituents. Since most of the data to establish this model came from animal studies, for human beings a more profound and complex model needs to be established. During the onset of pleasure or sensuality, dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) fire and their projections to the nucleus accumbens (NA) release dopamine which participates in the complex psychological processes of learning and liking. Similar episodes occur during the onset of sexual pleasure and human orgasm. Some complex human phenomena, such as passionate love or expanded orgasms, can be regarded as peak experiences, which the animal kingdom does not seem to experience. During passionate love, for instance, the release of some neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, oxytocin, and norepinephrine, is enhanced, while serotonin levels drop; in some fMRI studies, it is shown that some brain regions and "hedonic hot spots" are activated. During the female orgasm, VTA, NA, anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus are activated. In this article neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical components of pleasure, love, motivation and orgasm, which lead to impressive behavioral changes, are discussed. Also, the phenomenon of experiencing sexual pleasure during the sleep found with the parasomnia "Sexsomnia" and also "Epileptic Sexsomnia", both for the affected person and the bed partner will be discussed, with further research encouraged on this intriguing new clinical and clinical research area.
Pleasure principal" is one of the most important driving forces of the human psyche. Kinds of pleasure in human beings include various satisfactions, such as food intake for the survival, satisfaction of the ego and higher cortical cognitive functions, sexual satisfaction and orgasm, satisfaction of basic physiological needs and peak experiences, such as love, satori-like experiences, and some mystical-like experiences. Pleasure phenomenon has some neural correlates, circuitries and neurotransmitter systems involved. Some pleasure centers have been defined in both animals and humans, such as ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NA), prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, insula, while amygdala, hippocampus and some structures of the temporal lobe may have an auxiliary role. Mainly neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and oxytocin (OXT) are the mediators of pleasure experiences in humans. During love, sexual pleasure and orgasm, those hedonic hot spots are activated, as also shown by fMRI techniques. Recently it was proposed that sexual pleasure can be expanded and there were reports on expanded orgasms (EO or ESR). Also, some researchers have reported that there are erogenous zones other than clitoris, while some non-genital orgasms have also been reported. Pudental, pelvic, hypogastric nerves and vagus control the orgasmic reflex in females. OXT, which is also a pleasure molecule, just like DA, also has some separate pleasure pathways. The limits and extents of female pleasure and orgasms have not been investigated thoroughly until recently. One of the extremes of female pleasures, ESR, has some specific neurological mechanisms which can be explained by using current data on female sexuality. There are different types of female orgasms: clitoral, vaginal, blended orgasms, EO and status orgasmus, which are still debated in the academic circles. This review discusses the possible neurological and neuropharmacological mechanisms of EO and ESR, using the informatics theory, as well.
Abuse of methamphetamine, cocaine and morphine is an increasing global problem. According to 2018 UNODOC report between 2012 and 2016, 151 millions of people used cannabis; 146 millions of people consumed cocaine; 275 millions of people used opioids and opiates; 131 millions of people consumed amphetamines. According to another Global Drug Survey-2017, the figures of addiction may be much worse than the expected. People use cocaine and amphetamines because these drugs increase the dopamine release in ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NA) and prefrontal cortex, brain regions which take part in the reward-pleasure circuitry. They also play major roles in the development of addiction. In the review the mechanism of action of amphetamines, cocaine and morphine are explained in a very clean schematic way; explaining why people get addicted to these drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine "high." Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation. Acute administration of amphetamine induces phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and expression of a number of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-fos. The IEGs is likely to initiate downstream molecular events, which may have important roles in the induction and maintenance of addictive states. Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term adaptive changes in the brain. Morphine can cause indirect excitation of VTA dopamine neurons by reducing inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABAergic neurons. The chronic use of morphine is characterized by adaptive changes in neurons and neuronal communication; such adaptations (e.g., 'super-activation' of adenylyl cyclase) must underlie altered behaviour associated with morphine dependence and withdrawal syndrome, as well as drug-induced craving and relapse to drug use.
Id, ego and superego are three abstract compartments of the human psyche according to the schools of psychoanalysis, established by Freud. Although these are abstract notions, today we have the neuroscientific basis of knowledge for defining them in terms of neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology. Hedonic hot spots or pleasure centers in the limbic system have been identified. Some of them are ventral tegmental are (VTA) cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), insula, nucleus accumbens (NA), amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Actually, there are regions in the brain where the functions of the id arise, mostly in the limbic system. Libido and pleasure principle have the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological correlates in the brain. During pleasure, passionate love, extreme pleasure, peak experiences, orgasms or prolonged orgasms, these areas are activated; some neurotransmitters such as dopamine, oxytocin, glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, endogenous opioids, serotonin and the hormones testosterone and vasopressin mediate the neurotransmission of pleasure and love, which is a peak experience of the id. The reward-pleasure circuitry, which plays important roles in the development of psychological dependence and addiction is also involved in the mechanisms of these functions. Nearly 5000 dopaminergic neurons originating from VTA projecting to NA and PFC control most of the pleasure reactions, which may have great impacts on synaptic plasticity, learning, habituation and influence the components of the human psyche and eventually the personality. Dopaminergic projections of VTA may have as many as 25 x 10 8 synaptic connections at the targets, which can carry 92 gigabytes of "pleasure information". The brain has much more information processing capacity than we can imagine. Dopamine and oxytocin are the major "pleasure, orgasm and happiness" neurotransmitters which the id uses to mediate and perform its discrete functions of the nature, while "the pleasure principle" is inevitable, unbeatable and indispensable. When superego counteracts with these functions, psychological disturbances may arise. The centers of ego and superego are probably the cortical and associative areas, particularly frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. This review is a neuro-scientific summary of what happens in the brain when the id prevails the superego.
İçindekiler Önsöz 1-Cinsellik Nedir? 2-Cinsel Beyin-Cinsel Zihin 3-Cinsel Zihinde Beynin Nöroanatomisi, Nörofizyolojisi, Psiko-Farmakolojisi, Nöro-Kimyası 4-Cinsel Beynin, Hazzın ve Orgazmın Nörobilimi 5-Duygusal Zeka (EQ) ve Cinsel Zeka (SQ) 6-Cinsel Nesneler; Cinsel Haz Nesneleri: Normal Nedir? Anormal Nedir? 7-Kendi Cinsel Beyninizi Keşfedin! Cinsel Beyin ve Cinsel Zekanızı Geliştirin! Yazar Hakkında Bilgi Referanslar Çıkmış ve Çıkacak Kitaplar Duygusal Zeka Testinin Anahtarı Tanıtımlar-CİSEATED Eğitimleri CİNSEL BEYİN ve CİNSEL ZİHİN, Türkiye’de ve Türkçe’de pek işlenmemiş kavramlardır. Bu kitap bu konuda yazılan ilk kitaplardan birisidir. Cinsel Beyin, bir bütün olarak beynin nasıl cinselliği etki-lediğini, cinselliğin beyin kökenli fizyolojisini anlatan bir konudur. Cinsel Zihin (Sexual Mind) ise cinselliğin gelişmesinde insan psi-kolojisinin, zihnin dinamiğinin, içgüdülerin, bilinçdışının nasıl geliştiğini araştırır. Aslında kitabın temel konusu, hem cinsel beyin, hem de cinsel zihindir. Cinsel Beynin çalışma prensiplerinin çoğu bugünkü tıp ve fizyoloji tarafından bilinmektedir. Cinsel Beyin’de metafizik olgu-lara yer yoktur. Ruha veya ölçülemeyen ne olduğu belirsiz enerjilere yer yoktur. Cinsel beynin sinir sistemi, ölçülebilen ve ne olduğu bilinen moleküler olaylarla çalışır. Kullandığı enerji ise ATP’dir; hiçbir metafizik enerji yoktur. Beyin ve sinirler biyoelektrik potan-siyeller olan aksiyon potansiyelleri sayesinde haberleşir, bilgiyi saklar. Bunun gerçekleşmesi için ise oksijen ve glikozun varlığına ihtiyaç vardır; oksijen ve glikozun olmadığı yerde bilinç ve düşünce, hafıza olamaz. Bu konuda kitabın bir bölümünden kısa bir alıntı yapmakta fayda vardır: … “Görebileceğiniz gibi aşk, cinsel uyarım, libido, orgazm, hor-monlar konusunda pek çok bilimsel gerçek açığa çıkmıştır. Bunların hiç birisi metafizik olgular değillerdir! Bilinç, beyin, hafıza, haz, çoşku, dü-şünce, ekstaz halleri, çeşitli farklı orgazmlar, cinsel haz hepsi biyoelektrisel potansiyellere, hormonlara ve nörotransmitterlere bağlıdır. Ama bu bilgiye ulaşamayan ve özümsemeyen “sokaktaki insan” bu olguları hep ne olduğunu kendisinin bile hayalinde canlandıramadığı CHAKRA’lara, Kundalini enerjisine, 3000 yıl önceki “kadim” dediği tutarsız ve bilim dışı teorilere bağlamaktadırlar. Bu bilgiler üç sayfalık bir “kişisel gelişim merkezi” broşürüyle açıklanmaktadır; öğrenmek kolaydır, akılda tutmak kolaydır, insanları kandırmak kolaydır! Ama gerçek bilginin arkasındaki milyonlarca sayfalık tıp araş-tırmaları ve tıp bilgisi “sokaktaki adam ve onu kandıran kişisel gelişimci-ler” veya “Tantracılar” tarafından göz ardı edilmekte ve sadece para kazanma amaçlı şarlatanlık planları sıradan halkı kandırmak ve soymak için kullanılmaktır. Her workshopta söylediğim bir gerçek vardır: “ Tıp olmadan, Cinsel Terapi olmaz! Tıp olmadan, Tantra olmaz! Herkes, düzeyini ve seviyesini bilecek…” İçinde yaşadığımız Post Modern Delilik Çağında, herkes şarlatan terapist, sağaltıcı ve eğitmen olmuştur, ne yazık ki! Tantracılar, cinsel terapistler, psikologlar, kişisel gelişimciler arasında o kadar çok şarlatan mevcuttur ki! Son olarak Amerika’da satılamayan Koçluk, Kuantum Koçluğu, yaşam koçluğu gibi eğitimler Türkiye’de pek çok alıcı bulmaktadır. Haya-tında tek psikoloji veya tıp kitabı okumamış kişiler neyin Koçluğundan (COACH) bahsetmektedirler? Ama artık Türkiye’de üç kelime uzak doğu felsefesi, birkaç kelime Chakra, Kundalini gibi lakırdılar edenler, üç sayfa-lık broşür bilgileriyle halka sağaltım dağıtmakta ve Tantra ve cinsel da-nışmanlık konusunda uzman kesilmektedirler!” Birkaç haftalık eğitimle 5-6 bin TL bastırıp koç olanlar mı ararsınız? Koç kelimesinin önüne, ne anlama geldiğini kendisinin de bilmediği Kuantum kelimesini ekleyenler mi ararsınız? Birkaç haftada metafizik reiki sağaltıcısı, reiki master olanlar mı ararsınız? Kendi egosunu ve narsizmini tatmin etmek isteyen bir sürü psikotik deli mi ararsınız? Herkes piyasada üç kuruşluk ve beş sayfalık bilgileriyle hekimlik yapmaktadır. Bu aslında 2000’li yılların başından beri Türkiye’deki toplum mühendisliğiyle değiştirilen ve ruhani, metafizik olgulara aşırı değer veren sistemin ve inançlar topluluğunun bir ürünü ve yansımasıdır! Türkiye 2000’lerden sonra toplum olarak delirtilmiştir. Evet! Delirtilmiş, hasta, şizofre-nik ve psikotik bir toplumda yaşıyoruz. Bu hasta toplumun ne yazık ki cinselliği de ağır biçimde hasta ve psikotiktir! Bu kitap ise size gerçekleri anlatmaktadır! Saf bilimsel gerçekleri! Beyninizin, cinsel beyninizin, cinsel zihninizin nasıl çalıştığını binlerce referansa dayandırarak size sunmaktadır. Uma-rız, gerçeklere gözlerinizi kapamazsınız!
Pleasure principal" is one of the most important driving forces of the human psyche. Pleasures in human beings include various satisfactions, such as food intake for the survival, satisfaction of the ego and higher cortical cognitive functions, sexual satisfaction and orgasm, satisfaction of basic physiological needs. Female orgasm, which does not happen in other animal species (other than maybe one or two higher primates), is one of the most intriguing phenomena in female psychology. Female orgasm and female 'peak experiences' are well documented in the ancient historical literature of the Far East and India. In Tantra and also in Taoist philosophy, for centuries, prolonging the sexual pleasure of the women was regarded as an essential approach; old Chinese Taoist prescription for male sexuality was also defending males to prolong intercourse for a couple of hours, while, according to Chinese medicine men, losing semen was a bad habit or losing the yang energy. As described by Masters and Johnson, some women can attain an orgasmic state which may last for 43 seconds, coined as status orgasmus. The highest orgasm number recorded in medical literature is 134 orgasms per hour. ESR is a recently defined novel phenomenon, although it is very ancient. ESR was defined as: "being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature". Status orgasmus are the continuous form of blended orgasms and/or clitoral/vaginal orgasms that last for starting from 1 to 15 minutes (or more). During status orgasmus a continuous orgasmic state is experienced and very few women are believed to achieve status orgasmus state, e.g. less than 1% of the whole female population. Nearly 10% to 15% of the women population has the capacity to develop ESR and prolonged orgasms. ESR is also a learned and developed phenomenon. Some non-ESR women can also develop ESR after certain trainings. Tantric and Taoist techniques are one of the training methods. ESR can also be measured by means of a psychometric ESR scale developed by Dr. Ümit Sayin.
A Multidisciplinary Academic Journal Published Quarterly by CİSEATED-ASEHERT • www.ciseated.org • www.sexusjournal.com • Abstract: Constructing a System Theory (ST) is a method to establish a logical, mathematical, self-consistent, self-existing, coherent model to explain the interactions of the elements, functions and development of a closed or open system. System Theory (ST) is very important to define, organize, evaluate, control, regulate the systems and form mathematical models in a set of elements of that particular system. General Systems Theory (GST) is a name which has been adopted to describe a level of theoretical model-building which lies somewhere between the highly generalized constructions of pure mathematics & logic and the specific theories of the specialized disciplines. An ST can be universal, perfect, imperfect or defective; while the defective STs cannot survive. GST is a series of related definitions, assumptions, and postulates about all levels of systems from atomic particles through atoms, molecules, crystals, viruses, cells, organs, individuals , small groups, companies, societies, planets, solar systems, and galaxies. General Behavior ST is a sub-category of such a theory, dealing with living systems, extending roughly from viruses through societies. A significant fact about living things is that they are open systems, with important inputs and outputs. Laws which apply to them differ from those applying to relatively closed systems. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of ST, described two types of systems: open systems and closed systems. The open systems are systems that allow interactions between its internal elements and the environment. An open system, like space, is defined as a "system in exchange of matter and energy with its environment, presenting import and export, building-up and breaking-down of its material components." Closed systems, on the other hand, are held to be isolated from their environment. Also Sex Therapy and other therapies should regard the gestalt of the system as a holistic approach. Nowadays Systemic Sex Therapy is prevailing.
A Multidisciplinary Academic Journal Published Quarterly by CİSEATED-ASEHERT • www.ciseated.org • www.sexusjournal.com • Abstract: A short overview and summary of sexual behavior of Turkish women in Turkey is briefly given with some survey statistics, which were realized in 1993, 2003, and 2013. Also a short view of women rights problems is summarized. In Turkey, which is a secular and democratic republic, the social classes and sexual behavior of women differ so much. It is difficult to make a survey in homogenous groups. The preliminary results presented in this short report are from a target group of middle class, educated, secular and liberated women.
Abstract: In DSM-V (2013), a new sexual disorder will be defined as “Hypersexual Disorder” in the human female, described by Martin P. Kafka and APA , according a new scale called HDSI (Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory). However, lately there have been very fierce debates about the validity of HDSI in the academic circles . Recent publications on human female sexuality point out that sexual response can be enhanced and expanded in the human female (Taylor, 2002 ; Rhodes and Brauers, 1991 ; Komisaruk, Beyer-Flores, Whipple, 2006 ; Sayin 2010, 2011, 2012 ). This phenomenon has been coined as “Expanded Sexual Response” (ESR) in the human female. In the internet surveys of Winters and ours , 21.5 to 29 % of women, some of which may have developed ESR, may be misdiagnosed as Hypersexual Disorder, after the validation of HDSI in DSM-V. Our various surveys and internet communications, which are still continuing, have revealed that, ESR phenomenon exists in the human female. Definition of ESR: Being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature . We have investigated cases of more than 50 women who claimed to have ESR, and a control group of women who do not have ESR (NESR). The analyzed data of 35 ESR women is presented here, and the study is still continuing, some figures and percentages may change. It is concluded that some aspects of the sexual response of women with ESR were different than the women without ESR (none-ESR, NESR): 1) The ESR women experienced vaginal, clitoral and blended orgasms, as described by Ladas, Whipple and Perry . 2) The ESR women experienced multiple orgasms in most of their sexual activities. 3) The ESR women were able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms that lasted longer than the classical single orgasm and/multiple orgasm patterns defined in the literature. 4) The ESR women claimed to have strong pelvic floor muscles (PFM) compared to NESR women. 5) The libido of ESR women was very high compared to NESR women. 6) ESR women described a phenomenon called G-Spot orgasms. 7) ESR women described sensitive erogenous zones (DVZ: Deep Vaginal Erogenous Zones) in their genitalia other than glans clitoris. 8) ESR women masturbated very frequently. 9) ESR women had erotic fantasies more frequently than the NESR women. 10) ESR women admitted to have a form of altered states of consciousness during some of their prolonged orgasms . Conclusion: We have concluded that the extents and limits of female sexual response, including ESR phenomenon in women, should be investigated thoroughly before deriving any conclusions that may lead to ambiguous pathological diagnosis patterns by certain classifications such as DSM-V. KEY WORDS: ESR, Expanded Orgasm, Hypersexual Disorder,
- Apr 2018
- VIII. ULUSLARARASI AFYONKARAHİSAR ARAŞTIRMALARI SEMPOZYUMU
A Multidisciplinary Journal Published Quarterly by CİSEATED-ASEHERT • www.ciseated.org • www.sexusjournal.com • 413 ISSN 2536-5185 (web) Abstract: Altered states of consciousness induced by hallucinogens (H-ASC) is still a vaguely understood phenomenon. Taken the diverse psychological effects they exert, the main mechanism of action of hallucinogens; LSD, ibogaine, THC, PCP, MDMA, methamphet-amine, mescaline, psilocybin and DMT, of which psychological effects are discussed in the article, are not properly understood and explained by the modern methods of neuroscience due to the lack of vigorous research. The involvement of some receptors, such as, 5-HT2 (and probably other 5-HT receptors), glutamate and dopamine receptors, adrenergic and cannabinoid receptors, is one of the mechanisms, however it is not easy to explain such incongruent psychological effects by only receptor and neuro-transmitter systems alone, since H-ASCs have, sometimes, their own unity and gestalt, unfolding the subconscious, in the "voyages" they induce, although the perception may, or may not, be distorted depending on the person, and "set and setting". They induce visual, tactile and auditory hallucinations; synesthesia; perception of fractals, geometrical and kaleidoscopic images with vivid colors; perception of two dimensional pictures as three dimensional, animated and moving; distortions and alterations in the body perception; alterations in the perceptions of temporal-spatial continuum and time; changes in the perception of the ego and the self; feelings of unification with nature and universe, peak experiences-mimicking satori or nirvana-, ecstasy, rapture, extreme euphoria, excitement and happiness, oceanic bliss, self-fulfillment, referred as "good trip", as well as, dyspho-ria, anxiety, mania, delirium, psychosis, acute schizophrenia, collapse of the self, known as "bad trip"; depending upon the mood, affection and psychology of the person, and "set and setting". Mysticomimetic effects of H-ASCs, imitate the consciousness states of ancient mystics, probably, by means of activating prefrontal cortex, limbic system and the right temporal lobe. A hypothetical "holographic brain theory" may give some extra insights about the explanation of some of the effects of H-ASCs. It should be taken into account that H-ASCs, can be accepted as a good tool to investigate the nature of consciousness, brain and the human psyche, as well as some of the H-ASCs are good models of psychosis, too. Also in some peak experiences, such as ESR H-ASC like effects are defined during intense and prolonged orgasms. More detailed scientific research should be performed to understand the basic and real mechanisms of H-ASCs, to comprehend and unravel the mystery of human mind and consciousness , since scientific medical research on hallucinogens has been legalized since 1992.
içindekiler 1. Giriş ve Önsöz 2. Cinsel Araştırmaların Kısa Tarihçesi ve ESR 3. Kadınlarda Eski ve Yeni Cinsel Anatomi-Fizyoloji, Yeni Erojen Bölgeler 4. Kadınlarda Uyarılmanın ve Orgazmın Nörolojik Kontrolü ve ESR 5. Kadınlarda Cinsel Uyarılmanın, Orgazmın ve ESR’nin Nörokimyası 6. Kadınlarda Artırılmış Cinsel Doyum (ESR) ve PC-Kas Ağı 7. Artırılmış Cinsel Doyum (ESR): Temel Tanımlar 8. Kadınlarda Orgazm, ESR ve Farklı Bilinç Halleri 9. Kadınlarda Artırılmış Cinsel Doyum (ESR) Nasıl Sağlanır? 10. Uzakdoğu Cinselliği, Tantra, Taoculuk ve ESR 11. Kadın Orgazmlarının ve ESR’nin Geleceği 12. Sonsöz ve Özet 13. Kaynakça ve Referanslar 14. Tanıtımlar
Giriş ve Önsöz Kadın Orgazmının Tarihçesi Kadınlarda Orgazm Araştırmaları Kadınlarda Orgazmın Temel Fizyolojisi Kadınlarda Orgazmı Güçlendiren ve Bloke Eden Faktörler Kadınlarda Orgazm Çeşitleri Kadın Orgazmının ve Aşkın Nörobiyolojisi Kadın Cinselliği ve Hormonlar Bazı Kadınlarda Ultra Orgazm: ESR Kadınların Orgazmlarında Ekstremler: Yaşanmış Deneyimler Kadınlarda Uyarılma ve Orgazm Bozuklukları ve Anorgazmi Tedavisi Kadınlarda Haz ve Orgazm Odaklı Vajinismus Tedavisi Kadınlarda Nemfomani, Cinsel Bağımlılık, Patolojik Hiperseksüelite, Parafililer ve Tedavisi Kadın Cinselliğini ve Orgazmlarını Geliştirmek Ders Kitabı için Sınav Soruları Kaynakça Yazar hakkında bilgi Tanıtımlar
Psychoactive plants have been consumed by many cultures, cults and groups during religious rituals and ceremonies for centuries and they have been influential on the eruption of many images, secret and religious symbols, esoteric geometrical shapes, archetypes, religious figures, and philosophy of religions since the dawn of Homo sapiens. Some of the psychoactive plants used for religious purposes were: narcotic analgesics (opium), THC (cannabis), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline (peyote), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga), DMT (Ayahuasca and Phalaris species), Peganum har-mala, bufotenin, muscimol (Amanita muscaria), Thujone (absinthe, Arthemisia absinthium), ephedra, mandragora, star lotus, Salvia divinorum etc. An important property of these natural chemicals is to induce the human psyche to perceive optical forms and shapes that are existent in the subconscious and presumed collective unconsciousness, and which emerge during certain trance states and ASCs (altered states of consciousness). Some of these simple geometric forms are called entoptic images and phosphenes. Entopic images and phosphenes have been found in various cultural works of art and in the drawings on cave walls, which were formed during shamanic religious rituals since Neolithic times. Also entoptic images exist in many folkloric, traditional and cultural geometrical shapes. Long before the creation of languages , visual perception and information were the only source for mankind, alone of the primates, to perceive the outer world. This article reviews the possibility of an ancient forgotten language of visual signs and symbols, which is genetically existent in the human brain and emerges during ASCs, trance states, and consciousness altered by psychoac-tive plants. The basics of this geometrical sign and symbol language may have generated the formation of certain arche-typal symbols and concepts, which are yet to be discovered. Associated with this, the emergence of many attributes of the sub-or unconscious, during these "psychedelic plant journeys" had a prodigious impact on the formation and creation of many so-called religious "figures, characters, creatures, and archetypal images" that today exist, not only in mythology, but also in many religions, as well as such figures as angels, spirits, Jinns, demons, Satan, mythological creatures , supra-natural creatures, gods, and goddesses. Mystical and religious experiences during the rituals using psycho-active plants may have also facilitated the archaic ancestral information, presumably coded in the limbic system, to surface into consciousness, which may also have aided the evolution of the hominoids and Homo sapiens.
Abstract: Psychoactive plants which contain hallucinogenic molecules that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (H-ASC) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout the centuries, while the consumption of these plants for spiritual and religious purposes is as old as human history. Some of those cultures were shaman and pagan subcultures; African native religions; Bwiti Cult; South American native religions; Amazon Cultures; Central American Cultures; Mexican subcultures; Aztec, Maya and Inca; Wiccan and witch subcultures; Satanists; American Indians; Greek and Hellenistic cultures; Sufis; Hassan Sabbah’s Hashisins; Hindu, Indian and Tibetan cultures; some of the Nordic subcultures etc. Some of the psychoactive ingredients of the plants that were used during these religious rituals were; narcotic analgesics (opium), THC (cannabis), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline (peyote), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga), DMT (Ayahuasca and phalaris species), Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol (Amanita muscaria), thujone (absinthe, Arthemisia absinthium), ephedra, mandragora, star lotus, Salvia divinorum etc. The main purposes of the practice of these plants were: spiritual healing; to contact with spirits; to contact with the souls of ancestors; to reach enlightenment (Nirvana or Satori); to become a master shaman, pagan or witch; to reach so-called-other realities, etc. Such “psychedelic-philosophical plant rituals” changed participating persons’ psychology, philosophy and personality to a great degree. In these two successive articles, the consumption of psychedelic plants during religious rituals is reviewed and it is hypothesized that the images, figures, illusions and hallucinations experienced during these “plant trips” had a great impact on the formation and creation of many figures, characters, creatures, archetype images that exist not only in the mythology, but also in many religions, as well, such as angels, demons, Satan, mythological creatures, gods, goddesses etc. In the Middle East and Anatolia, within many hermetic and pagan religions, Greek and Hellenic cultures psychoactive plant use was a serious part of the religious rituals, such as Dionysian rituals or Witch’s’ Sabbaths. Although the impact of the “psychedelic experience and imagination” was enormous to the configuration of many religious and mythological characters, and archetypes, this fact has been underestimated and even unnoticed by many historians and anthropologists, because of the quasi-ethical trends of “anti-drug-brain-washed Western Societies”. Today, it may be perceived as very disturbing for many believers that their belief systems and religious figures are actually just a result of the imaginations of the “human brain and psyche”, which were very elevated and altered by psychedelic plants that are totally banned today. What those chemicals did in the brain was actually induce the consciousness to recognize the inner self, to unravel the subconscious and the collective unconscious, to open some of the doors of perception, to disentangle entoptic images and perhaps explicate some unknown functions of the brain and the human psyche which may have many other means to contact other –hypothetical— realities! Since the research on the psychedelic nature of the brain will unravel many facts about the consciousness of the brain and human psyche, we invite the authorities again to ponder deeply the banning of research on psychoactive plants and psychedelic drugs! KEY WORDS: psychoactive plant, entoptic, phosphene, religious ritual, opium, THC, Cannabis, DMT, ayahuasca, Peganum harmala, phalaris, magic mushroom, psilocybin, peyote, mescaline, ibogaine, thujone, Arthemisia absinthium, Salvia divinorum, Dionysian ritual, mandragora SexuS Journal ● 2017 ● 2 (5): 201-236
Abstract: Although there are many forms of female orgasms described in the literature, there are still debates about the female orgasmic response and no unified theory to explain those orgasmic reflexes and sexual responses have been proposed. Also, there are inconsistent reports and comments about the ‘vaginal versus clitoral orgasm controversy’. Recently, a novel form of female orgasms has been coined as “Expanded Sexual Response” (ESR), and defined as: “being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature”. Expanded orgasms induce a different state of consciousness, or “orgasmic consciousness”, whereas many forms of altered states of consciousness (ASC) can be observed. There are lots of reports, coming from the data accumulated during last decades on the female orgasm and orgasmic consciousness, which confirms the fact that “clitoral and vaginal orgasms are two separate entities”, while their unification may induce a stronger and intense form of female orgasm, coined as “blended orgasm”. As we have hypothesized in our other publications, at least six orgasmic reflex pathways may take part in the development of single or multiple clitoral, vaginal, blended orgasms, and expanded, enhanced, prolonged ESR orgasms. Pudental, pelvic, hypogastric and vagus nerves play major roles in the development of single or ESR orgasms, as well as at least two oxytocin pathways may contribute to it. In blended, ESR orgasms and/or status orgasmus, more than one ‘orgasm reflex arch pathway’ may trigger the orgasm at the same time, while other pathways play a supplementary role. We have investigated the ESR phenomenon using a specific ESR-Scale in a series of surveys among ESR-women, compared to the control groups and defined the main characteristics of ESR phenomenon in the human female. ESR women seem to have higher libido, higher masturbation frequency, more erotic fantasies, stronger and more intense, prolonged orgasms or expanded orgasms (EO); while they experience multiple clitoral, vaginal and blended orgasms separately, as well as status orgasmus. Also ESR women are more aware of their bodies and their deep vaginal erogenous zones (DVZs), which comprises inner clitoris, G-Spot, A-Spot, O-Spot, PC-Muscles and Cervix. “Four nerve-six pathway theory of female orgasm” and oxytocinergic system may seem to explain ESR phenomenon. KEY WORDS: orgasmic consciousness, vaginal orgasm, clitoral orgasm, G-spot, A-spot, PC-muscles, blended orgasm, status orgasmus, expanded orgasm, four nerve theory, expanded sexual response, ESR, , deep vaginal erogenous zone, DVZ SexuS Journal ● 2017 ● 2 (4): 117-145
Female orgasm and female 'peak experiences' are well recognized in the ancient historical literature of the India, China and Far East. Eastern cultures tried to discover the limits and extents of female orgasmic response for centuries unlike the Western cultures, where, for centuries, pleasure and orgasm of females were accepted as a sin and were not regarded as acceptable as they were in the Eastern philosophy. Tantric cultures and Taoist cultures encouraged the prolonged sexual activity, coitus and female orgasm for hundreds of years. However, the West started to understand the real nature of female orgasm in the second half of twentieth century using objective and rational scientific investigation methods. Similar to Tantric Orgasms, ESR (Expanded Sexual Response) has been defined recently as: being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature. This review article explains some of the novel findings on female sexuality, ESR and prolonged-expanded orgasms, in comparison with the old Tantric and Taoist philosophies.
This review summarizes the structural and electrophysiological changes in the epileptic hippocampus in various animal models of epilepsy. Tornado hypothesis of epileptic hippocampus, states that there are many progressive detrimental changes in the hippocampus of the epileptic rats. PTZ, PTZ kindling, pilocarpine, electrical kindling, kainic acid, hyperthermia and in vitro models are taken as primary animal epilepsy models in this review. Paired pulse inhibition and GABAergic transmission is decreased in dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1 regions of the epileptic hippocampus. There is interneuron loss in the hilus, DG and CA3, while excitatory input from perforant path (PP) is increased and this is fed into the CA3 area by mossy fibers (MF) which have excessive sprouting that forms novel recurrent synapses with the pyramidal cells of CA3. Gate function of DG is either impaired or lost. CA3 area of hippocampus becomes an epileptic focus and sends ictal discharges. These ictal discharges are carried into CA1 by Schaffer collaterals and then into entorhinal cortex (EC). The input from EC is amplified in the hippocampal circuitry which is fed into hippocampus from EC into DG again successively. Thus, a weak electrical input into the hippocampal formation results in an amplified signal back into EC. Since the basic ultrastructural and electrophysiological feed-back control mechanisms are impaired, this electrical tornado cannot be compensated for and an epileptic amplified ictal discharge spreads to the limbic system and other adjacent structures of the brain. Eventually the hippocampal circuitry, that has developed a vicious circle, becomes a bioelectrical amplifier which triggers an electrical tornado, under certain bio-chemical conditions.
Sanat insanlık tarihi boyunca her zaman matematik, bilim, tıp, temel bilimler, anatomi, fizik ve teknolojideki gelişmeler ile beraber büyümüş ve gelişmiştir. Sanat bilimi etkilemiş, bilim de sanatı etkilemiştir. Bilim, matematik ve analitik düşünce beynin sol yarımküresinin bir ürünüyse; Sanat da beynin sağ yarım küresinin bir ürünüdür. İki dal da birbirlerini her zaman tamamlamış ve bütünleştirmişlerdir. Bu kitabın temel amacı kısa bir özetle Rönesanstan beri sa-natı ele alarak, modern sanatın doğuşunu ve modernizmin sanat eserlerinin ne anlama geldiğini Türk okuruna izah etmeye çalış-maktır. Modern sanat eserleri, kübizm, futurizm, sürrealizm Tür-kiye’de halen pek anlaşılmamaktadır. Ayrıca, modern sanatın fizik ve bilimle yakınlığını anlatan bir kaynak ve kitap da pek yoktur. Hâlbuki modern sanatı ve sürrealizmi modern bilim ve tıp yarat-mıştır. Modern sanat, modern psikiyatrinin, psikanalizin, felsefe-nin ve 20. Yüzyıl fiziğinin tuale ve heykele yansımış halidir. Kitabın başka bir amacı da özet ve kolay anlaşılır ve bol re-sim örnekleriyle ifade edilen, bir “sanat ders kitabı” yazmaktır. Bu kitap sanatla ilgili tüm alanlarda, sanat tarihi, güzel sanatlar gibi Yeni Fizik-Modern Sanat 10 Dr. H. Ümit Sayın alanlarda ders kitabı olarak okutulabilir, çünkü bu konuda yazılan matematik, bilim ile sanatı birleştiren ilk kitaplardan ve inceleme-lerden bir tanesidir; bu konuda bilgilendirici eser fazla yoktur. Hiçbir sürrealist veya kübist, “yenilik olsun diye”, “hiç ya-pılmamışı yapmak için”, “uçukluk ve saçmalık için” veya “yaratıcılığını kanıtlamak için” modern sanat eserlerini yaratmamışlardır. Eğri büğrü yüzlerin, çarpık vücutların, uzamış heykellerin, üzerinde karıncaların yürüdüğü saatlerin, rüyalardaki duygu halini andıran resimlerin hiç biri anlamsız değildir; hepsinin arkasında bir felsefe, düşünce ve soyut ifade vardır. Türkiye’de bu konular pek irde-lenmemiştir ve bilinmemektedir. Sanat tarihi mezunları veya güzel sanatlar akademileri mezunları bile modern sanat eserlerini ve arkasındaki bilimi, felsefeyi yorumlayabilecek düzeyde değildir, ne yazık ki! Bu kitap bu yoksunluğa bir ölçüde derman olabilir. Bu kitabın bundan sonraki baskıları geliştirilecek ve daha fazla resim ve bilgi eklenecektir. Ayrıca “Matematik ve Sanat” isimli bir kita-bında yazım çalışması içindeyiz. Zamanla bu kitap geliştirildiğinde, sponsor ve finans bu-lunabilirse renkli basım hale getirilebilir! Şu an için böyle bir renkli çalışmanın maddi yükü fazladır! Sadece kitabın sonuna bazı resim-lerin minyatür görünümlerini renkli olarak koyabildik! Bu konuda tekliflere açığız! Ayrıca bu kitap serisinden başka kitapların da yazılması planlanmaktadır. Umarım bu kitap hem bilim insanları-na, hem tıp insanlarına, hem sanat öğrencilerine ve hem de sanatçı-lara destek olabilir! Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın Ocak 2017 Göztepe-Kadıköy İstanbul
El orgasmo femenino y las “experiencias pico” femeninas tienen su adecuado reconocimiento en la antigua literatura histórica de la India, China y Extremo Oriente. Por siglos, las culturas orientales trataron de descubrir los límites y alcances de la respuesta orgásmica femenina, a diferencia de las culturas occidentales, donde, por siglos, el placer y el orgasmo femenino se tomaban como un pecado y no se consideraban aceptables, en oposición a la filosofía oriental, donde sí se consideraban aceptables. Por años, las culturas tántricas y taoístas fomentaron la actividad sexual prolongada, el coito y el orgasmo femenino. Sin embargo, Occidente empezó a comprender la verdadera naturaleza del orgasmo femenino en la segunda mitad del siglo XX con el uso de métodos de investigación científicos objetivos y racionales. Al igual que los orgasmos tántricos, la respuesta sexual expandida (RSE) se definió recientemente como: la capacidad de alcanzar orgasmos de larga duración, prolongados, múltiples o sostenidos o el status orgasmus que dura más tiempo y es más intenso que los patrones de orgasmos clásicos que se definen en la literatura. Este artículo de revisión explica algunos de los nuevos hallazgos sobre la sexualidad femenina, la RSE y los orgasmos prolongados-ampliados en comparación con las antiguas filosofías tántricas y taoístas.AbstractFemale orgasm and female “peak experiences” are well recognized in the ancient historical literature of the India, China and Far East. Eastern cultures tried to discover the limits and extents of female orgasmic response for centuries unlike the Western cultures, where, for centuries, pleasure and orgasm of females were accepted as a sin and were not regarded as acceptable as they were in the Eastern philosophy. Tantric cultures and Taoist cultures encouraged the prolonged sexual activity, coitus and female orgasm for hundreds of years. However, the West started to understand the real nature of female orgasm in the second half of twentieth century using objective and rational scientific investigation methods. Similar to Tantric Orgasms, ESR (Expanded Sexual Response) has been defined recently as: being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature. This review article explains some of the novel findings on female sexuality, ESR and prolonged-expanded orgasms, in comparison with the old Tantric and Taoist philosophies.
Female orgasm and female “peak experiences” are well recognized in the ancient historical literature of the India, China and Far East. Eastern cultures tried to discover the limits and extents of female orgasmic response for centuries unlike the Western cultures, where, for centuries, pleasure and orgasm of females were accepted as a sin and were not regarded as acceptable as they were in the Eastern philosophy. Tantric cultures and Taoist cultures encouraged the prolonged sexual activity, coitus and female orgasm for hundreds of years. However, the West started to understand the real nature of female orgasm in the second half of twentieth century using objective and rational scientific investigation methods. Similar to Tantric Orgasms, ESR (Expanded Sexual Response) has been defined recently as: being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature. This review article explains some of the novel findings on female sexuality, ESR and prolonged-expanded orgasms, in comparison with the old Tantric and Taoist philosophies.
Psychoactive plants that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (hallucinogen-induced ASC (H-ASC)) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout the centuries. Some of the psychoactive ingredients of the plants that were used during these religious rituals were opium, cannabis (tetrahydrocannabinol), psilocybin, mescaline, ibogaine, dimethyltryptamine, Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol, thujone, ephedra, mandragora, Salvia divinorum, etc. The main purposes of these plants were spiritual healing; to contact with spirits; to contact with the souls of ancestors; to reach enlightenment (Nirvana or Satori); to become a master shaman, pagan, or witch; and to reach so-called-other realities. In most of the ancient religious rituals such plants were consumed as a part of the traditional shamanic or pagan culture for many centuries and most of the religious figures and images in the ancient and modern religious systems are a result of these hallucinogenic substances and H-ASC mind states.
Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 3: General Processes and Mechanisms, Prescription Medications, Caffeine and Areca, Polydrug Misuse, Emerging Addictions and Non-Drug Addictions is the third of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. Each volume serves to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction as well as to deepen understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume 3 addresses prescription medications, caffeine, polydrug misuse, and non-drug addictions. Each section provides data on the general, molecular, cellular, structural, and functional neurological aspects of a given substance, with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions. Research shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others, and understanding these commonalties provides a platform for studying specific addictions in more depth and may ultimately lead researchers toward new modes of understanding, causation, prevention and treatment. However, marshalling data on the complex relationships between addictions is difficult due to the myriad of material and substances. Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions Fills an existing gap in the literature by serving as a “one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse Includes in each chapter: list of abbreviations, abstract, introduction, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, full references Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and from the genome to whole body.
Constructing a System Theory (ST) is a method to establish a logical, mathematical, self-consistent, self-existing, coherent model to explain the interactions of the elements, functions and development of a closed or open system. System Theory (ST) is very important to define, organize, evaluate, control, regulate the systems and form mathematical models in a set of elements of that particular system. General Systems Theory (GST) is a name which has been adopted to describe a level of theoretical model-building which lies somewhere between the highly generalized constructions of pure mathematics & logic and the specific theories of the specialized disciplines. An ST can be universal, perfect, imperfect or defective; while the defective STs cannot survive. GST is a series of related definitions, assumptions, and postulates about all levels of systems from atomic particles through atoms, molecules, crystals, viruses, cells, organs, individuals, small groups, companies, societies, planets, solar systems, and galaxies. General Behavior ST is a subcategory of such a theory, dealing with living systems, extending roughly from viruses through societies. A significant fact about living things is that they are open systems, with important inputs and outputs. Laws which apply to them differ from those applying to relatively closed systems. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of ST, described two types of systems: open systems and closed systems. The open systems are systems that allow interactions between its internal elements and the environment. An open system, like space, is defined as a “system in exchange of matter and energy with its environment, presenting import and export, building-up and breaking-down of its material components.” Closed systems, on the other hand, are held to be isolated from their environment. Equilibrium thermodynamics, for example, is a field of study that applies to closed systems; so are the biological cellular structures and neuroscience systems. Brain and central nervous system (CNS) are also closed systems. Establishing, for instance, an ST on CNS, will help us to use that ST not only in neuroscience, to explain the interactions of neurons, but also it will be a good aid to make new models in many other fields such as, biology, computer science, electronics, and social sciences etc., as well.
ESSM-Copenhagen-2015-February http://www.essm.org/congress.html Effects of Low Frequency Bullet Vibrators on the Clitoral Orgasm and Sexual Lives of Turkish Women Ümit Sayın1, 2, Taner Arısal1, Asiye Kocatürk1,3 and Müge Arısal1 1: ASEHERT-CİSEATED; 2: İstanbul University; 3:Medipol University-İstanbul Introduction: Vibrator use in Turkey is very low among women. In this study the effects of bullet vibrators to attain clitoral orgasms and on general sexual life is investigated. Methods: We made a survey on 27 women, part of which has been realized in the women who had never used a vibrator before (N= 7). The survey and study continues. These women were all given bullet vibrators (3000 RPM, frequencies at 40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz) and the survey questions were collected 3 months after delivering the bullet vibes. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions about the sexual behavior of respondents and the effects of various vibrators. 0-6 likert scale included the choices of effects: 0-very badly; 1-badly; 2- No effect; 3-little positively; 4-moderately; 5- much in a positive way; 6- very much in a positive way. Results: 1- “Did bullet vibrators or other vibes affect your sexual response and capability to attain clitoral orgasm?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 14 %; 3 (Little effect)= 0.0 %; 4 (moderate effect)= 14 %; 5 (much effect)= 29 %; 6 (very much effect)= 43 %. 2- “Did bullet vibrators or other vibes affect your general sexual response positively?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 11 %; 3 (Little effect)= 0.0 %; 4 (moderate effect)= 4 %; 5 (much effect)= 45 %; 6 (very much effect)= 40 %. 3-“By Using bullet vibe or other vibrators did you attain a clitoral orgasm?” 67 %= Yes, every time; 19 %= Yes, usually; 8 %= Yes, sometimes; 3 %= Yes, very rarely; 3 %= No, never. Conclusions: This group could attain orgasms by low frequency bullet vibrators and reached to clitoral orgasms easier (86 %), and their sexual life styles were improved by bullet vibes positively (85 %). Vibrators can be used in the treatment of anorgasmia and other sexual function disorders in Turkey. POSTER TEXT According to our former survey reports less than 1 % of the Turkish women population use vibrators; however, anorgasmia ratio is 14-19 % among educated and middle class Turkish women, when extrapolated to the whole society this ratio is even more than 20-25 % in the whole country1. Because of religious and cultural beliefs and myths, Turkish women do not tend to use different kind of vibrators, as well as the sex therapists as a part of the sexual treatment. We have investigated the main effects of low frequency bullet vibes in the Turkish women population in some special surveys (study is continuing). Methods: According to our preliminary former surveys, we had classified the effects of direct current vibrators of different kind into five groups. The definitions of the classifications were as follows: Group-1: Women who can achieve clitoral orgasms by means of very low stimulation frequency (25-40 Hz). Group-2: Women who can attain clitoral orgasms by higher frequencies such as 40-60 Hz. Group-3: Women who can attain clitoral orgasms by 50-80 Hz moderate stimulations. Group-4: Women who can be aroused and attain orgasms by a wider range of stimulation frequencies (40-100 Hz). Group-5: Women who need very powerful vibrations such as massage vibrators, which are around 80-100 Hz. In this specific study only bullet vibrators were used. In the survey on 27 women, part of which has been realized in the women who had never used a vibrator before (N= 7), bullet vibes were supplied for them. The survey and study is still continuing. These women were all given bullet vibrators (3000 RPM, frequencies at different potentiometer grades of 2, 2.5 and 3 volts, frequency levels of 40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz) and the survey questions were collected 3 months after delivering the bullet vibes. The bullets (and other vibrators) were supplied by CENSAN Company Ltd. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions about the sexual behavior of women and the effects of various vibrators, including bullet vibes to the participants. 0-6 likert scale included the choices of effects on their clitoral orgasms and sexual behavior: 0-very badly; 1-badly; 2- No effect; 3-little positively; 4-moderately; 5- much in a positive way; 6- very much in a positive way. Results 1-The distribution of the subjective evaluation of women according to their responses to the bullet vibrators and/or other vibrators which they have used before for the study were (N= 27): Group 1 (Moon women)= 13 % ; Group 2 (Sun women)= 27 %; Group 3 (Earth women)= 44 %; Group 4 (Sky women)= 13 %; Group 5 (Venus women)= 3 % . 2- “Did bullet vibrators or other vibes affect your sexual response and capability to attain clitoral orgasm?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 14 %; 3 (Little effect)= 0.0 %; 4 (moderate effect)= 14 %; 5 (much effect)= 29 %; 6 (very much effect)= 43 %. 3- “Did bullet vibrators or other vibes affect your general sexual response positively?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 11 %; 3 (Little effect)= 0.0 %; 4 (moderate effect)= 4 %; 5 (much effect)= 45 %; 6 (very much effect)= 40 %. 4-“By Using bullet vibe or other vibrators did you attain a clitoral orgasm?” 67 %= Yes, every time; 19 %= Yes, usually; 8 %= Yes, sometimes; 3 %= Yes, very rarely; 3 %= No, never. Conclusions: This group could attain orgasms by low frequency bullet vibrators and reached to clitoral orgasms easier (86 %), and their sexual life styles were improved by bullet vibes positively (85 %). Despite the fact that there is resistance against the use of vibrators in the Turkish society by both the public and the professional therapists and doctors, vibrators can be used in the treatment of anorgasmia and other sexual function disorders in Turkey. 1- Ümit Sayin. Cinsellikte Farklı Boyutlar (Derin Sex) (Different Dimensions of Sexuality: Deep Sex, second expanded edition, two volumes) İki cilt, ikinci genişletilmiş baskı. İstanbul: Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, 2014. (880 pages, 2 volumes) ISBN: 978-60587091-9-5. 2- Ümit Sayin. Kadınlarda Orgazmın Psikolojisi (Psychology of Orgasm in Women). Tantra Akademi/Onur Publications, 2014. (304 pages) ISBN: 978-605-85249-3-4. 3- Ümit Sayin and Taner Arisal. Cinsel Oyuncaklar: Cinsel Oyuncakların Tarihi ve Cinsel Terapide Kullanılması (Sex Toys: The History of Sex Toys/Vibes and the Use of Sex Toys in Sex Therapy), (in press, baskıda, 2015) ISBN: 978-605-85249-1-0. ESSM-Copenhagen-2015-February http://www.essm.org/congress.html Classification of Some Turkish Women in Response to Vibrators and Vibration Frequencies to Attain Clitoral Orgasms Müge Arısal1, Ümit Sayın1, 2, Asiye Kocatürk1,3, Irmak Dedecan1 and Taner Arısal1 1: ASEHERT-CİSEATED; 2: İstanbul University; 3: Medipol University-İstanbul Introduction: Vibrator use in Turkey is very low among women. Anorgasmia frequency is around 15-20 % among the educated and middle class women (Sayin, 2010, 2014). Vibrator use is less than 2 % in women (Sayin, Kadınca Report-1993, 2014). We investigated the responses of a group of Turkish women to clitoral bullet vibrators. Methods: We have recently made a survey on 27 women, part of which has been realized in the women who had never used a vibrator before (N= 7). The survey and study is still continuing. These women were all given bullet vibrators (3000 RPM, frequencies at different potentiometer grades of 2, 2.5 and 3 volts, frequency levels: 40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz) and the survey questions were collected 3 months after delivering the bullet vibes. The bullets (and other vibrators) were supplied by CENSAN Company Ltd. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions about the sexual behavior of women and the effects of various vibrators, including bullet vibes to the participants. The determination of the classification of women was realized by some preliminary studies. Group-1: Women who can achieve clitoral orgasms by means of very low stimulation frequency (25-40 Hz). Group-2: They can attain clitoral orgasms by higher frequencies such as 40-60 Hz. Group-3: They can attain clitoral orgasms by 50-80 Hz moderate stimulations. Group-4: They can be stimulated and attain orgasms by a wider range of stimulation frequencies (40-100 Hz). Group-5: They need very powerful vibrations such as massage vibrators, which are around 80-100 Hz. Results: The distribution of the subjective evaluation of women according to their responses to the bullet vibrators and/or other vibrators which they have used before for the study were (N= 27): Group 1= 13 % ; Group 2= 27 %; Group 3= 44 %; Group 4= 13 %; Group 5= 3 % . Conclusions: This group of Turkish women was easily affected by low frequency bullet vibrators and attained clitoral orgasms (86 %). Vibrators can be used in the treatment of sexual function disorders in Turkey. ESSM-Copenhagen-2015-February http://www.essm.org/congress.html Classification of Some Turkish Women in Response to Vibrators and Vibration Frequencies to Attain Clitoral Orgasms Ümit Sayın1, 2, Asiye Kocatürk1,3 and Taner Arısal1 1: ASEHERT-CİSEATED; 2: İstanbul University; 3: Medipol University-İstanbul Introduction: Vibrator use in Turkey is very low among women. Anorgasmia frequency is around 15-20 % among the educated and middle class women (Sayin, 2010, 2014). Vibrator use is less than 2 % in women (Sayin, Kadınca Report-1993, 2014). We investigated the responses of a group of Turkish women to clitoral bullet vibrators. Methods: We have recently made a survey on 27 women, part of which has been realized in the women who had never used a vibrator before (N= 7). The survey and study is still continuing. These women were all given bullet vibrators (3000 RPM, frequencies at different potentiometer grades of 2, 2.5 and 3 volts, frequency levels: 40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz) and the survey questions were collected 3 months after delivering the bullet vibes. The bullets (and other vibrators) were supplied by CENSAN Company Ltd. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions about the sexual behavior of women and the effects of various vibrators, including bullet vibes to the participants. The determination of the classification of women was realized by some preliminary studies. Group-1: Women who can achieve clitoral orgasms by means of very low stimulation frequency (25-40 Hz). Group-2: They can attain clitoral orgasms by higher frequencies such as 40-60 Hz. Group-3: They can attain clitoral orgasms by 50-80 Hz moderate stimulations. Group-4: They can be stimulated and attain orgasms by a wider range of stimulation frequencies (40-100 Hz). Group-5: They need very powerful vibrations such as massage vibrators, which are around 80-100 Hz. Results: The distribution of the subjective evaluation of women according to their responses to the bullet vibrators and/or other vibrators which they have used before for the study were (N= 27): Group 1= 13 % ; Group 2= 27 %; Group 3= 44 %; Group 4= 13 %; Group 5= 3 % . Conclusions: This group of Turkish women was easily affected by low frequency bullet vibrators and attained clitoral orgasms (86 %). Vibrators can be used in the treatment of sexual function disorders in Turkey. IN SEX THERAPY WHICH VIBE CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP WHICH REFLEX Learning and developing clitoral orgasm Bullet-vibe ● massage gadgets ● clitoral part of rabbit vibe ● Butterfly ● butterflies that can be harnessed by specially designed underwear or belts G-Spot discovery and stimulation, learning and developing G-Spot orgasm reflex Curved G-Spot vibes ● anterior fornix stimulators ● Sybian Stimulation of inner clitoris, DVZ and learning and developing vaginal reflex Specially designed anterior fornix stimulators ● rabbit dolphin vibrator-dildos with two units that has a rotating tip ● COITUS MACHINES ●SYBIAN Learning vaginal orgasm reflex New generation vibes with special design ● Rabbit-Dolphin type vibes with rotating tip and clitoral stimulator unit ● variety of dildos with or without vibration ● COITUS MACHINES ● SYBIAN Developing and stimulating PC-muscles Kegel Perineometer ● Jade Eggs containing weight ● Ben-Wa Balls ● Vaginal Dildos with inflatable tip ● New generation Rabbit-Dolphin dildo vibes with two functions and a rotating tip ● cushions with powerful vibrations ● pillows with special vibration and motion ● SYBIAN
Introduction: Vaginismus is an increasing sexual function disorder (SFD) in the Turkish female population, as well as anorgasmia. Since there is a chaos about the treatment of vaginismus and anorgasmia among the Turkish Sex Therapists and health professionals, most of the classical behavioral and cognitive therapy models are not used. For the behavioral therapy, dilators are not mainly available in Turkey. Near to this, “masturbation and techniques for reaching orgasms” are not taught properly to the patients, since masturbation and orgasm is a kind of growing taboo. Most of the time vaginismus is overcome by “the legal rape” of the husband in some countries like, Turkey. Discussion and Conclusion: Before passing to the intercourse session with the partner, the vaginismus patient should be trained to get pleasure from sex and should learn how to reach a clitoral orgasm. This training may take a long time, as long as 2-3 months. Before, the patient experiences pleasure and orgasm from sexual intimacy, foreplay-pleasure, fantasy, masturbation, mutual masturbation with the partner and achieves to attain a clitoral orgasm, no treatment of intrusion (penile or dilators) or intercourse should be started. Today, in Turkey, such an approach is not applied and is not applied or effective in many therapy clinics. Method and Technique: In this treatment method, a 15 step vaginismus self-treatment is taught using masturbation techniques and also bullet vibrators, vibrating dilators and specifically designed normal silicone dilators at various sizes (7 different sizes are recommended). This technique is called “pleasure and orgasm oriented vaginismus treatment”. STEP-1: SEXUAL MIND: Creating a sexual mind STEP-2: DISCOVERY: Discovering your body. Gaining information by reading, watching, talking. STEP-3: Masturbation-1: Learning clitoral orgasm manually. STEP-4-Masturbation-2: Learning clitoral orgasm using vibes. STEP-5- PC-MUSCLES: Improving PC Muscles. Learning to control PC muscles. STEP-6-PLEASURE & ORGASM Oriented Vaginismus Therapy: Learning orgasm oriented treatment. STEP-7: DEFLOWERING-Surgical or other methods. STEP-8:Learning to use vibrating dilators. STEP-9:Vibration-Pleasure-Orgasm-Dilator Transfer. STEP-10: VIBRATING DILATORS: First vibrating dilator and bullet vibe STEP-11: Second dilator and bullet vibe and masturbation. STEP-12: Third dilator and orgasm without bullet vibe. STEP-13: Fourth and fifth dilators. STEP-14: Last dilators, sex toys, vibrators STEP-15: INTERCOURSE: First trials for intercourse with the partner.
Rationale (Optional): Nicole Daedone, the author of the bestselling book “SLOW SEX” has developed a technique of clitoral stimulation, coined as “OMING Meditation-Orgasm Technique” (Daedone, 2011). There have been claims that this method induced altered states of consciousness (ASC) in some women after a certain period of time, we have performed a descriptive study through a survey among the women, who participated an event of “One Taste Company” in California-USA in March-2014. Introduction: It is reported that prolonged orgasms induced ASC in some women (Taylor, 2001; Sayin, 2012). Similar findings have been reported by other researchers. Recently, it has been reported that ASC was observable in some women who practiced “OMING Meditation Technique” developed by Nicole Daedone, as mentioned in her book “SLOW SEX”. Methods: A very short survey questionnaire which consisted of 3 questions was delivered to the women who participated an event performed by “One Taste Company”. 25 women, who have been practicing “Oming Meditation-Orgasm Technique” for at least 3 months regularly, were taken into the study. They also signed a form of written statement of consent before the survey. The technique consisted of the stimulation of glans clitoris using a lubricant by the help of a partner for at least 15 minutes. It was determined that the women participating the study used this technique with an average of 5.1 times a week. In the third question 85 different forms of ASCs, which were assumed to be possible to occur during the OMING orgasms, were asked to be checked in a table, as described by other researchers (Taylor, 2002; Sayin, 2011, 2012; King, 2010). Results: Pulsating feeling (0,92); throbbing (0,8); warmth (0,84); exciting feeling (0,80); pleasurable (0,84); quivering (0,76); elevation of mood (0,84); happiness and contentness (0,80) were the most common feelings over 80 % of the participants of the study. Least experienced consciousness states below a frequency of 25 % of the women practicing OMing Orgasm Technique were as follows: flying (0,28); astral voyage (0,24); death feeling (0.08); near death experience (0.04); losing the soul (0.04); traveling to different lands (0,24); voyage to unknown places (0,20).
Introduction: The hormone and neurotransmitter OXYTOCIN (OXY) has been proposed to take part in many behavioral patterns of female behavior, including sexual arousal, orgasm, LOVE, attachment to the partner, birth and motherhood. It is hypothesized to be used in sex therapy to treat vaginismus, anorgasmia, arousal problems and others in future. We revised our former study and added 10 more data in two different intranasal doses of OXY (10 IU, N=36; 30 IU, N=10). Methods: As a continuing study, we administered 10 IU OXY intranasally to 36 women and 30 IU OXY intranasally to 10 women to assess the main acute effects of OXY on female behavior. A special psychometric scale containing 24 questions to assess the possible acute effects of euphoria, elevation of mind, anxiolysis, empathy, sexual arousal, analgesia, altered states of consciousness (ASC), happiness feeling, and effects on general psychology, SUBJECTIVELY was used within 10 minutes after the administration. Along with OXY, a placebo spray was used intranasally before or after OXY administration in a double blind research design, to compare the effects of OXY with placebo. There was a time lapse of two hours between the two administrations. Results: The acute effects of OXY were controversial and altered from women to women. 10 IU OXY Acute Effects (N=36): 24 women described an effect of euphoria (66.6 %); 13 women reported an effect of clouding consciousness (36.1%); 15 women described a mild ASC (41.6 %); 18 women mentioned about an acute effect of sexual arousal (50 %), while 14 women had a feeling of rush and increase of heat at genitals (38.8 %); 18 women had increased empathy (50 %) ; 24 women described a feeling of calmness and happiness (66.6 %); 14 women reported a feeling of analgesia (38.8 %); 15 women told about a feeling of anxiolysis (41.6 %). The main effects which were described by most of the women were calmness, euphoria, empathy, happiness feeling, relaxation, drowsiness and sexual arousal. 30 IU OXY Acute Effects (N=10): 9 women described an effect of euphoria (90 %); 4 women reported an effect of clouding consciousness (40%); 6 women described a mild ASC (60 %); 18 women mentioned about an acute effect of sexual arousal (50 %), while 7 women had a feeling of rush and increase of heat at genitals (70 %); 9 women had increased empathy (90 %) ; 10 women described a feeling of calmness and happiness (100 %); 8 women reported a feeling of analgesia (80 %); 7 women told about a feeling of anxiolysis (70 %). OXY prominently induced calmness, euphoria, empathy, happiness feeling, relaxation, ASC and sexual arousal in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Intranasal OXY spray DOES have some acute effects on the female behavior and consciousness at the doses of 10 and 30 IU in a dose dependent manner. In future intranasal OXY sprays can be used both in sex therapy and psychiatry successfully, since its effect is very sharp and acute within seconds. However, OXY degrades in the brain very fast, thus the administration should be repeated.
Introduction: It is reported that perfumes and fragrances have effects on mood, consciousness, childhood memories, recent or distant memories, anxiety, sexual arousal, and libido. It is also hypothesized that fragrances and perfumes have direct effect on the limbic system, temporal lobe and also sub-consciousness & collective unconsciousness, association of memories and flashing of some geometric shapes and entoptic images. A preliminary double blind study on the effects of basic 15 notes of fragrances on mood, sexual arousal, libido, memory and consciousness in women was designed. Methods: Different pleasant and attractive solutions of the fragrances of honeysuckle, sandalwood, lemon, patchouli, violet, amber, garden rose, tobacco, orange, crème caramel, musc, vanilla, lavender, jasmin, and mint were prepared. In the similar set and settings with a relaxing classical music (Vivaldi, Seasons), the solutions of fragrances were sprayed on gauges and smelled for 3 minutes through a surgical mask, when eyes were blindfolded. Before and after the experiment, a scale and a questionnaire were asked to be filled by the women. Their statement of written consent was also taken. The preliminary data from 20 women (ages from 18 to 50) were collected and analyzed. The study is continuing Results and Conclusion: The main psychological effects of most of the basic note fragrances were: relaxing; soothing; anxiolysis; feeling calm; sexual arousal; increase in libido; remembering childhood, past or recent memories; feeling; brief and mild altered states of consciousness; happiness; feelings of peace; elevation of mind. Also, when eyes were blindfolded and they smelled the fragrances, almost all of the women perceived some geometric shapes such as concentric circles, solid circles, ellipses, square, triangle, round shapes, rectangles, honeycombs, spirals. The scale also consisted of the prints and tables of entoptic images; 80 % of the women stated that when smelling some of the fragrances they perceived some entoptic images when their eyes were blindfolded. Sandalwood, patchouli, tobacco, orange, crème caramel, musc, vanilla and jasmin were most sexually arousing fragrances in this study group. The effects of the 15 basic note fragrances are summarized in the table. More detailed studies on the effects of perfumes and fragrances should be made. It is also concluded that they directly stimulate memory functions of the brain, as well as the subconsciousness and collective unconsciousness (entoptic images).
Introduction: There has long been a furious debate on the “Vaginal vs. Clitoral Orgasm” since the times of Freud. Some feminists opposed vaginal orgasm declaring and supporting the hypothesis that “there is only clitoral orgasm, but no phenomenon called vaginal orgasm and women do not need men and sexual intercourse to attain an orgasm”. Hite Report, which was a feminist report and was surveyed among feminist women in 1974, also defended similar hypothesis. However, both Hite Report (1974) and Cosmo Report (1982) reported that one third of women (30 % and 34 %, respectively) described a phenomenon called as “vaginal or coital orgasm”. However, many physicians, sex therapists, psychologists, and psychiatrists oppose the existence of “vaginal-coital orgasms” and they also add that no such thing as “G-Spot” exists in Turkey and on the globe. This presentation is aimed to prove that both “G-Spot and Vaginal-Coital Orgasms” exist. Findings: Some data of ours and other researchers have proven the fact that a phenomenon as “vaginal-coital orgasms” must exist. The clitoral hood cannot move directly enough to stimulate the glans during coitus. If some deep erectile structures of clitoris, such as bulbus or crus, are stimulated as well, this sensory input will not be carried by pudental nerve, because most of the deep structures of clitoral complex are innervated by pelvic nerve, which may cause another type of “clitoris-pelvic orgasm”, which is not exactly the same as “glans-pudental nerve orgasm”. Most of the descriptions of each type of orgasms in the literature are very different in terms of their physiological, neuropharmacological It has been reported that the women who are aware of their G-Spots and who have been responding-pleasurable G-Spots, are more likely to attain coital vaginal orgasms. There appears to be other deep vaginal erogenous zones (DVZs) in some sexually hyper active and responsive women, other than clitoris and G-Spot, as reported recently Our preliminary studies by means of the electrical and vibration stimulation of DVZ seem to trigger orgasm patterns alone, without the stimulation of glans clitoris (unpublished data In some women, undergone clitoridectomy, some coital orgasms have been reported, which shows that without the existence of glans clitoris, orgasms may build up by some other mechanisms, while inner clitoral complex may have some contributions to those kind of orgasms, however they are unlikely to trigger an orgasm by the stimulation of bulbus or crus of clitoris alone; there should be other triggering neural pathways and mechanisms that play major roles in the development of “orgasms without clitoris”. After the definition of novel “four nerve and six pathway theory of female orgasm” (see below), it was realized that at least six different pathway-mediated orgasm reflex arches, some of which may contribute to build up “vaginal orgasms” originating from direct stimulation of DVZ, may exist! Some other survey in USA, United Kingdom and Europe as well as our preliminary research and other accumulating data showed that vaginal walls are not senseless, but some women experience pleasure and orgasm through the stimulation of various parts of vaginal walls. Recently it is reported that the female orgasm can be triggered through the stimulation of glans clitoris, inner clitoris, Grafenberg’s spot, PC-Muscle, Anterior Fornix (A-Spot), Cervix, Nipples, Ear lobes, and even by only fantasizing and foreplay (Komisaruk et al. Science of Orgasm. 2006) ZISS group from Switzerland has also devised a technique called “Sexocorporal Sex Therapy” in part of which, they also teach women how to attain vaginal-coital orgasms through various workshops and trainings. Conclusions: There are many ongoing researches on the subject. Although, today we even have enough evidence, data and findings, as well as scientific publications and literature that both “G-Spot and DVZ” and “vaginal-coital orgasms” EXIST, it is so weird that some people still argue against all these academic and scientific publications and literature. We believe that their concern is more ideological, rather than being scientific.
Background and Introduction: The use of vibrators (VBs) is not very widespread among women in Turkey. A survey was made after the use of VBs (bullet vibes) among Turkish women to understand the reactions against VBs and the effects of VBs in female sexual response. Methods: We have recently made a survey on 32 women, part of which has been realized in the women who had never used a VB before (N= 9). The survey and study is still continuing. These women were all given bullet VBs (3000 RPM, frequencies at different potentiometer grades of 2, 2.5 and 3 volts, frequency levels: 40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz) and the survey questions were collected 3 months after delivering the bullet vibes. The bullets (and other vibrators) were supplied by CENSAN Company Ltd. The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions about the sexual behavior of women and the effects of various vibrators, including bullet vibes to the participants. The determination of the classification of women was realized by some preliminary studies. Group-1: Women who can achieve clitoral orgasms by means of very low stimulation frequency (25-40 Hz). Group-2: They can attain clitoral orgasms by higher frequencies such as 40-60 Hz. Group-3: They can attain clitoral orgasms by 50-80 Hz moderate stimulations. Group-4: They can be stimulated and attain orgasms by a wider range of stimulation frequencies (40-100 Hz). Group-5: They need very powerful vibrations such as massage vibrators, which are around 80-100 Hz. 0-6 likert scale included the choices of effects on their clitoral orgasms and sexual behavior: 0-very badly; 1-badly; 2- No effect; 3-little positively; 4-moderately; 5- much in a positive way; 6- very much in a positive way. Results: 1-The distribution of the subjective evaluation of women according to their responses to the bullet vibrators and/or other vibrators which they have used before for the study were (N= 32): Group 1 (Moon women) = 15 %; Group 2 (Sun women) = 26 %; Group 3 (Earth women) = 43 %; Group 4 (Sky women) = 15 %; Group 5 (Venus women) = 1 %. 2- “Did bullet vibrators or other vibes affect your sexual response and capability to attain clitoral orgasm?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 14 %; 3 (Little effect)= 0.0 %; 4 (moderate effect)= 14 %; 5 (much effect)= 32 %; 6 (very much effect)= 42 %. 3- “Did bullet vibrators or other vibes affect your general sexual response positively?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 11 %; 3 (Little effect)= 0.0 %; 4 (moderate effect)= 4 %; 5 (much effect)= 45 %; 6 (very much effect)= 40 %. 4-“By Using bullet vibe or other vibrators did you attain a clitoral orgasm?” 69 %= Yes, every time; 18 %= Yes, usually; 7 %= Yes, sometimes; 3 %= Yes, very rarely; 3 %= No, never. 5- “By Using bullet vibe or other vibrators how was your libido affected?” 0 (very badly)= 0.0 %; 1 (badly)= 0.0 %; 2 (No effect)= 8 %; 3 (Little positive effect)= 0.0 %; 3 (moderate positive effect)= 8 %; 5 (much positive effect)= 46 %; 6 (very much positive effect)= 38 %. Discussion and Conclusions: This study group could attain orgasms by low frequency bullet vibrators and reached to clitoral orgasms easier (87 %); their sexual life styles were improved by bullet vibes positively (85 %); also bullet vibes improved their libido (79 %). Despite the fact that there is resistance against the use of VBs in the Turkish society by both the public and the professional therapists and doctors, VBs can be used in the treatment of anorgasmia and other sexual function disorders in Turkey.
Introduction: Most of the psychiatric drugs used in the treatment of depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, mania and psychosis influence sexual behavior, libido and the potency to get pleasure and to attain orgasm. Because of lack of proper control in Turkey, many anti-depressive SSRI’s and agents impairing dopaminergic system, dopamine receptors and pathways are widely used without warning the side effects of this psychiatric medication. Findings and Scope: SSRIs can cause various types of sexual dysfunction such as anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction, diminished libido, genital numbness, and sexual anhedonia (pleasureless orgasm) (Bahrick, Audrey (2008). Initial studies found the incidence of sexual side effects from SSRIs not significantly different from placebo, but since these studies relied on unprompted reporting, the frequency was underestimated. In more recent studies, doctors have specifically asked about sexual difficulties, and found that they are present in most patients. Sexual dysfunction occasionally persists after discontinuing SSRIs. The frequency with which this happens is unknown. SSRI’s: It is well known that many anti-depressant drugs and SSRI’s (e.g. Fluoxetine-Prozac; Citalopram-Cipram, Celexa, Seropram etec.; Paroxetine-Paxils Seroxat, Loxamine etc.; Fluvoxamine-Luvox, Fevarin Facvoxil etc.; Sertraline-Zolof, Lustral, Asentra etc.; and others) and increase of serotonin in the brain totally blocks pleasure and orgasm in most of the females (Komisaruk et al. The Science of Orgasm. 2006). Anxiolytics: A widely used anxiolytic, such as alprazolam (Xanax) also blocks pleasure, reaching to orgasm and decreases the quality sexual satisfaction. Anti-Psychotics: Some anti-psychotic medications which interfere with the dopamine receptors, dopaminergic pathways also decrease pleasure and block orgasm in females. Discussion and Conclusion: Around the globe and also in Turkey, above drugs are used widely; however, most of the time the patient is not acknowledged about the negative side effects of these drugs. By using SSRI’s, depressive mood can be treated; however, sexual potential of the patients may be impaired, and this is a long term effect, which even persists after quitting the treatment; the long term outcome is unknown. It is well documented that above psychiatric medications may totally block orgasm, sexual pleasure and induce anhedonia. The physicians should be careful before prescribing anti-depressants, anxiolytics and anti-psychotics; because, the long term side effects of these drugs are not investigated well enough, and they may induce an iatrogenic (drug induced) depression, by means of interfering sexual functions and inducing anorgasmia. Today, sexual function disorders due to the psychiatric medications are very widespread around the globe and also in Turkey.
Introduction: In Turkey there is no sex education at the levels of high schools and universities. Maybe that is why sexual problems and sexual function disorders (SFD) are increasing day by day. For healthy sexuality and sexual behavior, structured and healthy education on human sexuality is essential. During the last decades, some SFD’s such as vaginismus, anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation and lack of sexual desire increased a great deal. There are neither structured nor detailed sex therapy education systems for the health professionals, or MSc and PhD programmes of Sex Therapy at the universities. Findings and Description: According to our latest surveys, vaginismus increased to around 12-15 %; anorgasmia has increased to more than 25-30 % among educated & middle class women in the Turkish population. Lack of sexual interest in men and women also peaked during the last decades. Among women, lack of sexual interest is around 35-40 %, even at younger ages. One of the reasons of this social transformation is that the women are not getting education about their bodies and sexuality since Turkish society has become very religious, dogmatic and conservative during the last 2 or 3 decades. Another reason is the increasing taboos and myths of the society, besides “the fear of sexuality” and political precautions against sex education.
Introduction: Sex Toys (STs) and vibrators (VBs) have been used in Europe and Americas successfully in sex therapy. The frequency of using VBs by women in Turkey is less than 1 % (Kadınca Report-KR, 1993 and Hülya Report-HR, 2003) compared to the frequency of 52,5 % in USA (Reference: Articles of Herbenick and Rosenberger). There is strong resistance to use STs and VBs in the Turkish population as well as among the physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists and sex therapists because of many cultural reasons. What is your opinion about the problems and bad designs of current VBs and STs? How to you evaluate their effects? 1-Their vibration frequency is sometimes too low. (Highest response) 2-Their vibration frequency should have been modulated and they should be in a larger vibration span. (Highest response) 3-Vibration frequencies should have had more options and more adjustments. (Highest response) 4-The devices should not have been activated by batteries, but charges and city electricity, such that no power problem, after a while, should have been faced. (Highest response) 5-Those toys do not seem to be a manufacture of thorough and detailed research and engineering or investigation. (High response) 6-The devices are not suitable for the women’s body and are not designed as ergonomic. 7-These devices have not been tried on women properly and in controlled experiments; poor design and poor engineering. (High response) 8-The toys sold in Turkey are very cheap and junk Chinese devices. (Moderate response) 9-Their packages, marketing and way of commercializing is very poor and bad. (Moderate response) 10-There no information about how to use them and no detailed information on the web sites of erotic shops Discussion and Conclusions: Women who use STs and VBs know what they need better than men. The current designs and engineering of the VBs are too bad and clumsy. They should be redesigned according to the demands of women and structured scientific research and detailed experimentation according to the directions of women. Methods and Results: Our survey (which still continues) with 32 women, using and assessing VBs and filling in a questionnaire and our face to face interviews with around 50 women supplied the main data (N=82). The survey questionnaire had 50 questions (multiple choice or fill in the blanks, or chose using a likert-scale). The problems and the assessments of STs and VBs that were sold in Turkey were asked. The questions and the top ten evaluations were: When you look at the STs and VBs sold in Turkey what would be your suggestions to improve them to function more properly and effectively? 1-Their shapes and designs should be better. (Highest response) 2-Driven by batteries is a bad characteristic, they should be manufactured with charges which plugged in. (Highest response) 3-The vibration frequencies should be increased. (Highest response) 4-The engineers and designers who manufactured them have never asked women the effects’ of these devices, they should be designed on the demands of women. (Highest response) 5-They should be designed after long research by the doctors and physicians after structured and long experiments. (Highest response) 6-Vibration frequencies should go from the lower to the very high with gradually increasing many steps. (High response) 7-The adjustment buttons and other functions and vibration programs should be more and they should be adjusted. (High response) 8-They should be designed as ergonomic. (High response) 9-They should be redesigned according to the physiology of females. (High response) 10-They should be marketed with more detailed information. (High response)
Introduction: Sex Toys (STs) and vibrators (VBs) have been used in Europe and Americas successfully in sex therapy, since the dawn of direct-current electric motor, around 1880s. The famous comedy-history film “HISTERIA” summarizes how the VBs were started to be used by physicians and sex therapist by the end of 19th Century in USA. However, although the STs and VBs have been used for more than 120 years in the West by either individuals independently and/or by sex therapists, the frequency of using VBs by women in Turkey is less than 1 % (Kadınca Report-KR, 1993 and Hülya Report-HR, 2003) compared to the frequency of 52,5 % in USA (Reference: Articles of Herbenick and Rosenberger). There is strong resistance to use STs and VBs in the Turkish population as well as the physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists and sex therapists because of many cultural reasons. Background and Findings: Our surveys both on women (KR-1993; HR-2003; İstanbul Report-IR-2013) and also some short surveys on the study of VB usage by some Turkish women volunteers have shown the fact that STs and VBs are both very effective in inducing orgasm and giving pleasure to the Turkish females. Our surveys on women and other interview results have revealed that only around 1 % of the female population in Turkey is willing to use and/or continue using STs and VBs. It is also observed that more than 50 % of Turkish women were wondering about the effects of STs and VBs; however, they were too shy and intimidated to try them on themselves or use them with their partners. Some women buy these devices discreetly from the internet by ordering some unknown devices from the erotic shops. Our survey with 32 women, using and assessing VBs and filling in a questionnaire and our face to face interviews with around 50 women also revealed the fact that, VBs improved Their orgasm consistency b) Induced orgasms c) Improved their sexual lives with and/or without a partner d) Improved the pleasure during masturbation with VBs or without VBs e) Enhanced the pleasure they were taking from sexual encounters, foreplay, sexual contentness and pleasure & orgasm during masturbation. Discussion and Conclusions: Since the reaction and resistance of Turkish male partners and also the sex therapists & psychologists-psychiatrists is very harsh and reactive against STs and VBs; the Turkish society should be trained on the effects of VBs. In Turkey the frequency of anorgasmia cases varies from social strata to strata, in 1990s and in the beginning of 2000s, the anorgasmia frequency was 15-19 % in the educated and middle class women; in 2015, this ratio increased to 30 to 35 % in the same age and social group. In the whole society and among the uneducated women, anorgasmia ratio may be even higher. Turkish society (public and health professionals) needs some structured education systems both on SFDs, sexual physiology and also STs & VBs. In a society where anorgasmia frequency can be expected as high as from 25 % to 40 % of the female population, it should be noted that VBs can be very successful in improving sexual life styles and orgasm consistencies of Turkish women.
ESSM-Copenhagen-2015-February http://www.essm.org/congress.html Correlation of Good Sexual Relationships & Satisfaction in Marriage with the Domestic Violence in 398 Postpartum Women in İstanbul Asiye Kocatürk1,3 and Ümit Sayın1, 2 1: ASEHERT-CİSEATED; 2: İstanbul University; 3:Medipol University-İstanbul Introduction: The authors started a series of surveys, named as İstanbul Report (IR) on Female Sexuality. This study was a subgroup of the survey series of IR. The correlation of domestic violence towards the spouse and children were investigated among post-partum women. Methods: The survey was realized among the post-partum women after their giving births in various hospitals in İstanbul. There were 58 questions. 398 responses were collected and analyzed in SPSS. The education distribution in the group was: Elementary: 29 %; High School: 53.4 %; University: 16.6 %; MSc &PhD: 0.8 %. The group was divided into two according to their responses: sexually content, satisfied and happy (A, N=295); sexually non-content, not satisfied and having sexual problems with their husbands (B, N=103). Verbal and physical violence by the husbands towards the women and the children, at different degrees, were investigated. Results: 1) In group A; verbal violence towards the women was 16.8 %, physical violence was, 7.5 %; verbal violence towards children was 7.1 %, while physical violence was 3.4 %. 2) In group B; verbal violence towards the women was 27.7 %, physical violence was, 14.7 %; verbal violence towards children was 13.2 %, while physical violence was 7.8 %. When both groups are compared there is a significant difference in terms of the attitude of the fathers. Violence attitude is nearly doubled. 3) There is verbal and physical violence to some degree in the Turkish family structure. Conclusion: Good sexual relationships and sexual satisfaction of the spouses are inversely correlated with the degree and content of the verbal or physical domestic violence; in sexually unsatisfactory relationships, the violence increases; or verbal and physical violence declines sexual relationships. For this reason, structured sexual education given to the public is very essential to improve sexual satisfaction and well-being in Turkey.
ESSM-Copenhagen-2015-February http://www.essm.org/congress.html Orgasmic Behavior and the Frequencies of Sexual Function Disorders in 398 Postpartum Women in İstanbul Ümit Sayın1, 2 and Asiye Kocatürk1,3 1: ASEHERT-CİSEATED; 2: İstanbul University; 3:Medipol University-İstanbul Introduction: Very few studies are realized on the orgasmic behavior and the distribution and frequencies of sexual function disorders (SFD) in Turkish women. The authors started a series of surveys, named as İstanbul Report (IR) on Female Sexuality. This study was a subgroup of the survey series of IR. Methods: The survey was realized among the post-partum women after their giving births in various hospitals in İstanbul. 58 questions were asked about the sexual behavior and other related family problems of the post-partum women. 398 responses were collected and analyzed in SPSS. The education distribution in the group was: Elementary: 29 %; High School: 53.4 %; University: 16.6 %; MSc &PhD: 0.8 %. Results: 1) Among the 398 post-partum women, the SFD frequency encountered at least once (or more) in their entire lives was 42.3 %, while the most common specific SFDs were as : Vaginismus: 10.3 % ; Dyspareunia: 12.8 %; Anorgasmia: 14.2 %; Lack of sexual interest: 6.8 %; Lubrication problems during intercourse: 2.5 %. 2) 66 % of the group stated that they experienced orgasms, always or generally or sometimes in their sexual relations with their husbands. 68.2 % of them experienced clitoral orgasms always or generally or sometimes; while coital-vaginal orgasm frequency was 17.9 % (always) and 11.3 % (generally). 47.8 % stated that they never or rarely or sometimes experienced coital-vaginal orgasms. 32.3 % of the group experienced only ONE orgasm at each love making, while 47.9 % said they experienced orgasms between 2-10. Conclusion: Vaginismus, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, lack of sexual interest, orgasm difficulties are the most common and increasing SFDs in Turkey. Experiencing coital-vaginal orgasms is also very low in Turkey. Sexual education to the public at the high schools and universities should be planned by the government or privately in Turkey. POSTER TEXT: Introduction: There are not many reports about the sexual and orgasmic behavior of Turkish women. Our group has made some surveys and still continuing other surveys (such as İstanbul Report) about the orgasmic behavior of the female population in Turkey. Anorgasmia, Dyspareunia and Vaginismus are the common sexual function disorders among Turkish females. According to the surveys we have done, nearly 14 to 20 % of educated and middle class women in Turkey suffer anorgasmia; vaginismus has also become a serious sexual problem during the last 20 years, while 9 to 13 % of Turkish women suffer from vaginismus1. In this survey, which was a part of İstanbul Report, we have investigated the sexual behavior of women among 398 postpartum women. Methods: The survey was realized among the post-partum women after their giving births in various hospitals in İstanbul. In the survey there were 58 questions about the sexual behavior and other related family problems of the post-partum women. 398 responses were collected and analyzed in SPSS. The education distribution in the group was: Elementary: 29 %; High School: 53.4 %; University: 16.6 %; MSc &PhD: 0.8 %. Minimum age was 18; maximum age was 64. The average of ages was 32.607 ± 8.3 (S.D). The age distribution is given at the below plot. Conclusion: Vaginismus, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, lack of sexual interest, orgasm difficulties are the most common and increasing SFDs in Turkey; even in the group of post-partum women who have had healthy sexual lives, the incidence of former experienced vaginismus, anorgasmia and decreased libido was higher than the expected. Compared to global findings, experiencing coital-vaginal orgasms is also very low in Turkish women. The tendency of increased SFDs occurred during the last 20 years and it seems that there is an alteration and transformation of female sexual response in the Turkish population. This consequence can be mostly because of the cultural, political, and governmental attitudes which may have changed the sexual behaviors, belief and moral systems and the visions of the Turkish males and females. Besides because of the cultural and political attitudes there is not much sexual education in the Turkish society. Sexual education given to the public at the high schools and universities should be planned by the government or privately in Turkey to overcome exploding sexual problems and SFDs.
- Jan 2015
- TANTRA AKADEMİ
Kitap Adı: Kadınlarda Orgazmın Psikolojisi Yazar: Doç. Dr. H. Ümit Sayın firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Basım, Kasım 2014 © Copyright, Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın, 2014-İstanbul Bu kitap sadece 18 yaşından büyüklere satılır! Editör: Onur Şenyurt Kapak Tasarımı: Dr. Ümit Sayın Mijampaj ve Sayfa Düzeni: Dr. Ümit Sayın Resim, Şekil ve Şemalar: Dr. Ümit Sayın Basım Yönetmeni: Onur Şenyurt ISBN: 978-605-85249-3-4 Kültür Bakanlığı Sertifika No: 24846 Tantra Akademi, Onur Basın Yayın alt yayın markasıdır. BASIM YERİ: Onur basım yayın dijital matbaası İÇİNDEKİLER Önsöz ………………………………………………… 7 1-Giriş ………………………………..………………. 9 2-Kadınlarda Orgazmın tanımı …………………… 21 3-Orgazmın Psikolojisi …………………………….. 49 4-Uzatılmış Orgazmlarda Kadınların Psikolojisi .. 105 5-Orgazmın Psikolojisiyle İlgili Yazılmış Mektup-lar-Mülakatlar ……………………………………….. 133 6-Kadınlarda Orgazm Modelleri …………………. 211 7-Vajinal Orgazmın Mekanizması ………………... 241 8-Kadınlarda Orgazmı Güçlendirme Yöntemleri …………………………………………… 259 Yazar Hakkında …………………………………….. 277 Referanslar ………………………………………….. 279 Yazarın Diğer Kitapları ve Tanıtımlar …………… 292
Neural activity promotes circuit formation in developing systems and during critical periods permanently modifies circuit organization and functional properties. These observations suggest that excessive neural activity, as occurs during seizures, might influence developing neural circuitry with long-term outcomes that depend on age at the time of seizures. We systematically examined long-term structural and functional consequences of seizures induced in rats by kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, and hyperthermia across postnatal ages from birth through postnatal day 90 in adulthood (P90). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and electrophysiological methods at ⩾P95 following seizures induced from P1 to P90 demonstrated consistent patterns of gross atrophy, microstructural abnormalities in the corpus callosum and hippocampus, and functional alterations in hippocampal circuitry at ⩾P95 that were independent of the method of seizure induction and varied systematically as a function of age at the time of seizures. Three distinct epochs were observed in which seizures resulted in distinct long-term structural and functional outcomes at ⩾P95. Seizures prior to P20 resulted in DTI abnormalities in corpus callosum and hippocampus in the absence of gross cerebral atrophy, and increased paired pulse inhibition (PPI) in the dentate gyrus at ⩾P95. Seizures after P30 induced a different pattern of DTI abnormalities in the fimbria and hippocampus accompanied by gross cerebral atrophy with increases in lateral ventricular volume, as well as increased PPI in the dentate gyrus at ⩾P95. In contrast, seizures between P20-P30 did not result in cerebral atrophy or significant imaging abnormalities in the hippocampus or white matter, but irreversibly decreased PPI in the dentate gyrus compared to normal adult controls. These age-specific long-term structural and functional outcomes identify P20-P30 as a potential critical period in hippocampal development defined by distinctive long-term structural and functional properties in adult hippocampal circuitry, including loss of capacity for seizure-induced plasticity in adulthood that could influence epileptogenesis and other hippocampal - dependent behaviors and functional properties. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction History The Turkish Republic, established on the remains of Ottoman Empire in 1923, is one of the few secular Islamic countries in the world. Ninety-nine percent of the population is said to be Muslim — although the definition of "being Muslim" in Turkey makes it unlikely that all of these Muslims practice orthodox Islam, Islamic rules and pray 5 times a day. In most of the other Islamic countries, Sharia, Allah's Law for Muslims, dominates the constitution and the legal system, so that the state and the main legal system is NOT separated from the orders of the Qur’an. In contrast with the constitutions in many other Islamic states, the Turkish Constitution forbids the religious laws from dominating government and society and requires that the state and religion be separated (Article 2, Turkish Constitution [revised in 1982]). Latest “CIA Fact-Book” information claims that nearly 4 % of the population isatheist; while our estimation is nearly 35 to 40 % of the population do NOT practice orthodox Islam; among these people none-religious attitudes and atheismhas been spreading and growing as a result of the reaction and protest against religious governments during the last 20 years. The Turkish Republic was founded in 1923 after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and a period of civil war, a war of independence, revolution and reformation led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who became Turkey's first president. When the new republic was formed, the government took many precautions to prevent Islam from being as influential in governance as it was during Ottoman times. Among these reforms were replacing the Arabic alphabet with the Roman alphabet, which is more suited to expressing the Turkish language; granting equal rights to women; and reforming education, including the elimination of compulsory religion courses. Prayers once recited only in Arabic were translated into Turkish, so that everyone could understand them; religious education based in extremist sectarian centers called Tekkes, Tariqas, and Zaviyes was banned; and a new legal system based on a European model was adopted. In 10 years (1923-1933), a new modern Western country, with a new identity and ideology, was quickly created from an oriental empire. There was a clear-cut shift in the whole state precept, including secularism. When Atatürk died in 1938, there were still many other reforms of governmental and cultural affairs waiting to be completed. After 1950, the Enlightenment-based ideals and reforms of the revolution started to decline. Right-wing and conservative cliques and political parties were ready to exploit the weaknesses of the inexperienced government. Some of the social changes and civil rights attained by the revolution in 1923 were lost. Some politicians appealed to the uneducated and illiterate majority of Turks, who were still very religious and strongly influenced by local religious authorities (Sheiks and Mullahs), who promised a return to the good old Ottoman days and religion governed society (and/or Sharia). This turmoil continued until the military coup in 1960, which supported secularism and Kemalist Revolution. A new constitution based on a Western legal system was approved in 1961, which banned efforts to support the establishment of a non-secular religious state based on Sharia Law. However, after the NATO-USA supported military coup in 1980, the main developments which kindled the counter revolution and the decline of the democracy and secularism accelerated, and reached to a peak during the last 13 years (2002-2015), a period during which more than 20 articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights were sometimes violated. Neither the sexual behaviors of pre-modern Turkish women (or Ottoman women), nor that of modern Turkish women have ever been investigated using scientific methods with proper references. Articles or other writings about the sexual life styles of Turkish women are very scarce. During Ottoman times, women had no basic rights, but were enslaved by their husbands or other men in the society. A man could get married to four women and easily divorce any of them by saying one sentence as “I, hereby, in the name of Islam, divorce you”, without leaving her any rights so she would find herself in the street by herself. In fact, before Islam (during the Shamanic days), women in Turkish countries or various clans were more equal to men. Very old Turkish writings state that the Hakan (governer) had to get married to only one woman, and the wife of the Hakan had words and rights in governing the country (as in Huns, Gokturks, Uygurs etc.). Ancient Turkish cultures in Anatolia and in Middle Asia, before 800-900 A.D., always respected women and emphasized the importance of women for centuries. Ancient Turkish cultures gave equal rights to both women and men. An example or trace of this fact can be found as Anatolian Goddess and fertility sculptures or figures on the reliefs in the old Anatolian civilization museums. About the sexual behavior of Ottoman women very little is known; most probably it was not more than pleasing their husbands. After the Kemalist Revolution in 1923, legally and socially, women gained many rights and became equal to men. Today, legally and in the courts women still have equal rights with men; however, in social life, there is evidence that Turkish Society is being transformed to the Ottoman days lately, during the last 20 years.
Psychoactive plants which contain hallucinogenic molecules that induce a form of altered states of consciousness (HASC) have been widely used during the religious rituals of many cultures throughout the centuries, while the consumption of these plants for spiritual and religious purposes is as old as human history. Some of those cultures were shaman and pagan subcultures; African native religions; Bwiti Cult; South American native religions; Amazon Cultures; Central American Cultures; Mexican subcultures; Aztec, Maya and Inca; Wiccan and witch subcultures; Satanists; American Indians; Greek and Hellenistic cultures; Sufis; Hassan Sabbah's Hashissins; Hindu, Indian and Tibetan cultures; some of the Nordic subcultures etc. Some of the psychoactive ingredients of the plants that were used during these religious rituals were; narcotic analgesics (opium), THC (cannabis), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline (peyote), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga), DMT (Ayahuasca and phalaris species), Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol (Amanita muscaria), thujone (absinthe, Arthemisia absinthium), ephedra, mandragora, star lotus, Salvia divinorum etc. The main purposes of the practice of these plants were: spiritual healing; to contact with spirits; to contact with the souls of ancestors; to reach enlightenment (Nirvana or Satori); to become a master shaman, pagan or witch; to reach so-called-other realities, etc. Such "psychedelic-philosophical plant rituals" changed participating persons' psychology, philosophy and personality to a great degree. In these two successive articles, the consumption of psychedelic plants during religious rituals is reviewed and it is hypothesized that the images, figures, illusions and hallucinations experienced during these "plant trips" had a great impact on the formation and creation of many figures, characters, creatures, archetype images that exist not only in the mythology, but also in many religions, as well, such as angels, demons, Satan, mythological creatures, gods, goddesses etc. In the Middle East and Anatolia, within many hermetic and pagan religions, Greek and Hellenic cultures psychoactive plant use was a serious part of the religious rituals, such as Dionysian rituals or Witch's' Sabbaths. Although the impact of the "psychedelic experience and imagination" was enormous to the configuration of many religious and mythological characters, and archetypes, this fact has been underestimated and even unnoticed by many historians and anthropologists, because of the quasi-ethical trends of "anti-drug-brain-washed Western Societies".
Psychoactive plants have been consumed by many cultures, cults and groups during religious rituals and ceremonies for centuries and they have been influential on the eruption of many images, secret and religious symbols, esoteric geometrical shapes, archetypes, religious figures, and philosophy of religions since the dawn of Homo sapiens. Some of the psychoactive plants used for religious purposes were: narcotic analgesics (opium), THC (cannabis), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline (peyote), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga), DMT (Ayahuasca and Phalaris species), Peganum harmala, bufotenin, muscimol (Amanita muscaria), Thujone (absinthe, Arthemisia absinthium), ephedra, mandragora, star lotus, Salvia divinorum etc. An important property of these natural chemicals is to induce the human psyche to perceive optical forms and shapes that are existent in the subconscious and presumed collective unconsciousness, and which emerge during certain trance states and ASCs (altered states of consciousness). Some of these simple geometric forms are called entoptic images and phosphenes. Entopic images and phosphenes have been found in various cultural works of art and in the drawings on cave walls, which were formed during shamanic religious rituals since Neolithic times. Also entoptic images exist in many folkloric, traditional and cultural geometrical shapes. Long before the creation of languages, visual perception and information were the only source for mankind, alone of the primates, to perceive the outer world. This article reviews the possibility of an ancient forgotten language of visual signs and symbols, which is genetically existent in the human brain and emerges during ASCs, trance states, and consciousness altered by psychoactive plants.
Although there are many forms of female orgasms described in the literature, there are still debates about the female orgasmic response and no unified theory to explain those orgasmic reflexes and sexual responses have been proposed. Also, there are inconsistent reports and comments about the 'vaginal versus clitoral orgasm controversy'. Recently, a novel form of female orgasms has been coined as "Expanded Sexual Response" (ESR), and defined as: "being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature". Expanded orgasms induce a different state of consciousness, or "orgasmic consciousness", whereas many forms of altered states of consciousness (ASC) can be observed. There are lots of reports, coming from the data accumulated during last decades on the female orgasm and orgasmic consciousness, which confirms the fact that "clitoral and vaginal orgasms are two separate entities", while their unification may induce a stronger and intense form of female orgasm, coined as "blended orgasm". As we have hypothesized in our other publications, at least six orgasmic reflex pathways may take part in the development of single or multiple clitoral, vaginal, blended orgasms, and expanded, enhanced, prolonged ESR orgasms. Pudental, pelvic, hypogastric and vagus nerves play major roles in the development of single or ESR orgasms, as well as at least two oxytocin pathways may contribute to it. In blended, ESR orgasms and/or status orgasmus, more than one 'orgasm reflex arch pathway' may trigger the orgasm at the same time, while other pathways play a supplementary role. We have investigated the ESR phenomenon using a specific ESR-Scale in a series of surveys among ESR-women, compared to the control groups and defined the main characteristics of ESR phenomenon in the human female. ESR women seem to have higher libido, higher masturbation frequency, more erotic fantasies, stronger and more intense, prolonged orgasms or expanded orgasms (EO); while they experience multiple clitoral, vaginal and blended orgasms separately, as well as status orgasmus. Also ESR women are more aware of their bodies and their deep vaginal erogenous zones (DVZs), which comprises inner clitoris, G-Spot, A-Spot, O-Spot, PC-Muscles and Cervix. "Four nerve-six pathway theory of female orgasm" and oxytocinergic system may seem to explain ESR phenomenon.
Introduction: Grafenberg’s Spot (G-Spot) was hypothesized to take part in the development of female orgasm in many debates since 1950’s. Lately, it has been proposed that not only G-Spot exists, but there are also other deep vaginal erogenous zones (DVZ) which can trigger orgasm in some women. Methods: During our various ongoing surveys on female sexuality, we investigated subjectively perceived erogenous zones to induce pleasure and trigger orgasm in women. 198 women of different nationalities were questioned in different scales and survey questionnaire, in Turkish and English. A portion of data analyzed and presented here; the study is still continuing, percentages and figures may change, Results: G-SPOT: The localization of G-spot is at the anterior vaginal wall, 2.5-4cm inside, under the mid uretral length. In our series 63 out of 198 women admitted to be aware of their G-Spots. 55 of them (27.7%) were positive that they had experienced G-Spot orgasms. 25 (45.4%) of these women were ESR-women. A-SPOT: A-Spot is at the anterior wall of vagina, 2-3.5cm below anterior fornix, under the bladder. 21 women (10.6%) admitted to be aware of such an erogenous zone. 13 (61.9%) of them were ESR-women. O-SPOT: O-Spot is between the posterior vaginal wall and the rectum, 2-4cm below posterior fornix. 16 women (8%) replied that they have a sensitive area at this part of their genitalia. 12 (75%) of them were ESR-women. U-SPOT: No U-Spot has been detected in the survey. Cervix: Cervix is the collum (neck) of uterus. 15 women (7.5%) replied that their cervix is sensitive and may trigger an orgasm. 9 (60%) of them were ESR-women. PFM: PFM are the muscle network between pubis and coccyx. 24 women (12.1%) told that activation of PFM was effective for the development of an orgasm. 12 (50%) of them were ESR women. Most of the ESR women admitted that they may have such DVZ other than glans clitoris. Conclusion: Such erogenous zones may exist in a minority of women, however the women may not be making the differentiation of exact localizations, thus we call PFM, O-, A-Spots and Cervix under one name: Deep Vajinal Erogenous Zones (DVZ). A total of nearly 7 to 12% were aware of DVZ. More research should be performed on the functional anatomy of female genitalia. Extra erogenous zones, such as G-Spot or DVZ, may be an important contributing factor in the development of ESR.
Introduction: It is well known and estimated that childbirth affects the sexual response of women. We investigated the influence of childbirth on sexual response of women in Turkey. Methods: 11 women were questioned about their sexual activities before pregnancy, during first trimester, second trimester, third trimester and 3 months after childbirth (number of subjects are increasing, while study continues). A modified form of SAYIN-ESR-Kegel-PFM-Preliminary Scale which contained 52 questions about the given periods was used. A 0-6 likert scale was used to assess a subset of questions: 0-affected terribly bad; 1-affected very bad; 2-affected bad; 3-no change; 4-affected little good; 5-affected good; 6-Affected very good. Results: 1) Whole pregnancy and birth affected the overall sexual pleasure BAD (Scale average (SA):2) 2) Child birth (CB) affected the overall sexual satisfaction and general sex life very BAD (SA: 1.36) 3) CB affected lubrication BAD (SA:1.81) 4) CB affected orgasmic satisfaction and orgasm capacity very BAD (SA:1.54) 5) CB affected libido BAD (SA:2.18) 6) CB affected PC-muscle control and activity BAD (SA:1.9) 7) CB affected contracting PC-muscles for getting pleasure BAD (SA:1.81) 8) CB affected the pleasure getting from coitus very BAD (SA:1.36) 9) CB did NOT have a BAD effect on general psychology of the mother (SA:3.09) 10) CB affected the male spouse’s sexual attraction and sexual tendency to the mother BAD (SA:2.27) 11) CB affected the subjective self image of the mother BAD (SA:2.27) 12) CB affected sexual activities and getting pleasure from sex BAD (SA:1.72) 13) CB affected the overall view of the mother toward sex and pleasure BAD (SA:2.09). Many other parameters related with sexual response, sexual impulse, arousal, pleasure and orgasmic response, etc., were also asked during the survey study. The trend was that both pregnancy at the third trimester and the CB affected sexual response, pleasure and orgasmic response of the mothers BAD compared to pro-pregnancy period. Conclusion: Both pregnancy (particularly at the third trimester) and CB have very negative effects on the sexual responsiveness of the mothers. After a couple of births motherhood may have adverse effects on sexual responsiveness and satisfaction of the mothers. A structured education, seminars, workshops and PC-muscle training using a Kegel Perineometer during pregnancy and after childbirth may improve some of the negative factors happening during pregnancy and CB.
Rationale and Introduction: Pelvic Floor Muscles (PFM) are important muscle network between pubis and coccyx, that take part crucial roles in many sexual functions. We have shown that PFM strength is directly correlated with the intensity and quality of orgasms, the possibility of attaining vaginal orgasms and the development of Expanded Sexual Response (ESR). Methods: During our various preliminary surveys on ESR and female sexuality, we investigated the effects of the activation of PFM on masturbation in women. In ESR scales and other survey questionnaire, a separate section of 10 questions were asked about the activation of PFM and masturbation patterns. Pilot data of 35 ESR women and 59 None-ESR (NESR) is presented. The strengths of PFM of these women were also measured by using a Kegel Perineometer. A portion of data collected until August 2011 is analyzed and presented, the study is still continuing, percentages and figures may change. Results: 1) PFM strength was correlated with ESR-Scores. 2) Development of ESR was directly correlated with the strength of PFM. 3) PFM strength was correlated with the frequency of the occurrence of vaginal orgasms. 4) PFM strength was correlated with the frequency of masturbation and the occurrence of multiple orgasms 5) ESR women masturbated at least 2 times or more, a week; while NESR women masturbated at least 1-3 times a month, when both group didn’t have partners 6) Squeezing PFM during clitoral masturbation increased the intensity and numbers of orgasms as well as the frequency of multiple orgasms in ESR women. 7) Squeezing PFM during clitoral masturbation enhanced the quality and pleasure of orgasms in both groups. 8) Self assigned libido scores were correlated with the frequency of masturbation 9) More than 75 % of ESR women squeezed PFM during clitoral masturbation. 10) For a subgroup of NESR women, who did not experience vaginal orgasms, clitoral masturbation gave more pleasure and satisfaction than coitus. For ESR women both were very pleasurable. Conclusion: 1) For attaining ESR, the training and strength of PFM are very crucial. 2) ESR women have more powerful and developed PFM, compared to NESR women 3) Using PFM during clitoral masturbation increases the intensity, number and frequency of orgasms in women 4) ESR women masturbated more frequently than NESR women 5) Masturbation frequency is an important factor in the development of ESR.
Introduction: In Eastern literature centuries ago and in Western literature during the last decades, there were descriptions of different and intense female orgasm patterns. It is hypothesized that in a minority of women, orgasmic response can be enhanced and expanded, as coined with the term Expanded Sexual Response (ESR). The neurological and neuropharmacological basis of intense orgasms and ESR phenomenon is still obscure. Findings: The research teams of Komisaruk, Whipple and Giorgiadis have fulfilled fMRI screening of brain areas during female orgasms. Komisaruk et al. have discovered that the female orgasm can be triggered via four different nerves: pudental, pelvic, hypogastric and vagus nerves. Also it has been proposed that in a minority of women, orgasm reflexes can be triggered by means of the stimulation of glans clitoris, other clitoral structures, PC-muscle, cervix, other Deep Vaginal Erogenous Zones (DVZ: A-, O-, G-Spots, etc.), anus, nipples, and ear lobes. Four Nerve-Six Pathway Theory of Female Orgasm: We hypothesize that during the development of a single intense orgasm and/or ESR, six separate pathway systems may activate the female orgasms. These are: pudental, pelvic, hypogastirc, vagus, intercostal nerve mediated reflex arches. Oxytocin is also a major neurotransmitter and hormone which contributes to the development of female orgasm. Four main nerve pathways and two oxytocin pathways mediate the formation of normal or single orgasms, as well as developed, sustained, intense and long lasting orgasms in ESR. Staircase Hypothesis of Attaining Different Orgasmic Reflexes: ESR can be learned and developed in a few women by training in a staircase pattern. Clitoral, vaginal, blended, intense blended orgasms and ESR can be explained by staircase orgasmic reflex hypothesis and four nerve-six pathway theory. Conclusions: Even though ESR can be attained by very few women today, after the discovery of the mechanisms of intense female orgasms and ESR, it will be possible for many women to experience these orgasm patterns, soon, after certain training, which will contribute to sex therapy a great deal.
Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) During Female Orgasms and Expanded Sexual Response (ESR): Don’t Use Drugs, Use Expanded Orgasms! Rationale and Introduction: Expanded Sexual Response (ESR) is defined as “being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature”. Lately, there were reports that defended the hypothesis that “intense orgasms in females” induced a form of “altered states of consciousness” (ASC). Methods: Using different survey methods and techniques we investigated the ASC patterns occurring during normal orgasms and ESR. We reviewed the ASC patterns of 47 women compared with normal sexual response and normal single orgasms. The study is still continuing, planned to be completed by 2014; there may be changes in the figures and statistics in the final study. Results: We have concluded that ASC may occur in normal, single intense orgasms; however the occurrence of ASC was more variable (more than 72 ASC patterns), intense and frequent in ESR. Among these were: depersonalization; out of body experience; flying; dying feeling (petit morte); ecstasy; rapture; explosion feeling; quivering, earthquake feeling; flooding; absorbing; spurting; blessed; shuddering; intense love; unreal; surreal; voyage to nature; seeing light flashes, color flashes, geometric shapes, figures; peacefulness; serenity; physical and spiritual warmth; loss of control; spreading; flowing; mystical experience; cessation of time; intense empathy; unification with the partner and/or the universe; de ja vu; crying and many others which are now being collected through our different surveys. Conclusion: ESR orgasms and also single intense orgasms may induce a form of ASC in the human female. The mechanism of ESR induced ASCs is still very obscure. Four nerve and six pathway theory, acute dopamine, norepinephrine, endogenous opioid, oxytocin and prolactin release may explain the occurrence of ASCs during ESR, to some extent. Expanded orgasms have an acute and short lasting, hallucinogenic effect, as well as, anxiolytic, anti-depressant, analgesic, myo-relaxant, ecstatic, sedating effects, which may ironically lead to a novel and humorous slogan in 21st Century: “Don’t Use Drugs, Use Expanded Orgasms”!
Contents Preface 3 Woet Gianotten: Cancer and Sexuality 7 Introduction 7 Facts & Figures 7 The Damage Done 8 Sexual Consequences of specific cancers 10 The Average Cource of Sexuality in Cancer 14 Minority Groups 15 Dealing With Sexuality & Intimacy in Case of cancer 15 Patrick Jern & Juhana Piha: Towards Improved Diagnostic Criteria and Treatment Interventions for Rapid Ejaculation 19 Abstract 19 Introduction 19 Definitions and Diagnostic Criteria for Early Ejaculation 20 Etiology of Early Ejaculation 21 Treatment of Early Ejaculation 22 Discussion 23 Acknowledgements 25 Catherine Hakim: Erotic Capital and Sexual Pleasure, and Sexual Markets 27 Abstract 27 Erotic Capital as the Fourth Personal Asset 28 Studies of Sexuality 31 Links Between Erotic Capital and Money 32 The Rising Importance of Physical and Sexual Attractiveness in Modern Societies Mating and Marriage Markets 34 The Male Sex Deficit and Women’s Advantage 35 Sexual Cultures, Sexual Markets, Sexual Expression 36 Sexual Pleasure 40 Conclusions 42 Katarina Alanko, Patrick Jern & Annika Gunst: Differences in Levels of Sexual Dysfunctions in Lesbian, Bi-, and Heterosexual Women 45 Introduction 45 Methods 46 Results 47 Discussion 49 Toivo Aavik & Getter Raidam: Personal Values and Sexual Desire 52 Introduction 52 Sexual Desire 52 Personal Values 53 Personal Values and Sexuality 54 The Aim of the Present Study 55 Method 55 Results 56 Discussion 58 Karoline Bischof: Sexocorporel in the Promotion of Sexual Pleasure 60 The Physiological Components of Sexual Pleasure 60 The Emotial Components of Sexual Pleasure 66 The Cognitive Components of Sexual Pleasure 67 4 Osmo Kontula: The Origin of Sexual Arousal 69 Erotica and Arousal 69 Psyche and Arousal 70 The Role of Sexual Stimulus 70 Foundations of Sexual Fantasies 71 The Core Erotic and Sexual Theme 73 Sexual Partner and Arousal 73 Maintaining Sexual Desire in Long-term Relationships 74 Peak Sexual Experiences 75 Sexual Arousal is a Resource for Life 75 Esben-Esther Pirelli Benestad: Addressing the Disturbed Like Ripples in Water, Networking for Children Who Trance 77 Foreword 77 Belonging 77 Background 78 Selection 80 Attitude 80 Course of Action 81 Grounds for the Course of Action 81 Like Ripples in Water 81 Results / Experiences 84 Conclusion 86 Inara Roja, Zenija Roja & Liesma Balta: Cognitive Hypnotherapy and Psycho-aromatherapy for Couples With Unpleasantness 89 Abstract 89 Background 89 Material and Methods 90 Results 90 Discussion 93 Conclusion 93 Yuriy Zharkov: Sexology in Russia 95 Introduction 95 Russian Medical Sexology 96 Studies 96 Conclusion 97 Lotta Löfgren-Mårtenson: Between Professional Ambivalence and Multidisciplinary Harmony: A Qualitative Study on Sexologist as a Profession 99 Abstract 99 Introduction 99 Objectives and Research Questions 100 Method, Participants and Procedures 100 Results 101 Professional Ambivalence and Competence 102 Multidisciplinary Harmony and Tensions 103 Sexology as an Interdisciplinary Landscape - a Discussion 105 Katri Ryttyläinen-Korhonen & Maija Ritamo: Hospital Districts Implementing Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Finland 109 Abstract 109 Introduction 109 Material and Methodology 110 Results 111 Discussion 114 5 Solveig Anna Bóasdóttir: Pleasure and Danger: The Struggle Over Sexual Pleasure in Feminist Literature 117 The Social Construction of Sexuality 117 Sexual Reality and Sexual Ideals: The Road Forward 120 Sandra Hagman: Psychiatric Theories and Their Impact on Criminal Law The Case of Legal Control over Homosexuality in Finland in Comparison to Other Nordic Countries 125 Introduction 125 History of Legal Control over Homosexual Acts 126 Innate and Learned Homosexualities - Different Theories on Homosexuality 128 Scandinavian Countries and Homosexuality as a Human Right Question 130 Finland and the Homosexual Seducer as a Social Danger 131 Susanna Ruuhilahti: Good Sex - Enhancing Wellbeing in Sexuality Education by Utilizing Stories 135 Once upon a time there were... 135 The Power of Stories - an Opportunity to Find a New Way of Thinking about Matters 136 Good Story Makes Many Feelings Possible 137 A Story Contributes to Understanding Everyone’s Uniqueness and Differences 138 Imagination Connects Us to Others and Makes Us Less Self-Centred 139 Young People, Sex, and Stories - What Makes Sex Good 140 Good Sex Experiences are Important 142 What kind of Story Do We Convey on Sex 143 To Sum Up 144 Ümit Sayin & Asiye Kocatürk: Expanded Sexual Response in the Human Female: The Mechanisms of Expanded Orgasms in Women 147 Introduction 147 Expanded Sexual Response: Preliminary Definitions 148 The Basic Principals of Developing ESR in the Human Female 150 Deep Vaginal Erogenous Zones (DVZ) 151 Pelvic Floor Muscles (PFM, PC-Muscles, Love Muscles) 152 Multiple Orgasm, Libido, Masturbation Sub Scale Scores were Significantly Different in ESR Women Compared to NESR Women 152 Mechanisms of ESR Phenomenon 153 A Special Method to Include Expanded ESR Orgasms in Women: Four Spot Method 154 The Neurological and Neurochemical Basis of ESR 154 Four Nerve-Six Pathway Theory of Female Orgasm 156 What is Different in ESR Women Compared to NESR Women 157 Some Aspects for DSM-V-2013 HDSI Criteria Related with ESR Phenomenon 158 Conclusion 160 Introduction The medical literature has mostly been interested in and focused on the pathologies of human sexual behavior. Not much research and investigation have ever been done on the limits and extents of human female’s sexual potentials, such as Expanded Sexual Response (ESR). Ancient Eastern literature is full of incidences and descriptions of elevated and enhanced levels of orgasmic response and sexual pleasure of women, utilizing many different techniques centuries ago, such as Tantrist and Taoist Love Making in India and China (Vatsyayana, 1883; Chang 1977, 1983; Schwartz, 1999; Chia 2002, 2005; Mumford, 2005; Michaels 2008). Recent publications and books in the West after 1990’s point out that female sexual response can be enhanced and expanded to certain levels (Rhodes, 1991; Schwartz, 1999; Bodansky, 2000; Taylor, 2002; Zdrok, 2004; Sayin, 1993, 2010, 2011, 2012). Such results have also been reported by Masters & Johnson (1966) and Hartman & Fithian (1972). William Masters and Virginia Johnson, reported a female’s sustained and long orgasms lasting for 43 seconds, coining the episode as status orgasmus in their famous book “Human Sexual Response” (Masters & Johnson, 1966). William Hartman and Mariyln Fithian, also reported the highest recorded orgasm number in the human female as 134 orgasms per hour. Since then, many occurrences about the extremes of female orgasmic response, up to 200 orgasms per hour or more, have been reported (Sayin, 1993, 2010, 2011, 2012). No physiological or psychological disorders of these high orgasmic women were ever re- 147 ported. This kind of elevated number of orgasms may occur in mania, mood disorders, bipolar disorders, persistent genital arousal syndrome, hypersexuality, nymphomania, hyperthyroid function disorders, temporal lobe epilepsy, parkinsonism treated with L-DOPA, following brain trauma etc. (Sayin, 2010, 2011, 2012). However, it is also known that many women without any of these disorders may exert very high orgasmic patterns, which is not investigated by modern science and medicine thoroughly yet! In 1991 Brauers designed a method named as “ESO Ecstasy Program” by which prolonged, sustained and long lasting orgasms could be attained by women, such as orgasms lasting for more than an hour (Rhodes, 1991). In 2000, Patricia Taylor reported expanded orgasm patterns of 22 women in her PhD thesis and defined the term “Expanded Orgasm” in the human female (Fisher, 1974, 1977; Taylor, 2000, 2002). In Patricia Taylor’s research group, “Altered States of Consciousness” (ASC) patterns were also defined during expanded orgasms and ESR. In Taylor’s study, the expanded orgasm (EO) or ESR (Expanded Sexual Response) duration was 0.2 to 60 minutes and even more in some particular cases in 22 female subjects (a total of 44 subjects or 22 couples) (Taylor, 2000). Taylor had classified her cases into four dimensions as physical, mental, emotional and spiritual. Taylor’s cases described a deep experience of ASC such as, more pleasure; deep relaxation; heightened sensations; increased energy; temporary pain relief; energy expanding out of body; deep relaxing abdominal breathing; increased clarity and creativity; acceptance of the self and others; extra sensory perception; ecstasy; mystical experience; divine feelings; increased awareness of the body; mind connection and integration; psycho-spiritual birth and death experience; loss of illusion of spatial separation; loss of spatial dimensions, loss of sense of time; personal boundaries dissolving and merging with the divine; cosmic emptiness and void; sharing with the partner; compassion; sense of fulfillment etc. (Taylor, 2000). Mah & Binik’s study also opened a typical discussion on such altered mood states during female orgasms (Mah, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2010; King, 2010). King, Mah & Binik categorized subjective feelings of female orgasms in 10 dimensions as building sensations, flooding sensations, flushing sensations, shooting sensations, throbbing sensations, general spasms, pleasurable satisfaction, relaxation, emotional intimacy, and ecstasy (King 2010). However, in Mah & Binik’s studies there was no classification of women in terms of the properties of orgasmic response, such as clitoral, vaginal, blended and/or ESR. Expanded Sexual Response
Authors: Nurcan Armagan1, Ümit Sayin2 and Asiye Kocatürk3 Institution: 1 Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anatolian and Zeynep Kamil Hospitals, Üsküdar, İstanbul-Turkey 2 Institute of Forensic Sciences, İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa, İstanbul-Turkey 3 Dept. of Midwife and Nursery, Health Sciences Institute, Marmara University, İstanbul-Turkey Corresponding E-mail: email@example.com Abstract Title: Can Sexual Response be Enhanced and Expanded in the Human Female? Preliminary Findings and a Proposed Preliminary Psychometric Scale for Expanded Sexual Response (ESR) Rationale and Introduction: During the last decades, there are increasing numbers of reports, articles and books, proposing the hypothesis that sexual response in human female can be enhanced and/or expanded, as some ancient Eastern literature had pointed out. “Expanded Orgasm” (EO) was coined by Dr. Patricia Taylor in 2000. To investigate Expanded Sexual Response (ESR), we have communicated with women through surveys and internet communications. Methods: We have corresponded with nearly 200 women to investigate the ESR phenomenon. A minority of them admitted that they had an extraordinary, enhanced sexual response, which is not yet clearly defined in the medical literature. We determined the preliminary characteristics of ESR through surveys, facebook, g-mail, skype communications, and by means of some notices on three websites and by other means. Our preliminary scale contains 25 basic questions about the extremes and limits of sexual behavior and orgasms of women, which is explained in the poster. The study is still continuing to establish the genuine psychometric scales for ESR after suitable variance, validity analysis are performed. Results: It is concluded that some characteristics of the sexual response of women with ESR were different than that of the women without ESR (none-ESR, NESR): 1) The ESR women experienced both vaginal and clitoral orgasms. 2) The ESR women experienced multiple clitoral or vaginal orgasms in most of their sexual encounters. 3) The ESR women experienced blended orgasms as described by Ladas, Whipple and Perry (1982). 4) The ESR women claimed to have stronger pelvic floor muscles (PFM) compared to NESR women. 5) The libido of ESR women was very high compared to NESR women. 6) ESR women described a phenomenon called G-Spot orgasms. 7) ESR women described sensitive erogenous zones in their genitalia other than glans clitoris. 8) ESR women masturbated more frequently than NESR women. 9) ESR women had erotic fantasies more frequently than the NESR women. 10) ESR women admitted to have a form of altered states of consciousness during some of their prolonged orgasms. Conclusions: We concluded that ESR may exist in a minority of women. We defined ESR as: “To be able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms that lasted longer and more intense than the classical single orgasm patterns defined in the literature”. We propose that more research should be performed to unveil the characteristics and basics of ESR phenomenon.
Authors: Asiye Kocatürk1 and Ümit Sayin2 Institution: 1 Dept. of Midwife and Nursery, Health Sciences Institute, Marmara University, İstanbul-Turkey 2 Institute of Forensic Sciences, İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa, İstanbul, Turkey Corresponding E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Title: A Comparison of Hyper-active Sexual Tendencies between Turkish and Global Women. Rationale and Introduction: In DSM-V, a new sexual disorder will be defined as “Hypersexual Disorder” (HD) in the human female according to a new scale called HDSI. Lately, there have been debates about the validity of HDSI. Recent publications point out that sexual response can be enhanced and expanded in the human female, a phenomenon coined as “Expanded Sexual Response” (ESR). Some internet surveys have been reported supporting the hypothesis that some normal or ESR cases maybe misdiagnosed as HD, after the legalization of HDSI in DSM-V. Methods: Using an internet survey, a simple 12 item questionnaire has been utilized to measure and score the hyper-active (HA) sexual tendencies of women such that the women who attained the top scores of 60-72 (Group A) would have a hyper-active sex life style. In the survey, the women, who got a score of 60 to 72, would also be likely to get high scores in HDSI, which might put them into the category of HD. The survey was published as pools in four websites (of which language was English in two and Turkish in the other two of them) between May 2010 and April 2012. 603 international and 520 Turkish correspondents answered the pool (total: 1123). The scoring groups were as follows: A)60-72 B)50-60 C)40-50 D)30-40 E)20-30 F)Below 20. Results: In the international group, the frequencies of HA scores were (N=603), A)40.6% B)26% C)18.7% D)9.9% E)2.9% F)1.6%. In the Turkish group (N=520), the frequencies of HA scores were, A)16.5% B)16.7% C)25.3% D)21.7% E)10.2% F)9.4%. In the combined group the frequencies of HA scores were (N=1123), A)29% B)21.7% C)21.8% D)15.4% E)6.3% F)5.2% Conclusions: 1) Consistent with the survey study of Winters et al., we concluded that 40.6% of international respondents and 29% of all respondents would be likely to be diagnosed as HD if HDSI criteria were applied on these women. 2) Turkish women seem to have a less tendency to be hyper active and to have a satisfactory sexual life style compared to other global women 3) A phenomenon called ESR may exist and the women with ESR can be misdiagnosed as hypersexual disorder, if the current HDSI criteria will be valid as it is proposed in DSM-V. More research should be performed on female sexual behavior to determine the “normals and limits” of women, before deriving certain pathological conclusions, such as HD, dependent on ambiguous scales or inventories.
Authors: Asiye Kocatürk1, Ümit Sayın2, Gizem Y. Baş3, Cevdet Kocatürk1 Institution: 1 Dept. of Midwife and Nursery, Health Sciences Institute, Marmara University, İstanbul-Turkey 2Institute of Forensic Sciences, İstanbul University, Cerrahpaşa, İstanbul-Turkey 3 Bogazici University Corresponding E-mail: email@example.com Abstract Title: Comparison of Sexual Behavior of 939 Female Students in İstanbul Universities-2012 to the Survey Results of Kadınca Report-1993: Decline in Sexual Knowledge and Education in Turkish Universities? Rationale and Introduction: No detailed reports about the sexual behavior and orgasmic patterns of Turkish women have ever been published! We have performed a short survey to investigate the sexual behavior patterns of Female University students of three Universities in İstanbul, as a part of our ongoing “İstanbul Report on Female Sexuality” (IR-2013) survey. Methods: To compare the sexual and orgasmic behavior patterns of young Turkish women with former studies at the age range of 17-25 (KR-1993, N=857), a 27 questionnaire survey was made among female university students in İstanbul, as a continuation of Kadınca Report (KR-1993) and Hülya Report (2003). The questionnaire of IR was delivered to 939 female students in Bogazici (N=303), Marmara (N=396) and İstanbul Universities (N=240). Results: 1) 81.4 % of IR-females were virgins, while, 37.1 % of KR-females were virgins 2) 57.6 % of IR-females never masturbated, while 36.7 % of KR-females had never masturbated 3) 44.2 % of IR-females never had any erotic fantasies, while 92.3 % of KR-females had various erotic fantasies. 4) 34.4 % of IR-females have never experienced orgasm, while 78.3 % of KR-females had experienced orgasm 5) 66.8 % of IR-females have never experienced multiple orgasms, while 52.7 % of KR-females had experienced multiple orgasms. 6) 57.9 % of IR-females attained orgasm once or none, 31.1 % could experience 2-5 orgasms in one hour, while 32.9 % of KR-females had attained orgasms once or none, 55.5 % of KR-females had attained 2-5 orgasms, 11.6 % had had 6-20 orgasms in one hour. 7) 3.4 % of IR-females had a lesbian affair, while 14.1 % of KR-females had had a lesbian affair once. 8) 4.8 % of IR-females were aware of their G-Spot, while 21.1 % of KR-females had knew their G-Spot 9) 4.9 % of IR-females had incestuous experience, while 5.6 % of KR-females had had a similar experience. Conclusions: It seems that there is decline in the knowledge and education of sexuality at Turkish Universities compared to the young women at the same age groups in Kadınca Report (KR-1993) twenty years ago. This result may be a reflection of the conservative attitudes of the general politics of the country and of the education system, which was shown before to be effective on the sexual behavior of Turkish women. Turkish young females need a structured education on sexuality at the universities.
Altered states of consciousness induced by hallucinogens (H-ASC) is still a vaguely understood phenomenon. Taken the diverse psychological effects they exert, the main mechanism of action of hallucinogens; LSD, ibogaine, THC, PCP, MDMA, methamphetamine, mescaline, psilocybin and DMT, of which psychological effects are discussed in the article, are not properly understood and explained by the modern methods of neuroscience due to the lack of vigorous research. The involvement of some receptors, such as, 5-HT 2 (and probably other 5-HT receptors), glutamate and dopamine receptors, adrenergic and cannabinoid receptors, is one of the mechanisms, however it is not easy to explain such incongruent psychological effects by only receptor and neurotransmitter systems alone, since H-ASCs have, sometimes, their own unity and gestalt, unfolding the subconscious, in the "voyages" they induce, although the perception may, or may not, be distorted depending on the person, and "set and setting". They induce visual, tactile and auditory hallucinations; synesthesia; perception of fractals, geometrical and kaleidoscopic images with vivid colors; perception of two dimensional pictures as three dimensional, animated and moving; distortions and alterations in the body perception; alterations in the perceptions of temporal-spatial continuum and time; changes in the perception of the ego and the self; feelings of unification with nature and universe, peak experiences - mimicking satori or nirvana-, ecstasy, rapture, extreme euphoria, excitement and happiness, oceanic bliss, self-fulfillment, referred as "good trip", as well as, dysphoria, anxiety, mania, delirium, psychosis, acute schizophrenia, collapse of the self, known as "bad trip"; depending upon the mood, affection and psychology of the person, and "set and setting". Mysticomimetic effects of H-ASCs, imitate the consciousness states of ancient mystics, probably, by means of activating prefrontal cortex, limbic system and the right temporal lobe. A hypothetical "holographic brain theory" may give some extra insights about the explanation of some of the effects of H-ASCs. It should be taken into account that H-ASCs, can be accepted as a good tool to investigate the nature of consciousness, brain and the human psyche, as well as some of the H-ASCs are good models of psychosis, too. More detailed scientific research should be performed to understand the basic and real mechanisms of H-ASCs, to comprehend and unravel the mystery of human mind and consciousness, since scientific medical research on hallucinogens has been legalized since 1992.
Expanded Sexual Response (ESR) is a recently defined phenomenon. It is defined as "being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature". During our detailed preliminary survey to investigate the claimed ESR phenomenon in some particular women, we also investigated the subjective feelings and altered states of consciousness (ASC) during very intense and prolonged orgasms in the women with ESR. During our preliminary survey 72 types of different subjective feelings and ASC patterns were described in the 47 women with ESR. Among these were: depersonalization; out of body experience; flying; dying feeling (petit morte) with the partner and/or the universe; de ja vu; crying etc. It is concluded that in some particular women with ESR, some of the very intense and prolonged orgasms induce a form of ASC of which mechanism is not explained yet! Pudental, pelvic, hypogastric and vagus nerves and oxytocin pathway is involved in the development of female orgasm. We hypothesize that blended nerve activation among these four nerves during ESR may be inducing extraordinary subjective feelings and ASC during profound female orgasms. "Four nerve theory of female orgasm" may explain the ASC during ESR to some extent. Also involvement of dopaminergic, serotoninergic, noradrenergic, opioid, prolactinergic and oxytocinergic pathways may modulate the altered mood states during ESR induced ASCs. Near to our ongoing research, more research to determine the scientific basis and parameters of ESR phenomenon in some females should be carried out, as well as the research on the neurological, psychological and neurochemical mechanisms of ESR induced ASCs in some females' psyche.
PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE STRENGHT IS CORRELATED WITH ATTAINING VAGINAL ORGASMS IN HUMAN FEMALE AS MEASURED BY KEGEL PERINEOMETER (Poster Presentation) Ümit Sayın, M.D., Ph.D. (Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Cerrahpaşa-İstanbul) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Asiye Kocatürk, Ph.D. (Midwife Training Department, Health Sciences Institute, Marmara University, Haydarpaşa-İstanbul) E-mail: email@example.com Marjo Ramstadius (Jokioinen, Finland) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction: In medical literature it has been hypothesized that strong pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are correlated with the women’s attaining vaginal orgasms easier; it has also been reported that women who are able attain vaginal orgasms have stronger PFM compared to the women who cannot reach orgasms through intra-vaginal stimulation by intercourse (Lowenstein, 2010) . It has also been reported that healthy and strong PFM are correlated with the enhanced and expanded sexual response (ESR) in human female (Taylor, 2002; Ladas, Whipple, Perry, 1982) . The definition of ESR was described as being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms that lasted longer than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature. To investigate the ESR and the correlation of the strength of PFM with ESR we have made a preliminary research in a group of women who experienced vaginal orgasms and clitoral orgasms, separately and also in another group of women who only experienced clitoral orgasms, but no vaginal orgasms. Methods: Two groups of women have been taken into the study. Group A (N=25) consisted of women who were able attain both vaginal and clitoral orgasms; group B (N=23) consisted of women who could only attain clitoral orgasms, but no vaginal orgasms. SAYIN-PFM-ESR preliminary scale, consisting of 20 specific questions about the main parameters of ESR, was delivered to the women after their PC muscle strength was measured in milibars by Kegel Perineometer (Peritron) and their ESR scores were calculated. The measurements were made while the women were lying, sitting and standing. Also the duration of squeezing and holding the PFM was measured using a chronometer and Kegel Perineometer. The data were compared by Student’s t-test (two tailed) in SPSS program. Results: The means of the strength of PFM in milibars in group A were: lying, 19.18 ± 2.95 (S.D.); sitting, 17.12 ± 3.19; standing 17.16 ± 3.34. The means of the strengths of PFM in milibars in group B were: lying, 11.76 ± 3.6 (S.D.); sitting, 11.84 ±3.93; standing, 13.36 ± 3.86. The duration of squeezing and holding the PFM in group A was 8.54 ± 1.68 seconds and in group B was 4.74 ± 1.17 seconds. Statistical analysis showed that in each parameter category, group A had higher results than group B, which were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The average ESR scores of group A were also significantly higher than the group B. Conclusion: Our research on PFM muscle strength correlation with the ESR and attaining vaginal orgasm is still continuing. Final ESR scales are being designed to measure ESR in human female while appropriate factor and validity analysis are being desined. Our preliminary studies clearly showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between the strength of PFM and vaginal orgasms. Another finding is that there is also a correlation between the ESR scores and the strength of PFM. Our ongoing research will be supplying more objective data on the importance of healthy and strong PFM (also called PC-muscles) on attaining vaginal orgasms and having an enhanced sexual response (ESR) in the human female. Key Words: Pelvic Floor Muscles (PFM), Kegel Perineometer, Vaginal Orgasm, Clitoral Orgasm, Expanded Sexual Response, PC-Muscles
THE MAIN PARAMETERS AND NEW DEFINITIONS OF ENHANCED AND EXPANDED SEXUAL RESPONSE (ESR) (Poster Presentation) Ümit Sayın, M.D., Ph.D. (Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Cerrahpaşa-İstanbul) E-mail: email@example.com Marjo Ramstadius (Jokioinen, Finland) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Rationale: In medical literature, there are many researches and articles about the pathologies of the desire and sexual response of females on the dysfunctions of female sexual physiology and psychology such as anorgasmia, vaginismus etc., however there has been no attempt for a research to investigate the possibilities of enhanced sexual functions and response of the human female, unless it is caused by bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive sexual disorder, persistent genital arousal syndrome etc. Recently many books have been published about the enhanced and expanded sexual response (ESR) of the human female (Taylor, 2002; Rhodes, 1991; Bodansky, 2000; Zdrok, 2004) . Introduction: To investigate the main parameters of a possible ESR we have contacted some women who claimed to have enhanced sexual response. Our aim was to establish the main scientific basis of the definitions and parameters of ESR, if it existed, and to establish an objective ESR scale out of our preliminary findings. Methods: As a preliminary study, 66666 women who claimed that they have a form of ESR and 66666women without ESR definitions were interviewed through internet and/or face to face. The women who joined the study were selected by means of personal communications through the academic circles, former survey correspondents, universities and via the internet and facebook communications; many women with different nationalities were included in the study in 2010 and 2011. To prevent the enhanced sexual response due to psychiatric pathologies such as bipolar disorder, compulsive sexual disorder, all women were questioned about their medical history and such women were not taken to the study. Results: It is concluded that some aspects of the sexual response of women with ESR were different than the women without ESR (none-ESR, NESR): 1) The ESR women experienced both vaginal, clitoral and blended orgasms, as described by Ladas, Whipple and Perry . 2) The ESR women experienced multiple orgasms in most of their sexual activities. 3) The ESR women were able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms that lasted longer than the classical single orgasm and/multiple orgasm patterns defined in the literature. 4) The ESR women claimed to have strong pelvic floor muscles (PFM) compared to NESR women. 5) The libido of ESR women was very high compared to NESR women. 6) ESR women described a phenomenon called G-Spot orgasms. 7) ESR women described sensitive erogenous zones in their genitalia other than clitoris. 8) ESR women masturbated very frequently. 9) ESR women had erotic fantasies more frequently than the NESR women. 10) ESR women admitted to have a form of altered states of consciousness during some of their prolonged orgasms. Conclusion: ESR is a novel phenomenon in the human female which was defined recently. Our preliminary data revealed that more detailed scientific research should be carried out on the possible existence of such a phenomenon. The authors are still working on some psychometric ESR-scales to measure the claimed ESR in the human female in scientific terms. Keywords: Female Orgasm, ESR, Expanded Sexual Response, Enhanced Sexual Response, G-Spot Orgasm, Prolonged Multiple Orgasms
DÖRDÜNCÜ BASKIYA (EDİSYONA) ÖNSÖZ “Derin Seks” evrimleşmiş ve gelişmiş bir kitap dizisidir. 2010 yılında Klan yayınları tarafından yayınlanan kitap, 2014 ve 2015 yıllarında 2. ve 3. bas-kıyı yapmış; piyasaya çıkar çıkmaz da bu baskılar tükenmiştir. Türkiye’de kitap çıkarmak çok zahmetli ve para harcamayı gerektiren; karşılığını da hemen ala-madığınız bir iştir. Cağaloğlu Çakal kitap piyasasının sahtekârlıklarını ve dü-zenbazlıklarını gördüğüm için, kitapları artık telif karşılığı değil, kitap karşılı-ğında yazıyorum. Elime geçen telif karşılığı kitapları da okuma azminde oldu-ğum insanlara, ona buna hediye edip dağıtıyorum. CİSEATED derneğinin ya-kında başlayacak eğitim programlarında satılmak üzere saklıyorum. Bu kitap 2010 yılında ilk yayınlandıktan sonra yeni kitaplar doğurmuştur. Bunlardan bir tanesi, 2012 yılında yayınladığım ESR’dir. Bir diğeri ise “vajinal orgazm” konu-sunu çok daha fazla detaylandırdığım ve orgazmın psikolojisi hakkında okurla-rımdan bana gelen mektupları toplu olarak yayınladığım, “Orgazmın Psikoloji-si” kitabıdır. Derin Seksin, dördüncü baskısını okuyanlar o kitaplarda çok daha fazla bilgi bulabileceklerdir. Ne yazık ki Türkiye’de yazarlar ve yayıncılar, kar-şılığını hiç alamadıkları dağıtımcıya ve kitapçılara çalışmaktadırlar; bu nedenle Türkiye’de kitaptan para kazanılmaz! Biz kitapları sadece yapacağımız eğitim-lerde insanları aydınlatmak için ve toplumda bu konularda yazılmış bilimsel literatür çok az olduğu için yazıyoruz. Cinsel açıdan, gerek Türk toplumu, ge-rekse Batı toplumu ciddi düzeyde hastadır! Umarız bu hastalık, bu kitaplar sayesinde bir dahaki yüzyıla sağaltılır! Bu baskıda 2. Baskıya oranla, sayfa sayısını artırıp baskıda büyük maddi külfet getirdiği için, 2. Baskıda 1500 civarında olan resim sayısını kitabın maliyetini düşürmek için 4. Baskıda azaltmak zorunda kaldık; her iki cildi de bu sayede 70-80 sayfa civarında azaltıp, kağıt tasarrufuna gitmemiz mümkün oldu! 1500 resimli ikinci baskının elektronik hali e-kitap olarak D&R dâhil bazı kitapevlerinde mevcuttur ve bilgisayara indirilebilir. Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın email@example.com Ocak-2017 Göztepe-Kadıköy İstanbul İKİNCİ BASKIYA (EDİSYONA) ÖNSÖZ “Derin Seks” isimli kitap Mart-Nisan 2010 tarihinde yazılmıştı. 3000 adet basılan Derin Seks 3 yıl içinde baskısını tüketti. O zaman için pek çok yeni bilgi ve farklı bakış sunan Derin Seks bazı Üniversitelerde ders kitabı olarak da okutuldu. 2013 Ağustosunda, Derin Seksin yeni edisyonunu ve pek çok yeni bölümünü kaleme alırken, bu kitabın ilk öncüllerinden birisi olan, İlhan Güngören’in YOL yayınlarından 1993’te yayınlamış olduğu ilk cinsellik kitabım “Cinselliğin Farklı Boyutları”ndan beri kadın cinselliği hakkında çok fazla şeyin hem bilim, hem de halk literatüründe değiştiğini gördüm. Türkçe’de bu konularda yeterli bilgi içeren bilimsel kitaplar olmaması beni bu kitapları yazmaya ve yayınlamaya itti. Piyasa ne yazık ki cinsellik konusunda gereksiz laf salataları ve metafizik ile doludur! Aslında geçen üç yıl içinde, çok daha fazla cinsellik üzerine kitap yazmış olabilirdim. Ama Cağaloğlu piyasasındaki dürüst olmayan bazı yayıncılar ve bu yayıncı camiasının ve yayınevlerinin kokuşmuşluğu yüzünden kitap yazma işlerim biraz yavaş gitti. Sorun kitap yazmak değildi Türkiye’de! Sorun, kitabını uygun koşullarda bastırabilmek ve telifini doğru biçimde alabilmekti; daha önceki kitaplarımdan bile telifimi alamamıştım! Ayrıca kitapların dağıtımı da bir içler acısıydı; tamamen tekellerin elindeydi. YOL yayınlarının sahibi değerli dostum İlhan Güngören, yıllar önce (1992) bana demişti ki “Bu Cağaoğlu piyasası içinde yazar olunmaz, nereye kafanı çevirsen çakallarla, üç kağıtçı ve sahtekarlarla dolu! Eğer yazar olacaksan, yayınevini de kendin kuracaksın!” Nitekim, kendisi de öyle yapmıştı ve ZEN, Uzak Doğu Cinselliği konusunda kitaplar yazabilmek için, YOL yayınlarını kurmuştu. İlhan Beyin vefatından sonra, sevgili Ömer Güngören, ne kadar uğraştıysa da sağlık ve görme problemleri yüzünden YOL yayınlarını yürütemedi ve YOL yayınları 2010’larda bu çizgiyi südürüp, sürdüremeyeceği meçhul birilerine hediye edildi; böylece tarihin tozlu sayfalarına karıştı! Sonuçta, biz de değerli dostum Taner Arısal beyle birlikte benzer bir yol izlemeye karar verdik. Kitaplarımızı artık kendimiz yayınlamaya karar verdik ve Tantra Akademi, Cethes şirketinin ve Onur Yayınlarının bir alt markası olarak işe başladı. ESR kitabının basılması için maddi yardımı yapan sponsoru da bulduğum halde üç-dört yayınevi ile büyük zorluklar yaşadım. Sürekli dolandırılmaya çalışıldım. Sonunda Onur Basın Dağıtımla kitabı çıkar-mayı başarabildik. Üstelik bunlardan birisi ESR kitabının kopyasını aldı, elinde 2 ay bekletti, telif anlaşması yapacağını söyledi, ama anlaşma imza günü gelince vazgeçti ve ESR kitabını kendi cinsellik yazarına vererek, daha önce Türkçe’de hiç yayınlanmamış bazı yerlerinin çalınmasına neden oldu (yani resmen ESR kitabından kitabı refere etmeden intihal yapıldı); bu yayıncının geçenlerde vefat ettiğini öğrendim ve çok üzüldüm. Başımız sağolsun! Bu intihali yapan hekim şahıs kendisini iyi bilir! Ama onları dava etmeyeceğim! Kendi yayınladıkları orgazmla ilgili kitabın tarihi ESR’nin yayınlanış tarihinden tam bir yıl sonradır! Bu kitaba aldığım Indigo dergisine verdiğim röportajda boşuna söylememişim “Türkiye’de bilim ve bilim adamı yoktur; bilim falan yapılamaz!” diye! En eğitimlisinin ve bir sürü kitap yazanların hali böyleyken, siz bir de kalanları düşünün! Derin Seksin birinci baskısında 20 konu vardı. İkinci edisyona 9 konu daha ekledik ve Derin Seksi biraz daha derinleştirdik! Ayrıca pek çok konu tekrar gözden geçirildi, bazı yerler baştan yazıldı ve güncellendi. Sonuçta ortaya yaklaşık dokuzyüz sayfa bir kitap çıktı, kitabı hacmi nedeniyle biraz küçültmeye ve iki cilt halinde yayınlamaya karar verdik! Umarız, farklı konuları ele alan Derin Seksin bu ikinci edisyonu pek çok kadının ve erkeğin hayal dünyasında yeni kapılar aralar ve yeni ufuklar açar. Diğer kitaplarımızda da çok farklı boyutlara değinmeyi sürdüreceğiz… Dr. Ümit Sayın firstname.lastname@example.org Kızıltoprak, İstanbul Ağustos, 2013 BİRİNCİ BASKININ (EDİSYONUN) ÖNSÖZÜ Bu kitaptaki yazılar son kırk yılda cinsellik konusunda Batı ki-taplarında yayınlanmış bilimsel bilgilerden kaynağını alan makalelerden oluşmaktadır. Kitabın temel amacı insan cinselliğini öncelikle kadınlara, sonra da erkeklere farklı boyutları ile anlatıp, insanların konuşamadığı, sorgulayamadıkları cinsellikle ilgili tabuları yıkmak ve cinselliğe yeni bir bakış açısı getirmektir. En önemlisi yaşayamadıkları veya yaşanamayan cinsel ekstaziyi onlara bir ölçüde tanıtmaktır. Uzun süredir bu konuları araştırmaktayım. Bu kitap 1993 yılında YOL yayınlarından çıkan ‘Cinselliğin Farklı Boyutları’ isimli kitabımın genişletilmiş ve tekrar ele alınıp, baştan yazılmış yeni versiyonudur. Önceki baskıda kitapta yer alan makaleler tekrar gözden geçirilerek genişletildi; daha sonra yazılmış makalelerden bazıları kitaba eklendi. ‘Cinselliğin Farklı Boyutlarını’ hazırlarken 1990’ların başıydı. Türkiye’de cinsellikle ilgili konular, YOL yayınlarının da yardımıyla yeni yeni Türk entellektüellerinin kütüphanelerinde yer almaya başlamıştı, kadın ve erkek cinselliği yeni yeni sorgulanıyordu. Kadınca Raporu yeni yayınlanmıştı, değerlendirmeler yapılıyordu. Türk kadını yeni yeni uyanıyordu. Kadın dergilerinde yazdığım makaleler muzır kurullarına takılıyor, mahkemelik oluyordu. 2002 yılında ABD’den döndükten sonra Kadınca Raporunun benzeri bir anketi kadın dergilerinden birisinde yapmaya karar verdim ve Hülya dergisinde yayınladım. Bu anketlerin sonuçlarını irdeleyecek olan ‘Türk Kadınında Cinsel Davranış’ isimli kitabım ise ilk kez Türk kadınının cinsel profili hakkında bize net bilgiler verecek. Örneğin ABD ve Avrupa’daki kadınların sadece % 30-34’ünün cinsel ilişki ile orgazm olabilmesine karşın, Türkiye’deki ‘eğitimli kadın-lar’’ın sadece % 13-25’i cinsel ilişki ile orgazm olabiliyorlar; bu sonuç, eğitimli olan Türk kadınlarının bile cinselliği pek fazla bilememelerin-den, kendilerini eğitememelerinden ve erkeklerin bilgisizliklerinden, yetersizliklerinden kaynaklanıyor. Sonuçta Türk kadınları çok zor cinsel doyuma erişiyorlar ve zor orgazm oluyorlar. 1990’lı yıllarda cinsellik konusunda radikal, gerçekçi makaleler yazmaya karar verince aklıma gelen ilk yayın organı 1991 yılında o dönemin en çok satan, en radikal ve devrimci kadın dergisi Kadınca olmuştu, 1991-1992 yılları arasında Kadınca dergisine kadın ve erkek cinselliği hakkında yazdığım yazıları 1992-1995 yılları arasında Cosmopolitan dergisine devam ettirdim; bu makaleler 2001-2004 yılları arasında diğer dergilerde sürdü. Kültürümüzde kadınlarımızın konumuna baktığımızda ne yazık ki onlara hak ettikleri hukuki ve sosyal değeri veremediğimizi görüyoruz. Arap kültürünün ve belki de eski Bizans kültürünün olumsuz etkileriyle neredeyse hiçe indirgenmeye çalışılan kadın cinselliği konusunda erkeklerimizin ve kadınlarımızın çok cahil olması 1991 yılında beni bu yazıları yazmaya itmişti. Amerika’ya gittiğim 1994 yılında gördüm ki aslında ABD bile çok daha iyi durumda değil; İnsanın, ‘Cinsel devrimi yapan ülke burası mı?’ diyesi geliyordu! Halen gazetelerde toplumun cinsel cehaletinden bahsediliyor, içler acısı istatistikler yayınlanıyordu! Türk aile yapısının korunması için de gerek erkeğin, gerekse kadının cinsel fizyoloji ve cinsel doyum konusunda yeterince bilgilenmesi gerekli, bu bilgilenme olmadan mutlu ve uyumlu bir birliktelik sürdürebilmek mümkün görünmemektedir! Bugün Türkiye’deki boşanmaların büyük bir çoğunluğu cinsel uyumsuzluk nedeniyle gerçekleşmektedir ! Her şeyden önce ‘cinselliğin konuşulmasının ayıp olması’, ‘cinselliğin yorgan altında gizlice yaşanmasının gerektiği’, gibi sorunlu inançlardan kaynaklanan davranış bozukluklarının yıkılması gerektiğine inanıyorum. Cinsellik öğrenilebilen, geliştirilebilen, insanın normal psikolojik akardengesinin (hemostasis) sağlanmasında ve kişiliğinin olgunlaşmasında çok etkin bir rolü olan doğal, fizyolojik bir olgudur. Evliliklerin pek çoğu ne yazık ki cinsel uyumsuzluk ve cehalet yüzünden bir açmaza sürüklenmekte ve insanlar yıllar boyu mutsuz bir beraberliğe katlanmaktadırlar. Cinselliğin yaşantıya yeni boyutlar getirebileceği ve hayatı daha haz dolu ve anlamlı kılabileceği bir abartı değil, özgür Batı’da, Avrupa’da ya da Uzak Doğu’da pek çok çiftin yaşayabildiği, tadını çıkardığı bir realitedir. Kitabın genelinde kadın ve erkek cinselliği bilimsel bir yaklaşım-la ele alınmıştır. Biz erkekler uyumlu ve haz dolu bir birliktelik kura-bilmek için kadınları çok daha iyi tanımaya mecburuz. Amaç maço erkek kültüründe sanıldığının aksine ‘kadınları yatakta çıldırtmak’ değil, ‘onları çok daha iyi anlamak ve onlarla uyum sağlamaya çalışmak’ olmalıdır. Batı kapitalizmi aşırı abartılmış seksi (‘overheated sex’) insanların beyinlerine çok farklı ve gerçeğe uymayan kalıplarla sokmaktadır; sadece daha fazla satış yapmayı amaçlayan bu kapitalist mentalitenin en çarpıcı örneklerine, ‘erkek dergilerinin’ ‘abartılı, yanlış bilgiler içeren, çıplaklık’ dolu parlak sayfalarında ve pornografide rastlıyoruz. Ayrıca, cinsellik erkeğin kadını hakimiyeti altına aldığı ve ‘perişan ettiği’ bir güç gösterisi değil, erkekle kadının barış ve uyum içinde, birbirlerine haz vermek ve hayatı daha anlamlı kılmak için yaşadıkları ‘törensel bir esrime’ yöntemidir. İnsan cinselliğinin sınırları ve alınabilecek hazlar konusunda bugün bilinenler kanımca çok yetersizdir; cinsellikte hem kadın, hem de erkek sanıldığından çok daha güçlü doyumlar yaşayabilir ve bu öğrenilebilen, zamanla potansiyeli arttırılabilen bir olgudur. Ülkemizde pek çok kişi cinselliği boyutsuz yaşamaktadır, halbu-ki bu konuda keşfedilebilecek çok değişik boyutlar, henüz bilinmeyen türlü yeni renkler, yeni kıtalar olduğunu sanıyorum. Potansiyellerinin çok yüksek olduğuna inandığım kadınlar bu kitaptan hiç olmazsa tek bir boyut kazanıp, erkekleri bu doğrultuda eğitebilirlerse, ya da erkekler kadınlara bazı gerçekleri öğretip, yaşatabilirlerse ne mutlu! Dr. Ümit Sayın email@example.com Kızıltoprak, İstanbul Mayıs, 2010
Sorularla, Resimlerle DÜNYAYI YÖNETEN GİZLİ GÜÇLER Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın ARKA KAPAĞIN SPOTLARI: • Dünyayı yönetmekte olan gizli güçler nelerdir? • Küresel Elit’in ve Küresel Sermayenin gizli yöntemleri ve örgütleri nelerdir? • Masonik gizli örgütler nedir? • Bu örgütlerin gizli yöntemleri nelerdir? • Masonluk nedir? • Masonluktaki, Örgütlerdeki gizli işaretler, semboller, felsefe, haberleşmeler nedir? • Masonluk, Mafya ve Gizli Örgütler. P2 Mason-Mafya Locası. • Türkiye’de Sabetaycı-Masonik örgütlenme nedir? • İllüminati’nin Masonlukla veya diğer gizli örgütlerle bağlantıları nedir? • Tapınakçılar, Gül-Haç, Kuru Kafa ve Kemikler, Bohem Klübü, Yuvarlak Masa. • CFR, Bilderberg ve Trilateral Komisyon nedir? Ne yapmak istemektedirler? • İstanbul-2007 Bilderberg toplantısında neler konuşulmuştur, ne kararlar alınmıştır, kimler katılmıştır? • Anadolu’da kurulmuş olan gizli örgütler nelerdir? • Ahilik, Bektaşilik ve Batinilik gizli örgüt yapısına sahip midir? Tapınakçıları ve Masonları etkilemişler midir? • Hasan Sabbah, Alamut ve Zihin Kontrolü. • Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa. • Siyonizm ve Siyon Protokolleri. • Masonik gizli örgütler, Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi ve Türkiye’nin parçalanması. • Derin Devletler nedir? Hangi alt yapıları vardır? • Gelişmiş ülkelerde Derin Devlet. • Türkiye’de ulusalcı ve Türkçü, Kemalist bir Derin Devlet var mıdır? İÇİNDEKİLER: Dünyayı Yöneten Güçler Ne Demektir? Ekosistemler ve İnsan Bilinci Ne Durumdadır? Kaos ve Bilderberg Toplantısı: Sosyal Kaos mu? Kapitalizm, Doğa ve İnsan Küresel Elitin Aldığı Önlemler Sonucu Ne Durumdadır? Doğa’ya Verilen Zarar Daha da Büyük! Yeni Dünya Düzeni, Mega-Kapitalist Ekonomi ve Postmodern Sosyal Çarpıklık Nedir? Dünyayı Yönetmekte Olan Gizli Güçlerin Temelini Oluşturan En Tepedeki 200 Şirketin 1999’daki Dökümü İnsanın Fonksiyonu Nedir? P2 Mason Locasının ve P2-Gladyo Bağlantılarının Türkiye Uzantısı Var mıdır? Dünyayı Neden Gizli Güçler ve Gizli Örgütler Yönetmektedir? Bu Kitap Neden Yazıldı ? Bu Kitabın Daha Fazla Detaylarını Anlatan Bir Devamı Olacak mı ? Masonlar ve Masonik Gizli Örgütler Hakikaten Çok Zararlılar mı? Hiç Tarihte İyi Bir Yönleri Olmadı mı? Masonların İnsanlığa Hiç Olumlu Yönleri Olmamış mıdır? Siyonizm ve Yahudilik Üstünde Neden Bu Kadar Duruyoruz? Yahudilerin Kültürünün Hiç İyi Bir Yönü Yok mu? Masonik Gizli Örgütlerin Temel Özellikleri Nelerdir? Seçilmiş ve özgün olma Mason Locası Nasıl Kurulur, Kaç Kişidir? Sır Üstadı Olmak, Gizli Çalışmak, Gizli Bir İş Yapıyor İmajı Temel ilkelere uyulmazsa yok edileceği düşüncesi İlerideki Gizli Eylemlere ve Supralegal Sisteme Hazırlanmak; Sır Tutmak, Sır Üstadı Olmak Güçlü bir grupla bütünleşme, bir yere ait olma ve desteklenme duygusu Gizem, Sembolizm, Allegori, Ağdalı Anlatım Esoterik (içrek, gizemli), mistik, ağdalı, karmaşık jargon Derin bir felsefe yapıyormuş, her eylemin veya lafın derin bir felsefi anlamı varmış imajı İnisiasyon, başlangıç ritüeli veya tekris Yeniden doğma, gruba girmekle yeni bir hayata-sisteme doğma, reenkarnasyon imajı ve söylemi Ritüeller ve Törenler Beyin yıkama, Zihin Kontrolü ve kendini güçlü olana bırakma psikolojisi Cezalandırma Mekanizmaları Masonik Dereceler Nedir? Anlamları ve Gizlilikleri nedir? Masonlarda ve Gizli Örgütlerde Gizli Haberleşme Kelimeleri Nelerdir? Masonik Ritüellerdeki Bu Gizli Kelimelerin Tevrat ve Yahudi İdeolojisiyle İlişkisi var mıdır? Hiram Abif Efsanesinin veya Yahudi Efsanelerinin Masonluktaki Anlamı, İçeriği ve İşlevi Nedir? Kuru Kafa ve Kemikler Cemiyetinin Ritüelleri Masonik Ritüellere Benzemekte midir? Gizli Örgütlerin Temel Ortak Özellikleri ve Kriterleri Nelerdir? Nasıl Bir Örgüte Gizli Bir Örgüt Diyebiliriz? Örnekler Nelerdir? Bahsedilen Kuru Kafa ve Kemikler Örgütü Çok Güçlü müdür? Yahudi Teşkilatı B’nai B’rith Güçlü müdür? Dünyayı Yöneten Güçler Neden Gizlidir ve Hep Gizli Kalacaklardır? Siyon Protokolleri Nedir ve Neden Bahsederler? Siyon Protokollerine Ait Temel Bazı İlkeler Nelerdir? ABD’nin Temel Kuruluş İdeolojisinde ve 1 Doların Üzerinde Siyonizme veya Masonluğa, Masonik Gizli Örgütlenmelere Ait Semboller ve İzler Var mıdır? Zihin Kontrolü gizli örgütler için neden önemlidir? Beyin yıkama nedir ve gizli teşkilatlar nasıl beyin yıkar? Psikolojik Harp nedir ve gizli örgütler, istihbarat teşkilatları nasıl psikolojik harp yaparlar? Zihin kontrolü ve gizli örgütler içiçe midir? Tarih boyunca dünyayı yönetmeye çalışan gizli güçler nasıl örgütlenmişlerdir? Türklerde benzer gizli örgütlenmelere örnek var mıdır? Türklerde ve Müslümanlarda gizli bir örgüt benzeri yapı olarak AHİLİK nedir? Türkler’de Bir Gizli Örgüt Yapısı Olarak Bektaşilik Nedir? Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa’nın Gizli Örgütlerle Bağlantısı Nedir? Dinler ve Felsefelerle Gizli Örgütlenmelerin Ne İlişkisi Vardır? Bilimle Gizli Örgütlenmelerin ve Gizli Teşkilatların İlişkisi Nedir? Doğudaki Gizli Örgütlenmelere Örnek Olarak Batiniler Nedir, Hasan Sabbah kimdir? Alamut Devleti Nedir? Türkiye’de Sabetaycı-Masonik Örgütlenme Nedir? Gül Haç (Rose-Croix) Örgütü Nedir? İllüminati ve Masonlarla İlişkileri Var mıdır? İllüminati nedir? İllüminatinin izinde giden ve onunla ilişkili gizli örgütler nedir? İlluminati-masonluk ilişkisi nedir? 20. Yüzyılın Şekillenmesinde Etkili Olmuş Gizli Cemiyetler Nelerdir? Nasıl Etkili Olmuşlardır? OSS ve CIA bir CFR Yapılanması mıdır? CFR’ye Derin Dünya Devleti Denebilir mi? BİLDERBERG ve Trilateral Komisyonun Bu Gizli Örgütlerle Bağlantıları Nedir? Bilderberg-İstanbul-2007 CFR-Bilderberg-Trilateral Konstantinopolis Üçlemesi R. Gaylon Ross ile Bilderberg Hakkında Söyleşi Tony Gosling ile Bilderberg Hakkında Söyleşi Bilderberg Avcısı James Tucker ile Orient Express’de Oryantal-Federal Bir Buluşma Postmodern Bir Bilderberg Toplantısı-İstanbul 2007 İstanbul 2007 Bilderberg Katılımcıları Gizli Örgütler, Teşkilatlar ve Derin Devletler Derin Devlet Nedir? Türkiye’de Derin Devlet Var mı? Devlet Nedir? Derin Devlet Nedir? Derin Devlet Olması İçin Bir Ülkede Neler Olmalı? Derin Devletle, Devlet Arasındaki Farklar Nedir? Dünya’da Derin Devlet Nasıldır? İngiliz ve Amerikan Derin Devleti Türkiye’de Derin Devlet Var mı? Bir Türk Derin Devleti Olsaydı Aşağıdakiler Olabilir miydi? EKLER: Petrol Kanunu Neler Getirdi, Neler Götürdü? Masonların Türk Petrol Sistemindeki Rolü CIA Bağlantılı Uluslararası Şirketlerin Listesi Seçmenler, Oylar ve Elektronlar Sun Microsystems - Koç İle 22Temmuz 2000 Yılı Nüfusu ile 2007 Yılı Seçimi ÖNSÖZ Elinizde tutmakta olduğunuz bu kitap, ‘Dünyayı Yönetmekte Olan Gizli Güçler ve Örgütler’ dizisinin ilk kitabıdır. Bu konudaki bazı ön bilgileri ‘Gizli Örgütler, 11 Eylül ve Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi’ isimli kitapta vermiştik. Bu kitabın hedefi ise sorularla ve yanıtlarla, resimlerle okunabilirliği arttırarak Gizli Örgütlerin temel yöntemleri, birbirleriyle ilişkileri hakkında bir ön fikir vermek, önemli olanların isimlerini zikretmektir. Bu dizinin devamında bahsedilen pek çok Gizli Örgüt sistemi, Mısırlılardan, günümüze kadar detaylı, sistematik ve anlaşılabilir bir biçimde işlenecektir. Bu serinin devamında, Mısır ve Mezapotamya uygarlıklarının, Hristiyan uygarlığının, Roma-Germen-Anglo Sakson Uygarlığının, Hint-Çin-Japon ve Uzakdoğu uygarlıklarının, Müslüman uygarlığın kurmuş oldukları Gizli Teşkilat, Tarikatlar, Gizli Cemaatler ve yapılar yabancı kaynaklar da elden geçirilerek, sistematik incelenecektir. Daha sonraki kitaplarda Türk ve Anadolu uygarlıklarının Gizli Cemiyetleri, onu takip ederek de Masonların Gizli Cemiyetleri sistematik olarak ele alınacaktır. Türkçe’de 2002’den sonra bu konulardaki kitaplarda bir patlama olmuştur, fakat ne yazık ki, bu kitapların büyük çoğunluğu dezinformasyon doludur. Çalıntı bilgilerle ve internetten indirilen yanlış bilgilerle dolu kitaplar çoktur. Neden Gizli Örgütler? Çünkü dünyayı onlar yönetmekte, bizim kaderimize, geleceğimize onlar hükmetmektedirler. 12 Eylül 1980 NATO-Askeri darbesinden beri temel mesleğim olan tıp, nörobilim ve farmakolojinin yanısıra sosyal yapıların ve toplumların neden böylesine kolay sosyal mühendislik yöntemleriyle, psikolojik savaş yöntemleriyle yönetilebilir olduğunu araştırmaya başladım. Zihin Kontrolü, Beyin Yıkama ve Psikolojik Savaş konularına da Gizli Örgütleri, Küresel Eliti ve Emperyalizmi araştırırken girdim. 1980 öncesi tahminlerimiz doğru çıkmıştı, NATO’nun gizli orduları ve Batının Derin Devletleri, Türkiye’de FM-31-15 Amerikan-NATO talimnamesi doğrultusunda hem sağ, hem radikal şeriatçı, hem de pek çok sol örgütü kurmuş, desteklemiş, bunlara silah sağlamışlardı. Bir ayaklanma olmadığı halde, Henry Kissenger’in (Galula takma ismiyle), CFR talimatıyla kaleme aldığı rivayet edilen ‘Ayaklanmaları Bastırma Talimnamesi’ gereğince, bir sosyal müsamere oynanmıştı. Komünistçilik oynayanlarla, Milliyetçilik oynayanlar birbirleriyle ölümüne çarpıştırılmış ve ABD-NATO destekli ‘Our Boys’ darbesinin alt yapısı hazırlanmıştı. 1.5-2 milyona yakın kişi hakkında takibat yapan, CIA-12 Eylül Cuntacıları, yaklaşık 50-100 bin civarında kişiyi – CIA’in ‘School of America’sında’ öğrenilen yöntemleriyle-, CIA-KUBARK talimnamesi uygulanarak işkenceden geçirdi. 200-300 bine yakın kişi yıllarca hapis yattı, bunların bir kısmı ne suç işlemiş olduğunu bile uzun süre öğrenemedi. Binlerce kişi Üniversiteden, kamu görevinden atıldı. 1960 Anayasası’nın getirmiş olduğu sosyal eşitlikçi, Ulus Devleti savunan, özgürlükçü Anayasa bir şekilde yok edilmeli, Atatürkçülük, Milliyetçilik, Türkçülük, Ulusalcıklık, Vatanseverlik, Ulus-Devlet, Tam Bağımsızlık, Anti-Emperyalizm gibi kavramlar bu ulus Devletin özünden kazınmalıydı! Bu konudaki ilk adımı malum kişi ve arkadaşları, üstelik de Atatürkçülük adına, attılar. Yeşil Kuşak Teorisinin bir ön aşaması olarak Ilımlı İslamın temelleri, Anglo Sakson istihbaratının engin tecrübesinin kontrolü ve şefkatli kolları (!) altında o dönemlerde atıldı. Aslında Masonik Gizli Örgütlerin ve Anglo Sakson Derin Devletlerinin Türkiye’ye girmesi ve Türkiye’yi işgali 1945’ten sonra başlamış, Türkiye’nin yönetimi hiç bir zaman Türklere bırakılmamıştı, çünkü Türkiye zengin petrol okyanuslarının ve maden yataklarının üzerinde, Ortadoğu’da çok büyük stratejik öneme sahip bir ülkeydi. Asya’yı, Akdenizi ve Ortadoğu’yu kontrol etmek isteyen önce Türkiye’yi kontrol etmeliydi. ‘Türkiye, Türklere bırakılamayacak kadar önemli bir ülkeydi!’ Ancak işlerine gelirse, Türkiye’yi, devletin parasıyla parti adına propaganda yapanların dağıttığı yardımlarla (kömür, altın, yiyecek paketi, alışveriş kuponu vb.) satın alınabilen, bilinçli olarak yoksullaştırılmış cahil bir grubun oylarına bırakmak mümkün olabilirdi. Ama sosyal parametreleri kontrol edebileceklerse, bunun adına da DEMOKRASİ diyorlardı. Son altın vuruş kararları 2007-İstanbul Bilderberg toplantısında alındı. Türkiye’yi korumak ve kollamakla görevli kurumlar ise üç maymunu oynuyordu. ‘Dükkan kapanmış! Kepenkler inmişti!’ 22 Temmuz ve 28 Ağustos, tarihe birinci Kemalist Cumhuriyetin bitip, 2. Yeni Osmanlıcı Cumhuriyetin başlangıç tarihleri olarak geçecekti. Cumhuriyet mitingleri ise bir serap ve bir hayalden ibaretti, herkes kendine verilen rolünü yapmıştı. Bazı partiler de ip atlayıp, seksek oynadılar. Tüm tablo Breugel’in ‘Çocuk Oyunları’ tablosundaki kadar sürreeldi! 2007’de Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin tam tasfiye süreci başlayacaktı. Artık ‘Ordular ilk hedefimiz SEVR’di.’ Türkiye’yi bekleyen tehlikeler konusunda pek çok yerde konuşma, TV programı yaptım, bu konuda kitaplar yazdım. Küresel Sermaye’nin planlarına karşı, diğer Kemalist aydınlar gibi herkesi uyarmaya çalıştım. Ama borsanın düşmesi veya yükselmesi herşeyden önemliydi, bizler ise bir avuç ‘Sevr Paranoyaklarıydık’ ; paranoyamız tutunca ‘Sevr, Sevr’ diye hıçkırırdık! ! Mütareke medyası ve şeriatçı medya sürekli bizlere saldırdı! Sanki, Türklüğü ve vatanımızı savunmak suç haline getirilmişti, kendi ülkemizde azınlık olmuştuk! 2002’de Türkiye’ye dönüp, Ulusalcı, Atatürkçü, Vatansever, anti-emperyalist çizgide mücadele vermeye başladıktan sonra bazı odaklarca hayatım zehir edilmeye çalışıldı. Bu konularda, gizli örgütleri deşifre eden çalışmalar yapmak tehlikeliydi. Masonlar, TV programlarımdan ve kitaplarımdan çok rahatsızlardı. Türlü tehditler, uyarılar, entrikalarla beni yıldırmaya çalıştılar. Akademik ortamdan uzaklaştırılmam için bir sürü kirli tezgah düzenlendi. Mücadeleyi halen sürdürüyorum, almakta olduğum ölüm tehditlerine rağmen sürdürüyorum. Ömrüm yeterse de üzerinde çalışmakta olduğum sistemi yazıp bitirmeyi düşünüyorum. Gizli Örgütler serisi bu sistemin önemli bir parçasıdır, çünkü dünyada işlerin, geri ve gizli planda nasıl sürmekte olduğunu bilmek için bu konulara girmek, Gizli Örgütleri öğrenmek kaçınılmazdır. Masonik Gizli Örgütler ve Gizli Cemiyetlerin çalışma sistemleri anlaşılmadan da onlarla mücadele edilemez. 21. yüzyıl yeni sosyal sistemlerin kaleme alınacağı, Wahshi Kapitalizme karşı yeni seçeneklerin deneneceği bir yüzyıl olacaktır. 6.5 milyar insan sadece 50 bin Küresel Elit’e, 50 milyon da yöneticiye hizmet etmektedir. Bu Firavunlar Devrinin ne bir demokrasi, ne hukuk sistemi, ne de insancıl bir sistem olduğu söylenebilir. Bu sistemin ortadan kaldırılması için evrensel bazı yeni alternatifler mutlaka tanımlanacaktır. Bu atılımlara Güney Amerika’da, Putin Rusya’sında, Uzak Doğu’da şahit olmaktayız. Tek kutuplu emperyalist dünya, diyalektik bir gerçeklik olarak, Shanghai Örgütü gibi yeni örgütlerin doğmasına neden olmaktadır. Yirmibirinci yüzyılda ya Ulus-Devletler çökecek, ya da milliyetçilik ve Ulus Devlet kavramları güçlenecektir. Ben çalışmalarımı öncelikle Türkiye ve Türkler için yapıyorum. Benim üzerinde çalıştığım sistem Türkler içindir! ‘Halkların Kardeşliği’, ‘Evrensel Demokrasi’, ‘İnsan Hakları ve Demokrasi’ gibi söylemlerin emperyalistler tarafından Ulus Devletin ve Milliyetçiliğin tasfiye edilmesi için kötüye kullanıldığını düşünüyorum. Türkler’in bu Coğrafya’da en az bir 500 yıl tam bağımsız bir biçimde yaşaması temel hedefimiz olmalıdır. 2. Cumhuriyetlere, 3. Cumhuriyetlere geçilir; sonra bir de bakmışsınız ki, yeni bir Kaostan, Dünya Savaşından veya İSTİKLAL Savaşından sonra Atatürk Cumhuriyeti yeniden kurulmuş! Tam bağımsız, özgürlükçü, anti-emperyalist bir Türkiye için de başka bir alternatif de yoktur, çünkü bu Atatürk Cumhuriyeti, Türklerin bağımsızlaştırılması için, emperyalizme karşı kurulmuştur ve hiç bir millet köle olarak yaşamak istemez! Kölelikten, er ya da geç uyanır ve kurtulur! Bahsedilen kitap dizisinin çeşitli farklı konuları olacaktır. Bazı yazarların okunması zor, dev külliyatlı ve sistematik bilgi içermeyen, karışık kitaplarının aksine ben mümkün olduğunca sistematik, kolay anlaşılır, kolay okunur kitaplar yazmaya çalışıyorum. Önce bir konuyu kendim anlamadan ve şematize etmeden yazmamaya gayret gösteriyorum. Kitaplarımda kullandığım resimler algı psikolojisi ve öğrenme konusunda edindiğim bilgiler ve tecrübeler sonucu okunmayı kolaylaştırmaktadır. İnsan algısının % 75-80’i görsel algıdır. Bir kitapta okunan binlerce satırdan akılda sadece üç cümle kalır, ama bilgiyle eşleştirilmiş 100 resimden en az 50’si akılda kalır. Bu nedenle görsel materyeli kitaplarımda geliştirmek temel hedefim olacaktır. Mutlaka masonlar bu kitaba da çok kızacaklar ve bana türlü şekillerde saldırmak, yaşantımı zorlaştırmak isteyeceklerdir. Benim Masonlarla bir sorunum yoktur! Ama tüm Türk Masonlarını bazı gerçekleri anlamaya davet ederim. Bu kitapta anlatılmaya çalışılan tezler arasında Masonlarla ilgili şu bilgi önemlidir: ‘Masonluk ve onun geçmişindeki cemiyetler 11. yüzyıl ile 19. yüzyılın ortalarına kadar insanlık için çok olumlu işler başarmış, aydınlanma çağını başlatmış, Fransız İhtilalinin ve Amerikan Devriminin gelişmesinde çok olumlu görevler üstlenmiş, tarihi bir misyonu yerine getirmişlerdir. Masonluğun doğuşunda Anadolu’daki Ahilik, Bektaşilik ve Mevleviliğin de önemli etkileri olmuştur. Fakat 1830’lardan başlayarak ve 1850’den sonra şiddetlenerek Masonik örgütler ve Masonlar SİYONİZMİN kontrolüne girmişlerdir. Siyonizmin ne olduğunu ise bu kitapta bulacaksınız. Bugün Türkiye’deki hiç bir Mason sanmasın ki, Siyonizmin Deli Gömleği kendilerine hayatlarının hiç bir döneminde giydirilmeyecek ve etkisini hayatlarında görmeyecekler. Siyonizm ve Yahudi gizemciliği, Yahudi Emperyalizmi tüm ülkelerde MASONLUĞU bir Truva Atı gibi kullanmaktadır.’ Bu kitapda Masonlara veya Yahudilere saldırıldığı imajı alınabilir. Halbuki bizim ne Masonlarla ne de, Yahudilerle ilgili bir sorunumuz yoktur. Bizim sorunumuz Türkiye’yi kontrol altına almak, sonra da farklı hedefler veya Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi kapsamında parçalamayı amaçlayan Emperyalist Siyonizm’ledir; herkesin dini inanışlarına veya dinine saygımız sonsuzdur. Kimse ülkesinin parçalanmasını istemez ve ses çıkarmamazlık yapamaz. Ama ne yazık ki, Türkiye’ye ölü toprağı atılmış gibidir, Türk halkı bu yüzyılda, Küresel Postmodern Delilikten payını alıp, adeta bir Sosyal-Şizofreni, bir Stockholm Sendromu yaşamaktadır. Bu konudaki çalışmalarım tüm saldırılara rağmen sürecektir. Atatürk milliyetçiliğini, vatanımızı, Laik Cumhuriyeti, Hukuk Devletini savunma konusunda milyonlarca sessiz insanın olduğuna ve sayımızın gün geçerek katlanarak, artacağına inanıyorum. Ama şu gerçeği her zaman göz önüne almalıyız. 1919-1923 arasında da tüm Dünya’ya karşı savaşıyorduk, halen tüm Dünya’ya karşı savaşıyoruz. İstiklal Savaşı aslında hiç bir zaman bitmedi, Karşı-Devrim sürecine dönüştü. Bu günler de geçecektir, Neoconlar da gidecektir ve Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi de bitecektir. Siyonizme hizmet eden, Amerikalı olsun, Yahudi olsun, Mason olsun, Türk olsun, hiçbirisinin bu konuda başarılı olması imkansızdır. Biz, Ön-Türkleri de katarsanız, 10 000 yıldır bu topraklarda varız ve varolmayı sürdüreceğiz. Ama önce kiminle savaştığımızı bilmemiz gerekir. Bu kitap ve devamında yazılacak olan dizi size bunu anlatacaktır. Ne Mutlu, Türküm Diyene ve Türk Ulus Milletine! Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın Eylül 2007
Doğan Öz’e, Çetin Emeç’e, Abdi İpekçi’ye, Turan Dursun’a, Muammer Aksoy’a, Bahriye Üçok’a, Uğur Mumcu’ya, A. Taner Kışlalı’ya, Em. Binb. İhsan Güven’e, Necip Hablemitoğlu’na, Danıştay Hakimi Mustafa Yücel Özbilgin’e, şehit edilen tüm komutanlarımıza, subaylarımıza ve erlerimize, Atatürkçü, laik ve demokratik Cumhuriyeti korumak mücadele veren Mustafa Kemal’in tüm meçhul askerlerine ithaf olunur! ARKA KAPAK SPOTLARI • Derin Devletler ve Gizli Örgütler Nedir? • Türkiye’de Ulusalcı Derin Devlet var mı? • Derin Devletlerin Gizli Projeleri Nelerdir? • Gizli Projeler Hakkındaki Gerçekler Nelerdir? • Küresel Emperyalist Elit, Dünyadaki Ulus Devletleri Yok Edebilecek mi? • ZİHİN KONTROLÜ Nedir? Zihin Kontrolü Yapılabilir mi? • Zihin Kontrolü Hakkında Gerçek Nedir? Fantezi ve Bilimdışı İddialar Nelerdir? • 2001-2006 Yılları Arasında Türkiye’de Zihin Kontrolü ve Psikolojik Savaş Operasyonlarında Bir Yolculuk. • Dünya’daki ve Türkiye’deki Zihin Kontrolü Operasyonları. • KARA BİLİM ve Gizli Bilim Nedir? • Derin Devletlerin Kara Bilim Operasyonları. • Binbaşı İhsan Güven ve Muammer Aksoy Neden Öldürüldü? • Psikolojik Savaş ve Türkiye’ye Karşı Yapılan Psikolojik Savaş Operasyonları. • Cinsellik, Zihin Kontrolü ve Psikolojik Savaş. • Biyolojik ve Kimyasal Savaş. • Türkiye’ye Karşı Biyolojik Savaş Yapıldı mı? H5N1 Kuş Gribi Nedir? • Genetik Silahlar. • CIA ve Yabancı Derin Devletler Türkiye’deki Tarikatlar ve Cemaatlerde Nasıl Zihin Kontrolü Yapıyor? • Mançurya Kobayları (Manchurian Candidate). İÇİNDEKİLER 1) GİRİŞ VE İLK MOTİVASYONLAR 2) ZİHİN KONTROLÜNE VE PSİKOLOJİK SAVAŞA ‘DUR!’ DİYORUZ! 3) TARİKATLARDA, CEMAATLERDE, KÜLTLERDE VE SATANİZM’DE SOSYAL ZİHİN KONTROLÜ 4) CIA, İSTİHBARAT ÖRGÜTLERİ VE ZİHİN KONTROLÜ 5) KARA BİLİM 6) GİZLİ HÜKÜMETLER, GİZLİ PROJELER VE KARA BİLİM 7) DÜNYA’DA GİZLİ ÖRGÜTLER, DERİN DEVLETLER VE İSTİHBARATIN YAPISI 8) KARA BİLİMİN ACIMASIZ YÖNTEMİ: KİMYASAL VE BİYOLOJİK SAVAŞ 9) PSİKOLOJİK SAVAŞ KAVRAMINA GİRİŞ: TEMEL BİLGİLER 10) EKLER ÖNSÖZ: Elinizde tutmakta olduğunuz bu kitap benim son 12 yılda yapmış olduğum bazı medikal ve paramedikal araştırmalar sonucunda yayınladığım makalelerden ve bu konulardaki yeni bilgilerden yola çıkılarak yazılmıştır. Bu kitabın temel konusu sizleri, Türkiye’de hiç bilinmeyen Zihin Kontrolü, Kara Bilim, Psikolojik Savaş, Biyolojik Savaş, Derin Devletlerin Gizli Projeleri konusunda bilgilendirmek, ilk tanımları yapmaktır. Daha detaylı ve sistematik bir çalışma ‘Zihin Kontrolü ve Kara Bilim’ isimli kitabımda yayınlanacaktır. 1991 yılında Dünyayı Yöneten Gizli Örgütleri ve Sistemin Kuklacılarını araştırmaya başladığımda henüz uzmanlığımı yeni bitirmekteydim. İstanbul Bizans Üniversitesindeki Masonik entrika sistemi, uyuşturucu bağımlılığını araştırdığım bir dönemde beni OHAL bölgesine, Diyarbakır’a sürdü. Bir anda maaşımı kesen masonik odaklarla bağlantılı rektör C. ekibi, Türkiye’de bana ve benim gibi sistemi sorgulayan kişilere akademi yolunu tıkamaktan dolayı büyük bir gurur duyuyordu. 1993 yılında ilişkim kesilen İstanbul Üniversitesinden ayrılıp, Nörobilim konusunda doktora sonrası eğitim yapmak üzere, Amerika Birleşik Devletlerine, Wisconsin’a gittim. 2002’ye kadar Nöroloji bölümünde çeşitli araştırmalar yaptıktan sonra, Türkiye’de ölmekten daha fazla mutluluk duyacağım ve Türkiye’ye hizmet etmek istediğim için, temelli olarak Türkiye’ye dönmeye karar verdim. Prof. Kemal Alemdaroğlu yönetimindeki İstanbul Üniversitesi beni tekrar kabul etti. Ama tarih tekerrürden ibaret olduğu için Ulusalcı, Atatürkçü ve vatansever çizgideki uzun soluklu mücadelem, Olayı, İstanbul Üniversitesinin yeni yönetimi tarafından ‘Üniversiteden Atılmak’ üzere hakkımda soruşturma açılma aşamasına kadar getirmiştir. Detaylarını farklı kitaplarda yazıyorum. Devletin Üniversiteleri kimsenin kişisel malı değildir ve Üniversite yönetimine gelen yöneticiler Üniversiteleri kişisel malları veya şirketleri olarak kullanma hakkını kendilerinde göremezler! Üniversiteleri Engizisyon mahkemelerinden beter hale getiren yönetimler, kendi kurdukları mahkemelerde yargılanmaya mahkumdurlar! İnsanlık tarihi, gücü eline geçirdiği zaman ‘Tanrı Kompleksine’ giren herkesi yoketmiştir! İnsanların, yöneticilerin, başbakanların veya rektörlerin ‘Tanrıyı oynamaya hakları yoktur!’. Tanrıyı oynamaya kalkanlar er ya da geç, Tanrı tarafından cezalandırılırlar! Dünyayı Yöneten Gizli Örgütleri ve Küresel Eliti araştırırken kaçınılmaz olarak karşıma çıkan olgulardan bir tanesi Zihin Kontrolü, Psikolojik Savaş ve Beyin Yıkama olduğu için, bu konulardaki ilk makaleleri 1996’dayken Amerika’da yazdım. İlk çalışmalar Bilim ve Ütopya Dergisinde yayınlanmıştı. Amerika’da bu konularda deneyler yapmış veya deneylerden geçirilmiş insanlarla tanıştım. Wisconsin Üniversitesi de bu merkezlerden birisiydi. Gizli Örgütleri araştırırken, Derin Devletlerin gizli projeleriyle karşı karşı karşıya geldim. Bahsedilen gizli projeler hakkında bugün bildiklerimiz gerçekte varolanın % 1’inden azdır. Çalıştığım yabancı ülkelerde hem Yahudi, hem de Anglo Sakson kültürlerini, onların gizli örgütlerini detaylı araştırma şansı buldum. Ayrıca bu kitabın konusu hakkındaki araştırmalarımın da büyük çoğunluğu yurt dışındayken yapılmıştır, henüz pek çok gerçek yayınlanmamıştır!. Türkiye’de Psikolojik Savaş, Zihin Kontrolü gibi konular ne yazık ki, cahil ve bu konuda uzman olmayan gazeteciler tarafından yazılan kitaplar yüzünden yanlış tanınmaktadır. Bu konular hakkındaki dezinformasyon çok fazladır. Elinizdeki kitap Türkiye’de gerçek ve bilimsel yönü çok az bilinen Zihin Kontrolü ve Derin Devletlerin Gizli Projeleri hakkında size yeni bir kapı aralayacaktır. Bu ve bundan sonraki kitapları kaleme alma nedenlerinden bir tanesi de Türkiye’nin Ulusal Güveliğini korumakla görevli kurumları, Türk Silahlı Kuvvetlerini ve ilgili istihbarat birimlerini bilgilendirmek ve bu kurumların gereken önlemleri almalarını sağlamaktır. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, üzerinde çalıştığım Gizli Örgütlerin ve Emperyalist devletlerin faaliyetleri neticesinde yok edilme ve Sevr tehlikesiyle karşı karşıyadır. En önemli görevimiz ülkemizin parçalanmasını ve ülkemizin elimizden kayarak küreselleşme sürecinde köleselleşmesini engellemektir. ’Gizli Örgütler, 11 Eylül ve Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi’ isimli kitabımda küresel elitin ve emperyalist ülkelerin entrikalarını büyük ölçüde deşifre etmeye çalıştım. Bu deşifrasyon yaşadığım müddetçe sürecektir. Bağımsız Türkiye ve Türkler için mücadelem de devam edecektir. Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri ile birlikte, Türkiye’nin demokratik, laik, sosyal eşitlikçi, devletçi, anti-emperyalist, Cumhuriyetçi yapısını korumak ve bu uğurda can vermek hepimizin görevidir. Ya bu ülke içine düşmüş olduğu ciddi kaostan çıkacaktır, ya da biz atalarımızın kanlarıyla sulanmış topraklarda kendi kanımızı dökerek bu ülkeyi kurtaracağız. Bizi de düşmanla işbirliği içindeki politikacılar veya yöneticiler, ruhunu fahişeleştirmiş liboşlar ve iç vatan hainleri engelleyemeyeceklerdir; çünkü biz DİP DALGASIYIZ ve her gün güçlenerek ulusalcı bir fırtınaya dönüşerek geliyoruz! Ne Mutlu Türküm Diyene! Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın, Kızıltoprak / İstanbul Haziran 2006
Salvinorin A, the ﬁrst known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at j-opioid receptors, is the psychoactive component of the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum (1). Salvia divinorum, or any of its active ingredients are not speciﬁcally listed in the Controlled Substances Act and it is currently used as a legal alternative to controlled substances. Usually smoking the dried leaf or absorption in buccal mucosa by chewing the fresh leaves, doses of approximately 200 mcg can produce profound hallucinogenic effects of short duration. The mechanism of action of salvinorin A is at the j-opioid receptor. Little data is available on the psychopharmacological effects of this substance so animal behavioral studies were undertaken to explore the open ﬁeld locomotor activity effects of this substance in rats. Using Hall’s Open Field Test, a dosage of 4 mg/kg puriﬁed salvinorin A was administered intraperitoneally to rats. Squares entered, rearing up on hind legs, holes explored, and length of immobility were recorded. The data was evaluated by Sigmastat Statistic Program, using paired t-test. Salvinorin A, caused a statistically signiﬁcant decrease in open ﬁeld locomotor activity, rearing and exploratory behaviour. These results show that, Salvinorin A inhibits the locomotor activity and exploratory behaviour.
İçindekiler Önsöz…………………………………………………………. Genişletilmiş dördüncü baskıya önsöz............................. Bir zaman Yolculuğu: 2028 Yılındayız, Yer Büyük Ortadoğu ........................................... 11 Eylül Olayı İlgili İlk Yazılar………………………………. Dünyayı Yöneten Gizli Örgütler........................................ Gizli Örgütler ve Emperyalizm, 11 Eylül Saldırısının Bir Ön Yorumu.............................................. 11 Eylül, Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi ve Türkiye............................................................................. ABD’nin ve AB’nin Sevr Hedeflerinin Kanıtları.............. 11 Eylül ile İlgili Yanıtlanması Gereken Sorular Yumağı...... Pentagon’un Yayınladığı Görüntülere Cevaplar...... Renkli Görüntüler............... Habertürk 11 Eylül Programı Bant Çözümü, Bölüm I..... Habertürk 11 Eylül Programı Bant Çözümü, Bölüm II.... Habertürk 11 Eylül Programı Bant Çözümü, Bölüm III.... EKLER.... 1.... Kıyamet Komplosu (devam).... 2..... George Soros ÖNSÖZ 11 Eylül 2001 tarihinde yıllardır planlanmakta olan Büyük Ortadoğu Projesinin (veya Büyük İsrail Projesinin) tetiğine basıldı! 19 Arap terörist tarafından kaçırıldığı iddia edilen 4 uçaktan ikisi New York’taki Dünya Ticaret Merkezinin İkiz Kulelerini vurdu, bir diğerinin ise Pentagon’daki askeri merkezi vurduğu söylendi. İkiz Kuleler yaklaşık 80 dakika sonra oldukları yere çökmüşlerdi. Pentagonun içinde ise meçhul bir delik açılmıştı! Amerikan Derin Devleti bu olayı bahane edip, George W. Bush isimli psikotik başkanlarını kullanarak ‘Yeni Haçlı Seferlerini’, ‘ Medeniyetler Çatışmasını’ ve ‘Büyük İsrail Projesini’ başlattı. Önce Afganistan, sonra Irak çeşitli bahaneler bulunarak işgal edildi. Yüzbinlerce suçsuz sivil öldürüldü, binlerce kişiye acımasızca işkence yapıldı, binlerce Iraklı kadına tecavüz edildi! Birleşmiş Milletler ve artık dişleri bile kalmamış olan Batı Medeniyet Canavarı suskun bir şekilde olanları seyretti. İnsan Hakları ve Uluslararası Hukuk artık geçersizdi! Tüm dünya, hukukun anlamsızlığını ve dünyanın hukuk sistemleri ile değil de mafyatik, zorba, faşist yöntemlerle yönetildiğini anladı! Emperyalistler ve kapitalistler tüm faşist yüzlerini ortaya koydular! Anglo Sakson medeniyetinin medeniyetsizliğini, ilkelliğini ve barbarlığını hep birlikte izledik! Anglo Sakson medeniyeti 11 Eylül 2001 tarihinde çökmüştür! Teknolojide ne kadar ileri olurlarsa olsunlar, yaptıkları katliamlar, işkenceler, savaş suçları ve insanlık suçları bu milenyumda hiç bir zaman unutulmayacak ve kendilerine yansıyacaktır! O barbar teknoloji Anglo Sakson medeniyetini de yok edecektir! Aynı medeniyet Büyük Ortadoğu (Büyük İsrail) Projesi ile birlikte İran ve Suriye’ye de saldırmayı planlamaktadır. Sonunda hedeflerden birisi de Türkiye ve Türklerdir! Acaba bize medya 11 Eylül 2001 saldırısı hakkında gerçekleri mi söyledi? Elbette ki hayır! Tüm dünya aldatıldı ve gerçekler insanlardan saklandı! Bu kitabın konusu sizlere 11 Eylül’de neler olduğunu, bu saldırının nasıl, kim tarafından ve neden gerçekleştirildiğini anlatmaktır. 11 Eylül Olayı bu milenyumun tarihine yazılacak olan en büyük komplolardan birisidir. Hedefi medeniyetler çatışmasını başlatmak ve Ortadoğu’daki 24 ülkenin sınırlarını değiştirmektir. Sınırları değiştirilecek ve parçalanacak ülkelerin başında da Türkiye gelmektedir! Türkiye’nin ulusal güvenliği, bölünmez bütünlüğü ve laik, demokratik, sosyal eşitlikçi, Cumhuriyet yapısı tüm vatansever Türk bilim insanları ve akademisyenler tarafından korunmalıdır. TSK ile işbirliği içinde uğrunda savaşılması gereken unsurlardan birisi Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin bölünmez bütünlüğüdür! Gerek Avrupa Birliğinin, gerek ABD’nin ve İngiltere’nin, gerekse İsrail’in entrikaları yüzünden Türkiye’nin bölünmez bütünlüğü tehlikededir. Kendilerini Büyük Ortadoğu Projesinin ‘Eşbaşkanı’ ilan edenler, Türklüğü bir alt kimliğe indirgeyip, yerine PKK’nın ağzından ‘Türkiyelilik’ kavramını devlet geleneğimize yerleştirmeye kalkanlar dev bir Anayasal suç işlemektedirler, kaderlerini kendi elleriyle kazmaktadırlar! Bu kitap Türkiye’deki televizyon programlarında da sunulmuş pek çok verinin ilk derlemesidir. Bundan sonraki çalışmalarımda 11 Eylül olayı ile ilgili daha detaylı bilgiler ve deliller de sunulacaktır. Bu kitap daha da geliştirilecektir. Bu kitaptaki verilerin değerlendirilmesi ve bilgiler yoğun bir çalışmanın ürünüdür. Bilgilerin büyük çoğunluğu gerçek kaynaklardan, TV kanallarından ve internetten alınmıştır. Kitabın kanıtlamaya çalıştığı temel hipotez şudur: ’11 Eylül saldırısı, Amerikan Derin Devletinin, büyük olasılıkla İsrail istihbarat teşkilatlarıyla koordine yaptığı ikinci bir Pearl Harbour olayıdır. Bu saldırı Amerikan ve İsrail istihbaratı tarafından sistematik olarak planlanmış ve sanki müslüman teröristler yapıyormuş gibi sahneye konmuştur! Müslüman ülkeleri terörist ilan ederek onların topraklarını işgal etmeyi hedefleyen bu komplo sayesinde ABD kendine Anayasal hakları sınırlayabilecek bir düşman edinmiştir! Ama Batı emperyalizminin ve ABD’nin maskesi artık düşmüştür!’ Bu konularda üzerinde çalıştığım diğer kitaplar yakın bir gelecekte yayına hazır hale gelecektir. Türkiye Cumhuriyetini gerilere götürmek ve çökertmek isteyen güçler bizleri engellemeye çalışsalar da, ulusalcı dip dalgasının bir tsunamiye dönüşmesini engelleyemeyecekler, yakın bir gelecekte karşı devrim süreci bitecek ve Türkiye Ulusalcı Kemalist bir çizgiye girecektir . Türkiye Türklerindir ve Türk’ün Türk’ten başka dostu yoktur! Doç. Dr. Ümit Sayın Kızıltoprak, İstanbul Mart 2006
- Jan 2006
HuR is a ubiquitously expressed AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein that interacts with and stabilizes selective early response gene (ERG) mRNAs after cell activation or stress. To date, approximately 20 mRNAs have been unambiguously defined as HuR ligands. Given the discordance between the large number of ERG mRNAs and those few defined as ligands, we applied in vitro selection to isolate a broad range of HuR mRNA ligands using postseizure mouse hippocampal tissue. Selected mRNAs were converted into cDNA libraries and sequenced. Using this approach, we have identified over 600 novel, putative HuR mRNA ligands. These genes code for a variety of proteins, including transcription factors, signaling molecules, and kinases, but many have unknown function. Consistent with the means of their selection, several of these HuR ligands are differentially expressed in hippocampus after seizure. These results demonstrate a biochemical approach to identify and characterize the diverse repertoire of ligands for HuR and other regulatory mRNA-binding proteins.
- Jan 2005
Seizures in the developing brain cause less macroscopic structural damage than do seizures in adulthood, but accumulating evidence shows that seizures early in life can be associated with persistent behavioral and cognitive impairments. We previously showed that long-term spatial memory in the eight-arm radial-arm maze was impaired in rats that experienced a single episode of kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus during early development (postnatal days (P) 1-14). Here we extend those findings by using a set of behavioral paradigms that are sensitive to additional aspects of learning and behavior. On P1, P7, P14, or P24, rats underwent status epilepticus induced by intraperitoneal injections of age-specific doses of KA. In adulthood (P90-P100), the behavioral performance of these rats was compared with that of control rats that did not receive KA. A modified version of the radial-arm maze was used to assess short-term spatial memory; the Morris water maze was used to evaluate long-term spatial memory and retrieval; and the elevated plus maze was used to determine anxiety. Compared with controls, rats with KA seizures at each tested age had impaired short-term spatial memory in the radial-arm maze (longer latency to criterion and more reference errors), deficient long-term spatial learning and retrieval in the water maze (longer escape latencies and memory for platform location), and a greater degree of anxiety in the elevated plus maze (greater time spent in open arms). These findings provide additional support for the concept that seizures early in life may be followed by life-long impairment of certain cognitive and behavioral functions. These results may have clinical implications, favoring early and aggressive control of seizures during development.
Repeated brief seizures evoked by kindling progressively increase seizure susceptibility and eventually induce spontaneous seizures. Previous studies have demonstrated that the initial seizures evoked by kindling increase paired-pulse inhibition at 15-25 msec interpulse intervals in the dentate gyrus and also induce apoptosis, progressive neuronal loss, mossy fiber sprouting, and neurogenesis, which could potentially alter the balance of excitation and/or inhibition and modify functional properties of hippocampal circuits. In these experiments, paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus was reduced or lost after approximately 90-100 evoked seizures in association with emergence of spontaneous seizures. Evoked IPSCs examined by single electrode voltage-clamp methods in granule cells from kindled rats experiencing spontaneous seizures demonstrated altered kinetics (reductions of approximately 48% in 10-90% decay time, approximately 40% in tau, and approximately 65% in charge transfer) and confirmed that decreased inhibition contributed to the reduced paired-pulse inhibition. The loss of inhibition was accompanied by loss of subclasses of inhibitory interneurons labeled by cholecystokinin and the neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1, which project axo-somatic and axo-axonic GABAergic inhibitory terminals to granule cells and axon initial segments. Seizure-induced loss of interneurons providing axo-somatic and axo-axonic inhibition may regulate spike output to pyramidal neurons in CA3 and could play an important role in generation of spontaneous seizures. The sequence of progressive cellular alterations induced by repeated seizures, particularly loss of GABAergic interneurons providing axo-somatic and axo-axonic inhibition, may be important in the development of intractable epilepsy.
- Apr 2003
Glutamate activates a class of receptors coupled to G-proteins that initiate second messenger cascades, change ion channel function, cause release of calcium from intracellular stores, and produce long-term changes in synaptic strength. We used the CA3 region of the adult rat hippocampal slice to evaluate group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation on epileptiform activity and the population response recorded extracellularly evoked by stratum radiatum stimulation. The selective group I mGluR agonist (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) accelerated the rate of bicuculline-induced interictal discharges at concentrations of 10 and 30 microM. At a concentration of 100 microM, DHPG produced prolonged recurrent discharges that last more than 2s and consisted of an oscillation of the field potential at 2-20 Hz that resembled electrographic seizure activity (ictal). DHPG (100 microM) when bath-applied alone for 30-120 min produced both ictal and interictal discharges that persisted following removal of DHPG from the bathing solution. DHPG (100 microM) reduced the amplitude of the first population spike evoked by stratum radiatum stimulation and changed the relationship of paired evoked population spikes from suppression of the second response relative to the first to facilitation of the second response at interpulse intervals of 15 and 25 ms. To test the possibility that a reduction of the first evoked population spike and loss of inhibition of a second evoked population spike generated prolonged ictal discharges, we used 4-aminopyridine (4-AP 50 microM) to enhance synaptic transmission. 4-AP converted ictal discharges produced by DHPG to an interictal pattern of synchronous activity, reversed the DHPG-induced reduction in the first evoked population spike, and changed paired-pulse facilitation to inhibition. Reversing the changes of evoked population neuronal activity produced by group I mGluR activation favored interictal patterns of epileptiform activity. These results confirm that group I mGluR activation promotes epileptiform activity in the hippocampus and support the hypothesis that a lower efficacy of synaptic transmission favors the generation of prolonged synchronization of neurons that underlies seizures.
Atalarımız Atabaşkan dilini konuşan ve Ön-Türklerin bir kolu olduğu düşünülen Amerika kıtasının gerçek sahibi tüm Kızılderili Kardeşlerimize ! ÖNSÖZ VE GİRİŞ: ıl 1995, İlkbahar. Yer Wisconsin’ın başkenti, Madison. Ana cadde State Street’de Dev Senato binasını karşıma alarak yürüyorum. Defalarca girdiğim Kızılderili hediyelik eşyaları satan dükkana tekrar giriyorum. Adını eski bir Kızılderili reisinden alan Geronimo, ‘Hoş geldin, Türk!’ diyor! ‘Gel Kahve içelim, yeni filtre kahve yaptım!’ Hayatımda sahip olduğum ilk barış çubuğunu bana satan Geronimo ile 1994 yazından beri dostuz. Çevrede tanıştığım tüm Kızılderililer Türkleri pek seviyor. Bu konudaki genetik çalışmaların yeni yapıldığı günler, dilbilim konusunda Türkçe ile Kızılderili dili arasındaki ilk akrabalıkların bulunuşundan beri bir kaç on yıl geçmiş. Kanadalı araştırmacı Ethel G. Stewart, 250 bin nüfuslu Navaho kabilesinin ORTA ASYA’da Türklerin konuştuğu ATABAŞKAN DİLİNİ konuştuğunu göstermişti. Bu çalışmaların etkisi Kızılderililerde de kendini göstermiş, Türkleri seviyorlar, akraba olduklarını söylüyorlar. Geronimo’nun gerçek adı bu değil! Biz, onu Geronimo diye çağırıyoruz, arkadaşları ve Amerikalı eski Beatnik, hippi dostları da öyle! Şehrin güneyinde ‘South Washington Avenue’ civarında yaşayan hippiler ve Beatniklerle görüşmeye hep devam ediyorum daha sonra, tümü Kızılderililere hayran! Y 6 Geronimo beni pek çok Kızılderili mekanına götürmüş ve Wisconsin Dells’deki Kızılderililere bahşedilen tek iş olan kumarhaneleri tek tek göstermişti. Artık soykırıma uğratılmış Kızılderililer, sadece kumarhane, batakhane ve hediyelik eşya dükkanı işletebiliyorlar. Başka iş yapamıyorlar. 1950’lere kadar toplama kamplarında yaşamış çoğu zaten. Onların bir zamanlar ismini verdikleri, Wisconsin gölleri Mendota, Manona ve Wingra’nın tüm masallarını dinliyorum kendisinden. Aslında ABD’de kaldığım sürece Kızılderililerle olan dostluğum ve bağlantım, onlardan öğrendiklerim bir başka kitap yazdırabilecek kadar fazla, özellikle 1994-1997 arasında. Birer kümbet olarak kalmış birer tarihi anıt niteliğindeki pek çok Kızılderili şefinin mezarını ziyaret ediyoruz Kızılderili dostlarımla, Wingra, Manona ve Mendota göllerinin etrafında. Kızılderililerin bu kıtadaki belki de 20 000 yıllık geçmişini anıyoruz, Anglo Saksonların ve Yahudilerin sadece 200 yıllık soykırım ve dehşet dolu geçmişlerinin yanında. Bu geçmiş içinde ünlü Kızılderili reisi Geronimo’nun kafa tası ve iskeletlerinin bu vahşi Anglo Saksonların kurmuş oldukları, Kuru Kafa ve Kemikler Örgütü tarafından mezarından çıkarılıp, Yale kampüsündeki özel örgüt merkezinde saklandığını, bizzat bu örgütü inceleyen Antonny Sutton’dan öğrenip Kızılderililere iletiyorum. Gülüyorlar. ‘İşte Beyaz Adam!’ diyorlar. Sadece gülüyorlar! 7 14 yaşımdayken ağabeyim elime kalın bir kitap tutuşturmuştu; ‘Kalbimi Vatanıma Gömün’ (Dee Brown, Burry My Heart at Wounded Knee) isimli kitabı bir solukta okumuştum. Lakota Sioux’larına (SİU) 1890 yılında Wounded Knee’de (Yaralı Diz isimli Kızılderili yeri) yapılan büyük katliamı ağlayarak defalarca okumuştum. Binlerce Kızılderili 100 yıl içinde katledilmişti. Kızılderili bilgeliğini daha sonra bulabildiğim kitaplardan okumuş, bu tükenmekte olan ırkın son Amerikalı mensuplarıyla Şamanizmi, Kızılderili Psikolojik ve Mistik deneyimlerini tartışmış, hatta fırsat bulunca bazı Şamanik törenlere de katılmıştım. Onlardan çok şey öğrendiğimi söyleyebilirim. ABD’ye gitmeden önce Uzak Doğu Felsefelerini ve ZEN Budizmi incelemekte olduğum için Kızılderililerin yöntemleri ve felsefeleri bana hiç yabancı gelmemişti. Zen’deki pek çok bakış ve kavram aslında Kızılderililerin düşünce sisteminde de vardı. Hemen hemen tüm isimlerinin Kızılderililerden alınmış olduğu Wisconsin Eyaletinin pek çok gölüne, nehrine, dağına, tepesine bu neslin son üyeleri birlikte gittik, barış çubukları tüttürdük, Kızılderili Şaman yöntemleriyle. Bu konudaki ilişkilerim ve araştırmalarım yaklaşık 2-3 yıl sürdü. Hatta Minnesota’da da bazı Kızılderili dostlar edindim. Sonra Kızılderililerin hepsi dağıldı. Hep onların düşüncelerini, doğaya bakışlarını Şef Seattle’ın Amerikan başkanına yazmış olduğu ünlü mektupdaki gibi yazmak istedim. Bir Kızılderili Şamanik töreninde yine derinlemesine hep birlikte düşünceye ve tetebbuya daldığımızda, bu düşüncemi gerçek ismini hiç bir zaman öğrenemediğim Geronimo’ya söyledim. 8 Kahkahalarla güldü Kızılderili dostları, ‘Peki!’ dediler, ‘ Yaz, yaz ama yazdıkların beyaz adamın karanlık dünyasında sadece rüzgara yazılacaktır, bu onların kirli dünyasında kirletilen derelerin ve işkence edilen insanların seslerine karışıp, yokolacaktır!’ . ‘Ben de bir beyaz adamım ama’ dedim. ‘Sen bizdensin, beyninin kökü bizden’, dediler. ‘Asıl olan zaten bizlerin beyaz olduğu, beyaz adamın ise karanlık olduğudur; öz deri renginde değil, bilincin ve ruhun derinliklerindedir. Beyaz-Karanlık adamın aslında ruhu ve bilinci çoktan çamura ve pisliğe bulanmış durumda, kendi yaratmış olduğu Şeytana tapıyor beyaz-karanlık adam!’ dediler. O zaman daha henüz 11 Eylül gerçekleşmemişti, milyonlarca Ortadoğulu Müslüman öldürülmemişti, Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi resmi olarak ilan edilmemişti. Ama Kızılderili bilgeler hepsinin yakın olduğunu çok iyi biliyorlardı, tıpkı Şef Seattle gibi! Söylüyorlar, yakında beyaz-karanlık adamın çok kötü şeyler yapabileceğini ifade ediyorlardı. Onları sessizce kahvemizi yudumlayarak veya bazen kamp ateşindeki eriyip giden odunlara bakarak dinliyordum. Onlarla Tony Scott’un ‘Zen için Müzik’ (Music for Zen Meditation) isimli yapıtını dinlerdik, çok severlerdi. Ayrıca onların sayesinde pek çok Kızılderili ve Şaman müziğini de tanıma şansı buldum. Yıllar sonra 2007’de Beyaz-karanlık adamın kötülüklerini anlattığım ’Gizli Örgütler, 11 Eylül ve Büyük Ortadoğu Projesi’ isimli kitabımın 5. baskısı için redaksiyonunu ve düzeltmelerini bitirirken, gerek müziğin gerekse doğa ortamının etkisiyle, Maşukiye’de bir derenin kenarında ve ormanın içinde Kızılderili dostlarımı hatırlayıp, onların anılarını ve felsefelerini yad etmeyi, Türkçe’de aslında hep söylediklerini, ne kadar haklı olduklarını dile getirmeye karar verdim aynı doğa müziklerini dinlerken. Düşünün ve farzedin ki, aşağıdaki mektubu yazan ve Washington eyaletinin başkenti Seattle’a ismini veren Kızılderili şefinin ruhu yaşasaydı, beyaz-karanlık adamın yaptıklarını 150 yıldır tepeden izleseydi, acaba neler söylerdi? Önce Şef Seattle’ın (1786-1866, Suquamish kabilesi) yaklaşık 150 yıl önce yazdığı mektubu hatırlayalım: 9 10 “ Washington’daki Büyük Şef, Beyaz adam silahlarla gelip, toprağımızı satın almak istiyor. Gökyüzünü, toprağın ısısını nasıl alıp satabilirsiniz? Bu fikir bize garip gelir. Eğer biz havanın tazeliğine ve suların parıltılarına sahip değilsek, onları nasıl satın alabilirsiniz? Bu dünyanın her parçası benim insanlarım için kutsaldır. Her parlayan çam iğnesi, bütün kumlu sahiller, karanlık ormanlardaki sis, her açık alan ve vızıldayan böcek, halkımın tecrübe ve anılarında kutsaldır. Ağaçların gövdelerinden akan sular, Kızılderililerin anılarını taşır. Dereler ve nehirlerden akan, parıldayan sular, sadece su değil ama atalarımızın kanlarıdır. Eğer size toprak satarsak, onun kutsal olduğunu hatırlamalı ve çocuklarınıza da öğretmelisiniz. Suyun mırıltısı babamın babasının sesidir. Nehirler erkek kardeşlerimizdir, susuzluğumuzu giderirler. Nehirler kanolarımızı taşır, çocuklarımızı beslerler. Eğer size toprağımızı satarsak, hatırlamalı ve çocuklarınıza öğretmelisiniz ki, nehirler bizim kardeşlerimizdir ve bundan dolayı sizler de nehirlere, herhangi bir kardeşe göstereceğiniz kibarlığı göstermelisiniz Dünya, beyaz adamın kardeşi değil ama düşmanıdır ve onu fethetti mi, ilerlemeye devam eder. Babalarının mezarını geride bırakır ve aldırmaz. Çocuklarından dünyayı kaçırır, aldırmaz. Onların haklarını unutmuştur. Annesi olan dünyaya ve kardeşi olan gökyüzüne; satın alınan, yağma edilen, koyunlar ya da parlak boncuklar gibi değişilen bir malmış gibi davranır, iştahı dünyayı yiyip bitirecek ve geride sadece bir çöl bırakacaktır. Beyaz adamların şehirlerinde sakin yer yoktur. Baharda yaprakların açılışını ya da böceklerin kanat vuruşlarını duyacak yer yoktur. Ama bu belki benim vahşi olmamdan ve anlamadığımdandır. İnsan eğer bir kuşun yalnız ağlayışını veya su birikintisi etrafında tartışan kurbağaların seslerini duymazsa hayatın anlamı nedir? Toprağımızı alma teklifinizi düşüneceğiz. Eğer satmaya karar verirsek, bir şart koyacağım. Beyaz adam bu toprağın hayvanlarına kardeşi gibi davranacak. Hayvanlar olmadan insan nedir? Eğer bütün hayvanlar bitse, insan, ruhun büyük yalnızlığından ölürdü. Çünkü, hayvanlara ne olursa, insana da aynısı olur, kısa süre içinde! 11 Ayakları altındaki toprağın, büyükbabalarının külleri olduğunu çocuklarınıza öğretmelisiniz. Böylece toprağa saygı duyarlar. Dünya annenizdir. Dünyaya ne olursa, onun oğullarına da aynısı olur. Eğer insanlar yere tükürürse kendi üzerlerine tükürürler. Dünya insana ait değildir, insan dünyanındır. Birkaç saat ya da birkaç kış sonra, bu dünyada bir zamanlar yaşamış büyük kavimlerin veya şimdi ufak topluluklar halinde ormanda dolaşanların çocukları da kalmayacak, bir zamanlar sizinkiler gibi güçlü ve umutlu olanların mezarlarında yas tutmak için. İnsanlar gelir ve gider, denizin dalgaları gibi. Tanrısı kendisiyle arkadaş gibi konuşan ve yürüyen beyaz adam bile, bu ortak kaderden ayrı tutulamaz. Beyaz adam belki bir gün keşfeder, tanrımız aynı tanrı. Şimdi bizim toprağımıza sahip olmak istediğiniz gibi, ona da sahip olduğunuzu düşünebilirsiniz. Ama olamazsınız. O insanın tanrısı ve şefkati Kızılderili için de, beyaz adam için de aynı. Bu dünya onun için değerli ve dünyaya zarar vermek onun yaratıcısını küçümsemektir. Beyazlar da geçip gidecek, belki bütün diğer kavimlerden önce. Yatağına pislik yığmaya devam et, bir gece kendi pisliğinde boğulacaksın. Biz, Buffalolar katledildiğinde, vahşi atlar ehlileştirildiğinde, ormanın gizli köşeleri pek çok insanın kokusuyla dolduğunda ve diri tepelerin görünümü konuşan tellerle lekelendiğinde, anlayamıyoruz. Çalılık nerede? Gitmiş! Kıvrak taylarla av hayvanlarına elveda demek nedir? Yaşamın sonu ve yaşamaya başlamanın başlangıcı. Bu dünyadan en son Kızılderili de yok olduğunda ve anası sadece çayırlar üzerinde hareket eden bir bulutken, bu kıyılar ve ormanlar hala halkımın ruhunu muhafaza edecekler. Çünkü halkım bu dünyayı, yeni doğan bebeğin annesinin yürek atışını sevdiği gibi sever. Öyleyse, eğer topraklarımızı satarsak, onu bizim sevdiğimiz gibi sevin, onunla bizimki gibi ilgilenin. Bu diyarın anısını, onu aldığınızdaki gibi saklayın. Bütün gücünüz, aklınız ve kalbinizle, onu çocuklarınız için koruyun ve sevin. Tanrının hepimizi sevdiği gibi.Bildiğimiz bir şey var. Tanrımız aynı tanrı. Bu dünya onun için değerli. Beyaz adam bile bu ortak kaderden ayrı tutulamaz. Bütün bunlardan sonra kardeş de olabiliriz. Göreceğiz! ”
Activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors produces oscillations in the hippocampal slice that resemble the theta rhythm, but also may produce abnormal synchronous activity that is more characteristic of epileptiform activity. We used pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist and convulsant, and an elevation in extracellular potassium (5-7.5 mM) to produce synchronous neuronal activity that was prolonged (>2 s) and mimicked synchronization noted during seizures in vivo (ictal activity). In the CA3 region of adult rat hippocampal slices, prolonged ictal oscillations consisted of rhythmic field potentials occurring at 4-10 Hz for up to 30 s (ictal duration) that occurred in a regular periodic pattern every 12-166 s (ictal interval). The duration and interval between ictal oscillations were measured before and after application of drugs to define determinants of ictal occurrence. High threshold calcium channel antagonists (nifedipine and verapamil) blocked ictal activity. Release of calcium from intracellular stores also appeared to be important for ictal synchronization because ictal activity was blocked by dantrolene, an inhibitor of calcium release from intracellular stores, and by thapsigargin which blocks the ATPase that maintains intracellular calcium stores. These suppressive effects appeared to be postsynaptic because nifedipine, dantrolene, and thapsigargin had no effect on evoked fEPSPs. Enhancement of presynaptic inhibition by activation of GABA(B) or adenosine A(1) receptors suppressed ictal activity and depressed the amplitude of evoked population synaptic potentials. The results point to an important role for high threshold calcium channels and release of calcium from intracellular stores in addition to strength of synaptic connections in generation of prolonged oscillations that underlie seizure activity.
- Feb 2002
Purpose: The transition from an interictal to an ictal pattern of epileptiform activity is a strategic target for antiepileptic drug (AED) action. Both the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine and the selective group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) produce prolonged synchronous activity in the hippocampal slice that resembles ictal discharges. We evaluated the role of synaptic mechanisms and release of calcium from intracellular stores in the generation of prolonged ictal oscillations. Methods: Pilocarpine (10 microM) in 7.5 mM[K+]o or DHPG (100 microM) in 5 mM[K+]o artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) were bath applied to hippocampal slices, and extracellular recordings were made from the CA3 region. The pattern of activity was characterized as ictal if prolonged oscillations of discharges occurred at >2 Hz lasting for >3 s. The pattern of epileptiform activity was characterized and compared with the pattern observed after bath application of pharmacologic agents. Results: The AMPA/kainic acid (KA) glutamate receptor blocker DNQX (20 microM) dampened and stopped ictal oscillations; however, antagonism of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors had minimal effects on ictal patterns. Ictal discharges were suppressed by dantrolene (30-100 microM), which blocks release of calcium from intracellular stores, or thapsigargin (1-5 microM), which inhibits the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that maintains intracellular calcium stores. The L-type calcium channel antagonist nifedipine (1 microM) blocked ictal activity produced by pilocarpine or DHPG. Conclusions: Ictal discharges produced by pilocarpine or DHPG depended on intact synaptic transmission mediated by AMPA/KA receptors, release of calcium from intracellular stores, and L-type calcium channel activation. The results suggest that muscarinic and group I mGluRs activate a positive-feedback system that creates calcium oscillations and prolonged neuronal synchronization mediated by recurrent excitatory synaptic connections in the CA3 region of the hippocampus.
Gamma vinyl GABA (GVG), an irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, has anticonvulsant effects. GVG increases GABA levels in the brain by blocking its degradation, and is presumed to enhance GABAergic inhibition, however, in some cases it exacerbates seizures. We investigated the effects of GVG in vivo and in vitro on paired pulse inhibition (PPI) recorded in the rat dentate gyrus (DG) evoked by perforant path stimulation. At 2.5 h and 24 h after administration of GVG (1 g/kg, i.p.), there was a loss of PPI at both 15- and 25-ms interpulse intervals (IPI). Activation of presynaptic GABA(B) autoreceptors could explain this in vivo effect. We therefore further investigated the effects of co-application of GVG with the GABA(B) antagonists 2-OH saclofen (saclofen) or CGP 35348 (CGP) on PPI in hippocampal slices by in vitro study. Bath application of GVG (400 and 500 microM) not only resulted in a loss of perforant path evoked PPI at a 15-ms IPI, but produced facilitation of the second population spike relative to the first. Co-application of saclofen (250 microM) with GVG (500 microM) prevented facilitation of the second response of a paired-pulse. The facilitation of the second stimulation response produced by GVG (400 microM) was converted to inhibition by bath application of CGP 35348 (400 microM). These results suggest that activation of presynaptic GABA(B) receptors by increased extracellular GABA may be one of the contributing factors to the apparent paradoxical effect of GVG on PPI in the DG.
Neural activity influences the patterning of synaptic connections and functional organization of developing sensory and motor systems, but the long-term consequences of intense neural activity such as seizures in the developing hippocampus are not adequately understood. To evaluate the possibility that abnormal neural activity during early development may have long-term functional effects in hippocampal circuitry that plays a role in learning, memory and epilepsy, functional properties of hippocampal circuitry were assessed in adult rats that had experienced seizures induced by kainic acid on specific days during early postnatal development. Although previous studies have suggested that the immature hippocampus is relatively resistant to seizure-induced alterations compared with adults, independent behavioural and physiological experiments demonstrated that seizures evoked by kainic acid during early postnatal development induced a long-term loss of hippocampal plasticity manifesting as reduced capacity for long-term potentiation, reduced susceptibility to kindling, and impaired spatial learning, which was associated with enhanced paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus. The enhancement of inhibition and loss of plasticity were maximal when the seizures occurred on the first day of life, but were also observed when seizures were induced as late as postnatal day 14, which delimited a period of postnatal susceptibility in the developing rat hippocampus when disruption of normal neural activity by seizures produced consistent effects on a hippocampal-dependent behaviour and several forms of hippocampal plasticity implicated in learning, memory and the development of epilepsy in adulthood.
Single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques and bath application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) were used to study the time course of seizure-induced alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal slices from kindled and normal rats. In agreement with previous studies, granule cells from kindled rats examined within 1 wk after the last of 3 or 30-35 generalized tonic-clonic (class V) seizures demonstrated an increase in the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the perforant path-evoked synaptic current. Within 1 wk of the last kindled seizure, NMDA-dependent charge transfer underlying the perforant path-evoked current was increased by 63-111% at a holding potential of -30 mV. In contrast, the NMDA-dependent component of the perforant-evoked current in granule cells examined at 2.5-3 mo after the last of 3 or 90-120 class V seizures did not differ from age-matched controls. Because the seizure-induced increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents declined toward control values during a time course of 2.5-3 mo, increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic transmission cannot account for the permanent susceptibility to evoked and spontaneous seizures induced by kindling. The increase in NMDA receptor-dependent transmission was associated with the induction of kindling but was not responsible for the maintenance of the kindled state. The time course of alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic current and the dependence of the progression of kindling and kindling-induced mossy fiber sprouting on repeated NMDA receptor activation are consistent with the possibility that the NMDA receptor is part of a transmembrane signaling pathway that induces long-term cellular alterations and circuit remodeling in response to repeated seizures, but is not required for permanent seizure susceptibility in circuitry altered by kindling.
Compares "being Muslim" in Turkey with other Islamic countries and describes the regime changes of the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic. Explains evolution in Islamic understanding and discusses creationism's effects and evolution's place in the high school biology curriculum. Defines the Science Research Foundation's (BAV) and Harun Yahya's roles in the Creationist movement. (Contains 37 references.) (YDS)
Effects of gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), an antiepileptic drug that inhibits GABA transaminase and increases extracellular GABA concentrations in the brain, were investigated on the morphine abstinence syndrome (AS) in male Wistar rats. Two morphine pellets (75 mg morphine base in each) were implanted subcutaneously on the back of the rats. Seventy-two hours after the morphine implantation, naloxone (NL, 2 mg kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to induce precipitated morphine AS. GVG was administered at the doses of 250 mg kg-1 (n = 11) and 500 mg kg-1 (n = 11) i.p. 24 h prior to AS and at the dose of 500 mg kg-1 (n = 13) i.p. 6 h prior to AS. Immediately after NL injections, rats were observed for 5 min and AS signs (jumping, teeth chattering, wet dog shake, diarrhoea, ptosis and defecation) were assessed. The behavioural signs of GVG-treated rats were compared with the control groups (n = 10) during the AS. Jumping, wet dog shake, teeth chattering were found to be significantly increased in all of the GVG-treated groups. Ptosis was found to have increased in only 500 mg kg-1 GVG groups. GVG potentiated the severity of morphine AS signs. GVG does not seem to have any therapeutic potential for treatment of morphine abstinence unlike some other drugs that enhance GABAergic transmission.
- Feb 1998
Seizures evoked by kainic acid and a variety of experimental methods induce sprouting of the mossy fiber pathway in the dentate gyrus. In this study, the morphological features and spatial distribution of sprouted mossy fiber axons in the dorsal dentate gyrus of kainate-treated rats were directly shown in granule cells filled in vitro with biocytin and in vivo with the anterograde lectin tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL). Sprouted axon collaterals of biocytin-filled granule cells projected from the hilus of the dentate gyrus into the supragranular layer in both transverse and longitudinal directions in kainate-treated rats but were not observed in normal rats. The sprouted axon collaterals projected into the supragranular region for 600-700 microm along the septotemporal axis. Collaterals from granule cells in the infrapyramidal blade crossed the hilus and sprouted into the supragranular layer of the suprapyramidal blade. Sprouted axon segments in the supragranular layer had more terminal boutons per unit length than the axon segments in the hilus of both normal and kainate-treated rats but did not form giant boutons, which are characteristic of mossy fiber axons in the hilus and CA3. Mossy fiber axons in the hilus of kainate-treated rats had more small terminal boutons, fewer giant boutons, and there was a trend toward greater axon length compared with mossy fibers in the hilus of normal rats. With the additional length of supragranular sprouted collaterals, there was an overall increase in the length of mossy fiber axons in kainate-treated rats. The synaptic and axonal remodeling of the mossy fiber pathway could alter the functional properties of hippocampal circuitry by altering synaptic connectivity in local circuits within the hilus of the dentate gyrus and by increasing the divergence of the mossy fiber terminal field along the septotemporal axis.
Pilocarpine (PILO), a muscarinic agonist, produces status epilepticus when administered to rats in vivo and induces interictal or ictal patterns of epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal slices. We investigated the effects of PILO (10 microM) on paired pulse inhibition (PPI) in the CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices. PPI was assessed by stimulating either the alveus or str. radiatum and recording the extracellular response from str. pyramidale of CA3. The evoked population spike following the second stimulus was compared to the first. PILO was bath applied for 1 h and then washed out to assess acute and long lasting effects. PILO decreased the amplitude of evoked population spikes measured in CA3. PPI following alveus stimulation was not affected by PILO; however, a significant loss of PPI at 15 and 30 ms interpulse intervals occurred following str. radiatum stimulation in the presence of PILO and 5 mM [K+]o artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF). The decrease in PPI at the 15 ms interval persisted following wash-out of PILO. PILO in 7.5 mM [K+]o ACSF produced epileptiform activity and a resultant long lasting loss of PPI that followed str. radiatum stimulation. This effect was not observed following epileptiform activity produced by 7.5 mM [K+]o alone, suggesting that the loss of PPI was due to PILO. Because str. radiatum-evoked PPI was selectively impaired, PILO appears to preferentially decreased feed-forward inhibition. The more dramatic loss of PPI following exposure to PILO and high [K+]o may represent the first steps in the development of chronic seizures that results from PILO-induced status epilepticus in rats.
The effects of the anti-epileptic drugs valproic acid and gamma-vinyl-GABA (vigabatrin) on the extracellular content of GABA was determined by microdialysis. Probes were implanted in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) of rats. It was found that gamma-vinyl-GABA (1000 mg/kg) induced a 4-6-fold increase in the extracellular content of GABA. This increase lasted for at least 72 h. PTZ-induced convulsions were partly antagonized by the GVG treatment. The increase of extracellular GABA after gamma-vinyl-GABA was not affected by infusion of tetrodotoxin. In contrast valproic acid (200 mg/kg), although effective in preventing pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions, did not affect extracellular GABA in the SNR. PTZ-induced convulsions did not modify extracellular GABA, neither in control rats nor in valproic acid or gamma-vinyl-GABA pretreated animals. The results do not support the idea that extracellular GABA in the SNR plays a significant role in anti-convulsive treatment. However, the present data can also be interpreted that extracellular GABA, as sampled by microdialysis, is not a reliable marker for GABA release.
- Jan 1994
The anticonvulsant effects of gamma vinyl GABA (GVG) were investigated against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizures, while sodium valproate (VP) was used as positive control. At 1000 and 1500 mg kg-1 GVG was found to decrease seizure intensity either in 4 or 24 h, as effectively as VP. At 2000 mg kg-1 GVG was found to be almost ineffective. At both doses and both time spans of drug action, seizure latency was prolonged, compared to controls and VP group.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been measured in the hippocampi of rats 2, 8, 40 or 60 weeks after induction of the tetanus toxin epileptic syndrome. GAD activity was measured by Lowier while Mann-Whitney-U test has been used for statistics. A significant increase, in GAD activity was found at 2 weeks, when active epilepsy was present, and also at 8 weeks, when the electro-encephalogram would have returned to normal. No changes were found in the long time intervals.
Gangliosides are primarily cell membrane components that are in high concentratons in plasma membranes. They bear a strong negative charge that maintains the cell surface rigidity, and are assumed to play important roles in receptor phenomena and biotransduction of membrane-mediated information. Biochemical studies have shown that the cytoplasmic islet cell antibody auto antigen possesses the properties of monosialo ganglioside (GM). In our study, whole pancreas glycolipids were purified, characterized and quantitated by using weak ion exchange high performance liguid chromatography (HPLC) after liquid and solid phase extraction. Quantitative studies have shown that GT1b and GD1a and GM1 fractions tend to diminish dramatically and other gangliosides of the pancreas disappeared during experimental diabetes with respect to the controls. Furthermore, they remained at decreased levels during protective nicotinamide therapy.
Verapamil has previously been shown to have enhanced the cytotoxicity of VP-16-213 against malign cell lines in vitro. In this study the cytotoxic effects of verapamil on the cytotoxicity of etoposide against transformed mouse fibroblasts (L-strain cell) were examined. When verapamil was used alone, after 8 hrs, DNA synthesis was increased with respect to the control cells (p < 0.01) and the initial increase of DNA synthesis was higher with the lowest concentration of verapamil (2 μg/ml) (p < 0.01). In cells that were treated with verapamil and etoposide, after 16 hrs, etoposide cytotoxicity was enhanced and the DNA synthesis decreased (p < 0.01). This enhancement augmented with the increasing doses of verapamil (p < 0.01). Although the initial stimulatory effect of verapamil on the DNA synthesis may have some role in the enhancement of etoposide cytotoxicity, the involvement of some other mechanisms is postulated.
tau-Vinyl GABA (vigabatrin, GVG) is a novel antiepileptic drug that irreversibly inhibits GABA transaminase and elevates GABA levels in all parts of the brain. In the present study, we investigated the anxiolytic and behavioral effects of GVG in the elevated plus-maze and the hole board compared to diazepam. Doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg GVG were injected IP to different groups of male Wistar rats and animals were tested either 4 or 24 h after injection. Animals administered diazepam (1.5 mg/kg, IP) and saline (1 ml) were tested 20 min after injection. GVG and diazepam were found to decrease significantly the number of squares visited and rearing; both had a suppressant effect on locomotor activity. Neither drug had an effect on exploration (head dipping). GVG at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg was shown to have a similar anxiolytic activity either after 4 or 24 h as diazepam, while GVG at 500 mg/kg did not show any significant anxiolytic effect.
The effects on rodent anxiety of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), common experimental stressors and the CRF receptor blocker, α-helical CRF, were measured using the hole board and elevated plus-maze tests. Centrally administered (intracerebroventricular, i.c.v.) CRF increased anxiety in an anxioselective manner. α-Helical CRF (i.c.v) antagonized the effects of CRF, implicating central CRF receptors. Common experimental stressors, such as surgical implantation of cannulas and intraperitoneal injections of saline also selectively increased anxiety in the plus maze. Endogenous CRF binding to central CRF receptors probably mediates the anxiogenic effects of stressors, since α-helical CRF reversed the increased anxiety following surgery. Finally, repeated gentle handling seemed to blunt the anxiogenic effect of CRF. Handling also altered the effect of CRF on behavior, creating an apparently CRF-mediated suppression of rearing and exploration which was not present in rats not stressed with repeated handling. Together the data suggest a modifiable modulatory role of CRF in rodent anxiety. The findings also suggest that careful attention should be paid to stress history when examining the role of CRF in rodent behavior.