Ulrich Schade

Ulrich Schade
Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE | FKIE · Information Technology for Command and Control Research Area

apl. Prof. Dr.

About

144
Publications
19,626
Reads
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1,126
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
220 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022010203040
2016201720182019202020212022010203040
2016201720182019202020212022010203040
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
University of Bonn
Position
  • Applied Linguistics
September 2003 - August 2012
University of Bonn
Position
  • Computational Linguistics
October 2002 - present
Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Projects on Formal Languages for Military Communication, Information Extraction, and Ontologies

Publications

Publications (144)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The following system description presents our approach to the detection of fake news in texts. The given task has been framed as a multi-class classification problem. In a multi-class classification problem, each input chunk is assigned one of several class labels. To dissect content patterns in the training data, we made use of topic modeling. Top...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The following system description presents our approach for detecting fake news in texts. The given task was formulated as a multi-class classification problem. Our approach is based on the combination of two BERT-based classification models: One model determines whether the textual content is relevant to the task; the second model assigns it a trut...
Chapter
Mit diesem Kapitel soll die Diskussion um Fake News im vorliegenden Buch um eine Ausführung darüber ergänzt werden, ob bzw. unter welchen Randbedingungen es möglich ist, automatisiert Fake News zu erkennen oder wenigstens entsprechende Beiträge mit einer Warnung zu markieren. Ein wichtiges Ziel dieser Darstellung ist es, die Ausführungen, insbesond...
Chapter
Unter einem Team von Unbemannten Systemen verstehen wir eine kleinere Anzahl von Systemen, die über unterschiedliche Fähigkeiten verfügen und bei der Erfüllung eines Auftrags kooperieren. Der Einsatz eines solchen Teams verspricht Flexibilität bei der erfolgreichen Bearbeitung unterschiedlicher Aufträge. Teams von Unbemannten Systemen können allerd...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the concept, a system-overview, and the evaluation of EnArgus, the central information system for energy research funding in Germany. Initiated by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), EnArgus establishes a one-stop information system about all recent and ongoing energy research funding projects in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chaque année depuis 2014, en juin, le Centre Leibniz d'informatique situé dans le château de Dagstuhl accueille un atelier de trois à quatre jours plutôt inhabituel ; les développements actuels dans le domaine de la sémantique y sont discutés. Ces ateliers sont organisés par le Dr. Thomas Hoppe (Fraunhofer Focus), le Prof. Dr. Bernhard Humm (Univer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Every June, since 2014, a thematically unusual workshop takes places at the Leibniz-Center for Informatics Schloss Dagstuhl, where applications of semantic technologies are presented and discussed. The workshops are organized by Dr. Thomas Hoppe (Fraunhofer FOKUS), Prof. Dr. Bernhard Humm (Hochschule Darmstadt, Department of Informatics) und Anatol...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seit 2014 findet im Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik Schloss Dagstuhl, jeweils im Juni, eine thematisch vergleichsweise ungewöhnliche Workshop-Reihe statt, in der Anwendungen semantischer Technologien diskutiert und vorgestellt werden. Die Workshops werden organisiert durch Dr. Thomas Hoppe (Fraunhofer Fokus), Prof. Dr. Bernhard Humm (Hochschule Darm...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents a language production model referring the version of the Levelt model that is proposed by Roelofs starting from his 2005 paper. On the base of that model we argue that slips of the tongue and word finding failures, particularly tip-of-the-tongue states (TOT states), occur for the same reasons. This leads us to a sub classificatio...
Conference Paper
Current work in the PDG is specifying a core logical data model ontology addressing key areas of C2-to-Simulation interoperation such as initialization and tasking/reporting as well as transformation of the ontology data model to an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema for implementation. This paper describes the transformation process of interp...
Chapter
Full-text available
Semantic applications today provide benefits to numerous organisations in business sectors such as health care, finance, industry, and the public sector. These applications use the semantics of a domain in order to improve usability, correctness, and completeness. Developing semantic applications requires methodological skills, e.g., ontology engin...
Chapter
This chapter is about natural language texts generated automatically. We will discuss the motivation as to why these texts are needed and discuss which domains will profit from such texts. During recent years NLG technology has matured. Millions of news articles are generated daily. However, there is potential for higher quality and more elaborated...
Preprint
Full-text available
Semantic applications today provide benefits to numerous organisations in business sectors such as health care, finance, industry, and the public sector. These applications use the semantics of a domain in order to improve usability, correctness, and completeness. Developing semantic applications requires methodological skills, e.g., ontology engin...
Chapter
One of the most effective uses of social media in crisis situation is for the distribution by emergency services, government agencies, and others of reliable information about the nature of the crisis. The panic and confusion that often occurs in the early stages of a crisis can be minimized through such messaging. The value of this role of social...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a short report on a recent Dagstuhl Seminar on “Engineering Moral Agents”. Imbuing robots and autonomous systems with ethical norms and values is an increasingly urgent challenge, given rapid developments in, for example, driverless cars, unmanned air vehicles (drones), and care assistant robots. Seminar participants discussed...
Article
The paper reports about a project and its final field test and evaluation. during the field test, we demonstrated how a Team of four Unmaned Systems (2 UAVs and 2 UGVs) can be deployed to support an infantry platoon, especially with respect to reconnaissance. for communication with the robots, the standards ROS and BML have been used so that a sing...
Conference Paper
BML (Battle Management Language) has been invented and developed for C2SIM purpose so that, for example, a to be trained officer can communicate to her/his subordinated simulated units in a staff exercise using her/his C2 systems as accustomed. In addition, since BML can be interpreted by systems like simulation systems, it can also be used to co...
Article
Full-text available
Semantic applications today provide benefits to commercial as well as noncommercial corporations and organizations worldwide. In “Corporate Semantic Web – Wie semantische Anwendungen in Unternehmen Nutzen stiften” (in German), more than 20 existing semantic applications are described that provide value in corporations of different sectors including...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report presents a language specification. The language is for communicating with teams of robots, i.e. for commanding the robots and for receiving reports generated by the robots. It therefore is called “Robot BML”. The language’s origin is the so-called “C2 Lexical Grammar (C2LG)”. C2LG is a formal grammar, and a formal grammar defines a langu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mit EnArgus stellen wir ein interdisziplinäres Projekt von Energieforschern, Informatikern und Linguisten vor: die Erstellung eines zentralen Informationssystems für die Energieforschungsförderung in Deutschland. EnArgus stellt über ein neues Energieforschungs-Wiki für ausgewählte Themenbereiche der Energieforschung eine Fachontologie bereit, die d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
C2SIM coalitions assemble complex systems of systems that can be seen as a strong basis for future agile C2 solutions to coalition interoperability. Such systems generally include a server that stores XML documents representing Orders and Reports to be exchanged and distributes them among the interoperating systems. Recent advances in C2SIM system...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When BML was conceived for C2-to-simulation interoperation back in 2000, the idea to control robotic autonomous forces using BML had already been considered. Over the past few years, starting in 2010, we have at last implemented this idea and we are running several projects focusing on multi-robot systems controlled by BML. In this paper, we presen...
Conference Paper
We present ongoing work towards a framework that enables not only users like first responders from emergency organizations but also citizens who, for example, reside in a natural disaster prone area to send geo-localized key information from the crisis site such as the number of injured persons, the type of injury or the degree of urgency. This geo...
Research
Full-text available
English version of a presentation held at the RWTH Aachen at June, 29th, 2015, on grammatical encoding with a localist-connectionist language production model
Chapter
In den neuen Medien vor allem im Bereich des Semantic Web gibt es einen permanent steigenden Bedarf an einzigartigen Inhalten und redaktionellen Texten. Dies betrifft sowohl Medienunternehmen als auch Nicht-Medienunternehmen. Der Großteil der Texte wird heute noch konventionell von Redakteuren erstellt. Dies gilt auch für Bereiche, in denen Texte r...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel wird beschrieben, wie man unter anderem semantische Technologien nutzen kann, um die Transparenz der Forschungsförderung im Bereich der Energieforschung zu erhöhen. Dazu wird im Unterkapitel 6.1 das vom Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie geförderte Projekt EnArgus vorgestellt, mit dem dieses Ziel angegangen wird. Im Unte...
Data
“Listening to oneself: Monitoring speech production” by Sieb Nooteboom is a highlight in language production literature since readers can benefit from the paper for different reasons. One reason is the paper’s content. The author presents the main predictions about self-monitoring which can be derived from the prominent model of monitoring by Level...
Article
Commanding and controlling a multi-robot system (MRS) is a challenging task with complexity increasing progressively as the number and the heterogeneity of robots in the system increases. A natural language-based interactive command and control system that allows a human operator the ability to focus on mission-critical tasks while directing the ac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bolstering up a military unit, e.g., an infantry platoon on a recce mission, by robots often is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, robots are able to support soldiers in multiple ways: they can transport bulky equipment, enter risky spots, and provide sensors to detect dangers of all kinds. On the other hand, robots need to be equipped with ene...
Conference Paper
Die Energiepolitik und die Energieforschung erfordern in zunehmendem Maße eine hohe Transparenz. In den EnArgus-Projekten wird daher ein Informationssystem entwickelt, das in intuitiver Form Abfragen über die öffentlich geförderten Projekte der Energieforschung unterstützt. Im vorliegenden Artikel wird der mit EnArgus verfolgte Ansatz aufgezeigt. I...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this work is to give an overview of research conducted in the field of audiovisual prosody and uncertainty. We refer to previous studies investigating the relevance of prosodic cues for both the production and perception of uncertainty in natural conversation. Afterwards, we present our own experiments dealing with the role of prosodic...
Data
Vortrag im Rahmen des linguistischen Kolloquiums der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn über Versprecher
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Clouds have considerably changed the design and provisioning of modern ICT applications creating ecosystems of services that ease and simplify the related technical and business processes. However, the above mainly refers to the private sector with the solutions targeting the public sector and cities to be few and also limited in terms of capabilit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The conference theme, M&S Support to Transitioning Forces, speaks to the need to grow better capabilities for the future while sustaining the lessons learned from past deployments. One such better capability now growing under the auspices of the NMSG is MSG-085 "Standardization for C2-Simulation Interoperation" which is leading the way to new capab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we present work on the modelling of uncertainty by means of prosodic cues in an articulatory speech synthesizer. Our stimuli are embedded into short dialogues in question-answering situations in a human-machine scenario. The answers of the robot vary with respect to the intended level of (un)certainty, the independent variables are i...
Conference Paper
Using Unmanned Air and Ground Vehicles has many advantages over static cameras or personnel for securing areas. For example, they might be cheaper, can cover larger areas, are more flexible and simply don’t get tired. But using groups of UAVs/UGVs requires a smart control system. In addition, the information from the robots must be fused to provide...
Conference Paper
The World-Wide Web has become a great resource for information and communication throughout the world. However, at the same time, it also has long been abused as a platform for criminals to collaborate on a whole range of criminal activity. In the last ten years law enforcement agencies have started to establish organizational units dedicated to th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper deals with the modelling and perception of disfluencies in articulatory speech synthesis. The stimuli are embedded into short dialogues in question-answering situations in a human–machine scenario. The system is supposed to express uncertainty in the answer. We test the influence of delay, intonation, and filler as prosodic indicators of...
Conference Paper
Using a multi-robot system in military operations poses many control problems. The ability to formulate clear and unambiguous commands for the robots thus is extremely desirable. As numerous autonomous functions have been developed both for single robots and for multi-robot systems, we want the operator to express just what needs to be done, wherea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes initial findings of a multi-national research effort within the NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 85 (MSG-085) Standardization for C2-Simulation Interoperation, to investigate the use of Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for use in the Maritime domain. The purpose of the effort is to develop a Mar...
Conference Paper
The immense amount of information that can be collected from open sources have become increasingly important to the academic and business communities over the past two decades. Also national and global security is becoming more and more reliant on rapidly making sense of and managing the relevant intelligence data. The enormous size and complexity...
Conference Paper
Natural language is a very intuitive and efficient way to interact with robotic systems and to control mobile multi-robot systems (MRS). We used language processing technologies to design an intuitive, efficient, and effective user interface for MRS. But it is difficult to process natural language sentences fully automatically. This is because they...
Article
Full-text available
While it used to be satisfactory that sea r ch applications used to look up simple keywords in the past, nowadays a sea rch engine is increasingly expected to be able performing sema ntic sea rch as well. This leads to an intensified research on ontologies supporting these applications. Users might only have a vague idea of the exact keywords to th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The success of military operations of all kinds, whether battlefield, peace-keeping, anit-terrorism or disaster, depends on a quick and appropriate reaction to a developing situation. More than ever before, information is power. A standardized grammar developed originally for use in simulations and training, Battle Management Language has been expa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe an interpretation study on the effect of accentua-tion, eyebrow movement and context on the exhaustive inter-pretation of answers. Our material consists of video record-ings of nine German speakers who read dialogues with embed-ded question-answer pairs in which the answer constituted the pragmatic focus of the utterance. For the dialog...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Battle Management Language (BML) is being developed as an open standard that unambiguously formalizes and specifies Command and Control information, including orders and reports. It is used when C2 systems are coupled to simulation systems for decision support or staff training. In the former case, the actual situation is taken from the C2 system a...
Article
Full-text available
Information for situation awareness and management comes from a variety of sources, both device-generated (e.g., sensors) and human-generated. The latter includes databases, ontologies, intelligence reports, open source such as newspaper or television, and, increasingly informal communications such as Twitter or Facebook. Problematic is the fact th...
Article
Securing larger areas with multi-robot systems is a challenging task when you want to have multiple robots controlled by only one person in an efficient way. One way to do this is to let the commanding person express high-level tasks and to build an intelligent multi-robot system (MRS) that can execute these high-level tasks and provide aggregated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to improve the interoperability between C2 systems and simulation systems, Battle Management Language (BML) has been developed as standard for assigning C2 tasks to units in simulation system and for sending reports from the simulation back to the C2 system. The specification of a language always is based on a grammar. This is especially t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Texts, e.g. written reports, can be pre-analyzed automatically in order to find those texts which might be of interest with respect to a specific problem. Often this is done by a more or less sophisticated version of keyword spotting. However, the field of computational linguistics offers more potent and more precise tools for automatic text analys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an experimental study on the effect of context and of audiovisual prosody on pragmatic focus interpretation. The audiovisual material was elicited from our previous production study on the exhaustivity of answers. Here we recorded nine German speakers who were instructed to read dialogues with embedded question-answer pairs in which the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an empirical study on the variation of accent type and of context on pragmatic focus interpretation. The material was based on audio-recordings of nine German speakers, who were instructed to read dialogues with embedded questionanswer pairs in which the answers constituted the pragmatic focus utterance. Different accent types occurred f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
HUMINT reports, as well as all other kinds of texts, can be pre-analyzed automatically in order to identify those items containing information about a specific problem of interest. Automated pre-analyzing tools often use deficient techniques of keyword spotting. However, automatic text analysis supported by linguistic principles offers techniques l...
Article
Local connectionist models are built up from networks of connected nodes. In these models, each node represents exactly one item to be represented. In language production models, these items are words, morphemes, phonemes, and so on. Connectionist models incorporate parallel processing. Thus, they are ideal models for both the production of slips o...
Article
Local connectionist models are built up from networks of connected nodes. In these models, each node represents exactly one item to be represented. In language production models, these items are words, morphemes, phonemes, and so on. Connectionist models incorporate parallel processing. Thus, they are ideal models for both the production of slips o...
Data
Texts, e.g. written reports, can be pre-analyzed automatically in order to find those texts which might be of interest with respect to a specific problem. Often this is done by a more or less sophisticated version of keyword spotting. However, the field of computational linguistics offers more potent and more precise tools for automatic text analys...
Article
Lesen Sie dieses Buch! Sie werden sich ärgern, Sie werden sich freuen. Sie werden sich neue Fragen stellen und Altbekanntes überdenken. Sie werden auf relevante Forschungsfragen gestoßen. Walther Kindts Werk „Irrtümer und andere Defizite in der Linguistik“ wird Sie vielleicht ärgern, weil es Defizite auflistet, die aus Ihrer Sicht ausgeräumt sind,...
Article
Lesen Sie dieses Buch! Sie werden sich ärgern, Sie werden sich freuen. Sie werden sich neue Fragen stellen und Altbekanntes überdenken. Sie werden auf relevante Forschungsfragen gestoßen. Walther Kindts Werk „Irrtümer und andere Defizite in der Linguistik“ wird Sie vielleicht ärgern, weil es Defizite auflistet, die aus Ihrer Sicht ausgeräumt sind,...
Article
Full-text available
As Europe develops towards a politically and economically integrated body, agencies, organisations and enterprises from various nations face the challenge of having to collaborate and provide services to achieve common goals and create prior negotiated, intended outcomes.While European and national legislations set context and rules for such busine...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an empirical study on the interplay between audio and visual information for pragmatic focus marking. Nine German speakers were instructed to read dialogues with embedded question-answer pairs and varied context regarding certainty and exhaustivity. Results show that H* accompanied by a raising of eyebrows or head occurs signifi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information overflow is a significant and as yet unresolved problem for military, homeland security and law enforcement. Furthermore, quantity is only one part of the intelligence problem: identifying which pieces of information belong together, and assessing the credibility of not only individual pieces of information but also of their correlation...
Article
Full-text available
The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with simulation systems. The result of this work has been reported in previous SIW papers. This paper addresses P...
Conference Paper
Rapid correlation and analysis of new and existing information is essential to recognizing developing threats and can easily be considered one of the most important challenges for military and security organizations. Automatic preprocessing (fusion) of information can help to “connect the dots” but arguably as important to the intelligence process...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a model of pragmatic focus interpretation that is assumed to be part of a complete language comprehen-sion model and that is inspired by Levelt's language processing model. The model is derived from our empirical data on the role of accentuation, prosodic indicators of uncertainty and context for pragmatic focus interpretation....
Article
Full-text available
The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with simulation systems. Its work in defining and demonstrating a basic capability for this purpose has been repo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The specification of a language always is based on a grammar. This is especially true if the language is used for inter-system communication: Automated systems demand the foundation of the language on a formal grammar. During past decade, a precise language for C2, Battle Management Language (BML), has been under development as a standard for assig...
Article
Battle Management Language (BML) is a formal language for military communication, i.e., exchanging orders and reports. Orders and reports refer to geo-information. In particular, orders use overlays to connect geo-information to task assignments. The problem studied by this project is how to formalize geo-information and overlays, and to connect th...
Article
The NATO Modeling and Simulation Group Technical Activity 48 (MSG-048) was chartered in 2006 to investigate the potential of a Coalition Battle Management Language for multinational and NATO interoperation of command and control systems with simulation systems. The result of this work has been reported in previous SIW papers. This paper addresses P...