Ulf Emanuelson

Ulf Emanuelson
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Department of Clinical Sciences

PhD

About

292
Publications
48,400
Reads
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7,355
Citations
Citations since 2017
110 Research Items
3488 Citations
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Introduction
My main research focus is on production diseases in dairy cows, but it includes also other diseases and impaired productivity as well as other animal species. The research is based on available secondary databases (e.g. disease occurrence), many of which are unique for Sweden, but also on large-scale field studies designed and conducted for specific research projects. I use SAS, Stata and R in research and research education. My expert area is in analytical epidemiology. I am also involved in teaching epidemiology for veterinary students and for students in a MSc-program of infectious biology.
Additional affiliations
February 2004 - present
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (292)
Presentation
Full-text available
Central to addressing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the need for effective interventions to rationalise antimicrobial use (AMU) based on a contextualised understanding of daily practices. However, individualistic theories of human behaviour change, focusing on increasing awareness, attitudinal shifts or regulatory and policy imperati...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to identify the effects of temperature on dairy production and the heat tolerance of different dairy breeds under heat stress. Using farm and animal-level data from 1435 dairy farms throughout Sweden for 4 years (from 2016 to 2019), we find that a 7-day average of daily maximum temperatures above ~ 20 ºC is associated with sharp dec...
Article
Mastitis is a production disease in dairy farming that causes economic losses. Especially chronic mastitis (i.e., mastitis cases continuing longer than 28 days) can substantially affect the risk of transmission of intramammary infections (IMI) and total milk production losses. Insights into the impact of chronic mastitis on production and farm econ...
Article
Full-text available
Although most of the losses due to mastitis per case in dairy production are estimated to be caused by clinical cases, subclinical cases, especially chronic, can also be problematic due to milk production losses and the risk of transmission of pathogens. Knowing which subclinical mastitis cases will become chronic at an early stage would be helpful...
Article
Communication has been identified as one constraint for cattle veterinarians to act as proactive health consultants. Motivational Interviewing (MI), an evidence-based client-centered communication methodology, may therefore be a useful tool in veterinary herd health management (VHHM). The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate association...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria in the livestock is a growing problem, partly due to inappropriate use of antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial use (AMU) occurs in Swedish dairy farming but is restricted to the treatment of sick animals based on prescription by a veterinary practitioner. Despite these strict rules, calves shedding antimicro...
Article
Full-text available
Enteritis is the major cause of mortality in neonatal calves. Diagnostic work to detect the pathogens involved and identification of risk factors for such infections are imperative to improve calf health. Bovine norovirus (BNoV) and nebovirus prevalence was investigated using RT-PCR in 50 dairy herds in five geographic regions of Sweden. BNoV and n...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare animal health in compost-bedded pack (CBP) and cubicle housing (CH) systems using data from dairy herd improvement associations. Thirty-two commercial dairy farms located in Austria, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Slovenia, and Sweden were included in the study. A matching design (pairing CBP and CH within...
Article
Full-text available
Reduction of milk yield is one of the principal components in the cost of mastitis. However, past research into the association between milk yield and mastitis indicators is limited. Past research has not been based on online or in-line daily measurements and has not fully explored nonlinearity and the thresholds at which milk yield starts to decre...
Article
Full-text available
Using levels of the stress hormone cortisol as an indicator for welfare is a common, but debated practice. In this observational study, hair cortisol concentration (HCC) of samples from 196 dairy calves from 7 to 302 days of age collected from 12 Swedish farms was determined using a commercially available ELISA. An assessment of animal welfare, ass...
Article
Full-text available
The farmer has the central role in determining cow culling policies on their farm and thus affecting cow longevity. The present study aimed to examine farm managers´ satisfaction, attitudes, personality traits and analyse the associations with dairy cow culling and longevity in large commercial dairy farms. Farm managers of 116 dairy herds rearing...
Article
Full-text available
The development of digital farming gives bovine mastitis research and management tools access to large datasets. However, the quality of registered data on clinical mastitis cases or treatments may be inadequate (e.g. due to missing records). In automatic milking systems, the decision to divert milk from the bulk milk tank during milking is registe...
Poster
Full-text available
Aim-To reduce the knowledge gap of veterinary AMU practices by placing animal care as the "focus of a multinational multidisciplinary evaluation" To address how practices and norms in veterinary medicine constrain the possibilities to achieve rational AMU.
Article
Scales are frequently used to quantify latent traits that can not be measured directly (eg knowledge of a subject, attitude toward an issue, severity of a clinical condition). Historically, little attention has been paid within veterinary medical sciences to evaluating how well these scales perform. In this study methods that can be used in this ev...
Article
Full-text available
To ensure milk quality and detect cows with signs of mastitis, visual inspection of milk by prestripping quarters before milking is recommended in many countries. An objective method to find milk changed in homogeneity (i.e., with clots) is to use commercially available inline filters to inspect the milk. Due to the required manual labor, this meth...
Conference Paper
Global reduction of antimicrobial use (AMU) paves the way to ease the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Six areas - poverty, hunger, food security, sustainable economic growth, health, inequality and the environment - are interweaved with the AMU/AMR complex problematic. Though the consequences of AMR are true to all, the challenge does dif...
Conference Paper
Reducing antimicrobial use (AMU) is essential to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Yet there are also profound distributional, environmental and inequality issues bound up with the global AMU/AMR problematic, but so is animal welfare. Though the consequences of AMR can affect us all, there are significant regional and animal species difference...
Article
Full-text available
Milk quality and clinical mastitis in dairy cows are monitored by detecting visually abnormal milk. A standardized method to evaluate clots in milk and studies of the incidence and dynamics of clots in milk at the quarter level are lacking. We validated a method to score clot density in quarter milk samples and describe the prevalence and dynamics...
Article
Full-text available
Cruciate ligament rupture (CLR) is a common orthopedic disorder in dogs. The study objectives were to evaluate incidence rate (IR), cause-specific mortality rate (CSMR) and risk factors for CLR in insured dogs. A single cohort study of dogs insured in Agria Pet Insurance in Sweden (2011–2016) was performed. Age at diagnosis, IR, CSMR and relative r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stifle joint diseases (SJD) are common in dogs and include a variety of diagnoses. The objective of the study was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of SJD in insured dogs. Methods: An historical single cohort study of dogs insured in Agria Pet Insurance (2011-2016) in Sweden was performed. Incidence and relative risk (RR) of...
Article
Full-text available
The societal demand for good farm animal welfare (FAW) has increased over time. Yet, very little is known about the economic consequences of improvements in FAW in cow–calf operations. This study investigates on-farm economic consequences of improved FAW measures in cow–calf operations. It uses a stochastic partial budgeting approach to examine the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: On-farm mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) is the unwanted loss of animals, and it comes with negative economic consequences. On-farm mortality rates reflect a herd's animal welfare status. The objective of this historical longitudinal single cohort study was to identify the associations between herd characteristics, animal ho...
Article
Full-text available
In automatic milking systems (AMS), sensors can measure cow behavior and milk composition at every milking. The aim of this observational study of previously collected data was to gain insight into the differences in dynamics of udder inflammation indicators between cows that recover and those that do not recover after detection of an initial infla...
Article
Aims To estimate animal-level seroprevalence of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and L. borgpetersenii serovars Ballum and Tarassovi, in beef cattle, sheep and deer on New Zealand farms, and herd/flock-level seroprevalence of any serovar when existing same-sera data for serovars Hardjobovis and Pomona were included, and to determine assoc...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and use (AMU) is important for control. We used Escherichia coli from healthy young calves as an indicator to evaluate whether AMR patterns differ between Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds and whether the patterns could be related to AMU data. Samples were taken twice, in 30 organic and 30 conven...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: Cattle are the second most important cause of human campylobacteriosis, after poultry, but there are knowledge gaps regarding Campylobacter in cattle. This study examined the occurrence of Campylobacter, the species present, sequence types and antibiotic resistance in Swedish cattle. Methods and results: Faeces samples collected from 154 c...
Article
Full-text available
Biases of antimicrobial use (AMU) reporting systems pose a challenge to monitoring of AMU. Our study aimed to cross-compare three data sources of AMU in Swedish dairy herds to provide an account of the validity of AMU reports. We studied AMU differences between two production systems, to investigate how the reporting system affected this comparison...
Article
Full-text available
This research paper presents a study investigating if sensor data from an automatic milking rotary could be used to model cow somatic cell count (composite milk SCC: CMSCC). CMSCC is valuable for udder health monitoring and individual cow udder health surveillance could be improved by predicting CMSCC between routine samplings. Data regularly recor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Culling is a major cost for dairy farms but also an essential part in managing herd productivity. This study aimed to identify the culling rates of Estonian dairy cows, identify the farmers' stated reasons and risk factors for culling. This observational study used registry data of all cows from herds with ≥20 cow-years in 2013-2015. C...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To analyse the effect of treatment method and other risk factors on survival in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD). Methods A historical cohort study of 333 dogs presenting with CCLD at two University Hospitals (2011-2016) was performed. Signalment, history, treatment and follow-up details were retrieved from medical reco...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most common and reliable ways of monitoring udder health and milk quality in dairy herds is by monthly cow composite somatic cell counts (CMSCC). However, such sampling can be time consuming, and more automated sampling tools entail extra costs. Machine learning methods for prediction have been widely investigated in mastitis detection r...
Article
Full-text available
Veterinarians often give advice in a persuasive form, a style that has been shown to evoke resistance to change in clients experiencing psychological ambivalence (i.e. those who see both advantages and disadvantages to changing). With this style of communication, veterinarians run the risk of counteracting their purpose to encourage clients to foll...
Article
Full-text available
Background Communication skills to promote changes in management routines are especially important in veterinary herd health management (VHHM). Motivational interviewing (MI) is a communication methodology shown to be effective in stimulating client behaviour change. This study aimed to evaluate a 6-month MI-training programme for veterinarians. M...
Article
Full-text available
In cattle herds, the transmission and persistence of VTEC O157:H7 (a serotype of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli-known for its life threatening complications in humans) is dependent on a small proportion of cattle who become colonised and shed high numbers of the bacteria. Reducing the proportion of these animals is considered key for decreasi...
Article
Full-text available
Although ensuring good animal health is a stated aim of organic livestock farming and an important reason why consumers purchase organic products, the health states actually achieved are comparable to those in conventional farming. Unfortunately, there have been no studies to date that have assessed stakeholder views on different policy options for...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The reduction of antimicrobial usage (AMU) is in the focus in modern pig production. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of alternatives to reduce AMU at herd level. In a prospective study, 68 farrow-to-finish pig herds located in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden were recruited on a voluntary basis to impleme...
Article
Dairy farming is a complex production system involving biological, technological and human inputs. Therefore, ‘general knowledge of cause and effect’ often seems inadequate to identify and implement optimal management procedures. To solve herd-specific problems, this paper explores the potential of planned experiments for internal use at the farm l...
Article
Full-text available
In order to investigate the infection dynamics of Cryptosporidium bovis and C. ryanae, a two-year prospective cohort study was performed on a dairy farm known to be free of C. parvum. Sixteen calves were recruited when newborn. Faecal samples were collected weekly until calves were nine weeks old, then monthly until calving or culling. Samples (n =...
Article
There is an increased concern among many stakeholders in society that livestock production systems provide a low-quality life to the animals and therefore advocate improved farm animal welfare (FAW). On the other hand, producers are concerned that stricter welfare regulations would decrease their profits and hence their competitiveness. Given the r...
Article
Providing more space per animal, soft bedding, and free roaming in animal housing systems is widely presumed to be beneficial for the welfare of the animals. This observational study aimed to investigate the basis of this assumption in free-walk housing systems (FWS) for dairy cows in Europe. The dairy cattle Welfare Quality assessment protocol was...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Culling is a major cost for dairy farms but also an essential part in managing herd productivity. The study aimed to identify the culling rates of Estonian dairy cows, identify the farmers´ stated reasons and risk factors for culling. This observational study used registry data of all cows from herds with ≥20 cow-years in 2013-2015. Cow...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Culling is a major cost for dairy farms but also an essential part in managing herd productivity. The study aimed to identify the culling rates of Estonian dairy cows, identify the farmers´ stated reasons and risk factors for culling. This observational study used registry data of all cows from herds with ≥20 cow-years in 2013-2015. Cow...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Culling is a major cost for dairy farms but also an essential part in managing herd productivity. This study aimed to identify the culling rates of Estonian dairy cows, identify the farmers’ stated reasons and risk factors for culling. This observational study used registry data of all cows from herds with ≥20 cow-years in 2013-2015. Cow...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We aimed to determine the accuracy of an indicator of whether milk was diverted as a proxy for a case of treated clinical mastitis in cows milked by automatic milking systems. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 1 to 10 consecutive days of milk diversion in combination with a mastitis alert against r...
Article
This study evaluated associations between dry period length (DPL) in dairy cows and energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, health, and fertility, using a dataset involving 78 577 lactations in cows of two breeds, Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Herds with at least 20 cows and at least 20 % purebred SR and at least 20 % SH during the ye...
Article
The herd on-farm mortality rate is an indicator of herd animal health and welfare status. The aim of the present study was to describe herd-level on-farm mortality rates and to identify risk factors that contribute to high herd mortality rates. Online or postal questionnaires were sent to 676 Estonian beef farms, and the response rate was 25.4%. Th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 13 edition of the IDF Animal Health Report is dedicated to dairy welfare and includes information on welfare assessments, dealing with emergency situations, reproduction, lameness, mastitis, new technologies and examples of prolonged cow and calf contact.
Technical Report
Full-text available
El uso prolongado de medicamentos antimicrobianos ha resultado en una resistencia a los mismos que amenaza con revertir los avances médicos de los últimos setenta años. Debido a su uso indiscriminado en el tiempo, la resistencia a antibióticos se ha convertido en una importante amenaza para la salud pública. Las futuras limitaciones en el uso de an...
Article
Disease in livestock is an undesirable factor in the production process. It lowers the profit margins of the producers and causes unnecessary suffering to the animals. For dairy production, mastitis is the most common disease, which negatively affects animal welfare, increases production costs, and reduces milk yield. The purpose of this study was...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of nonadherence to advice is recognized in several professional relationships, including the veterinarian-client relationship. A better understanding of farmer perspectives may help to improve efficiency in veterinary herd health management. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively describe farmers' reasons for adherence and...
Article
Veterinary communication has evolved in the context of traditional veterinary tasks, such as diagnosing and treating sick animals, and this may encourage a directive communication style, in which the veterinarian acts as an expert, directing the client in what to do and how to do it. This type of communication style has been shown to evoke resistan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is an increased concern among many stakeholders in society that livestock production systems provide a low-quality life to the animals and therefore advocate improved farm animal welfare (FAW). On the other hand, producers are concerned that stricter welfare regulations would decrease their profits and hence their competitiveness. Given the r...
Poster
Full-text available
Providing more space per animal, soft bedding, and free roaming in animal housing systems is widely presumed to be beneficial for the welfare of the animals.
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Africa, intensified pig production is frequently accompanied by increased occurrence of African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks, leading to high case fatality rates and socio-economic impact for the farmers. ASF control relies on prevention of disease transmission and control of outbreaks. The aim of this study was to increase the under...
Article
The increasing number of human cases infected with a highly virulent type of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157:H7 in Sweden is the result of domestic transmission originating in regional clusters of infected cattle farms. To control the spread of the bacteria a comprehensive picture of infection dynamics, routes of transmission between far...
Article
This was a retrospective cohort study of Swedish dairy herds. Summary measures of production and reproductive performance, details of soil, moss mineral concentrations, and temperature and rainfall measurements at each herd location were available for the period September 2001 to August 2009. A Bayesian mixed-effects regression model including spat...
Presentation
Full-text available
The ERA-Net Freewalk project aims to study animal health and welfare, milk quality, environmental and socioeconomic impacts in dairy farms that use compost pack bedding (CPB) versus freestalls (FS). The specific aim here was to assess the welfare of dairy cows and to test the hypothesis that dairy cows in CPB systems have a better welfare quality t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate if EVOP (Evolutionary Operation) can be used as a management tool to identify the effect of mastitis control options on improving udder health in dairy herds. The concept of EVOP-dairy is based on five principles: 1) Farmer-driven identification of areas to improve and relevant interventions; 2) Establish herd...
Article
Full-text available
In order to investigate the infection dynamics of Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae, a Swedish dairy farm known to be free of C. parvum was recruited for a one-year study. Fecal samples were collected every four weeks (a total of 13 occasions) from 20 randomly selected calves younger than 65 days. A total of 238 feces samples were co...
Article
The aim of the present study was to classify the diversity of organic dairy farms in four European countries according to their structural characteristics and investigate the association of these farm types with implementation of herd health plans. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), followed by Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC), wa...
Article
An important step in limiting the development of antibiotic resistance is reducing use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. Much research in this area has focused on individual farmer behavior, aiming to better align actual use with medical recommendations. However, farmers' practices and reasoning around their antibiotic use do not reflect solely t...
Article
Mastitis infections cause severe pain in dairy cows and are the most costly illness to farmers. This study combined differentiation and consolidation (Diff-Con) theory with risk-benefit analysis to explore how risky decisions are perceived and justified after a decision has been taken. More specifically, using survey data from 428 Swedish dairy far...
Article
Shortening the dry period improves postpartum energy balance, which has potential positive effects on metabolic health. This concept has been mainly studied in Holstein cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a short dry period of 4 wk, compared with a standard dry period of 8 wk, on the metabolic status, progesterone profiles, heal...
Article
The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. in equids raised for distinct purposes in the western state of Pará, Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with parasite infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted with cluster sampling in 101 farms from 18 municip...
Presentation
Innovative Free Walk systems (FWS) are promising housing from point of view of animal welfare, environment and economics. But it has not yet been scientifically evaluated in a cross country framework.