Tyler S Lorig

Tyler S Lorig
Washington & Lee University | W&L · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

64
Publications
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1,660
Citations

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Successive reductions in sucrose rewards are examined in two analogous runway experiments. In Experiment 1, rats were trained for 24 preshift days with 1 ml of either 30% or 3% sucrose solution as reward. Training trials were administered two per day with an intertrial interval (ITI) of 3-5 min. During 2 postshift days, all animals received 20 tria...
Article
Cortical arousal has been assumed to be a continuous rather than “all or none” phenomenon. Few studies using quantitative techniques for the examination of cortical activity have been sensitive enough to detect such an arousal continuum, if one does exist. Typically, these studies have quantified cortical activity by using period analysis or amplit...
Article
Full-text available
Fifteen subjects participated in a study designed to record event-related potentials (ERPs) to various concentrations of the odorant n-butyl alcohol. Subjects pressed a response key upon detection of the odor, while ERPs were recorded from nine electrode positions. Results indicated a concentration-dependent increase in amplitude of a P300-like com...
Article
Odorants exert their effects at many levels. Most often, these stimuli are well above detection threshold and allow the investigator to use self-report or behavioral techniques to evaluate odor effects. There are, however, considerable data demonstrating effects for odor stimuli that are below sensory thresholds or are undetected by subjects. In th...
Article
fMRI research has spent its first generation determining areas of high activation in the brain during various psychological tasks. The technique has proved exceedingly useful for asking where is the brain active during these tasks. This paper investigates the utility of asking the question "where is the brain active" and provides the reader with a...
Article
This paper describes the unique problems associated with selecting appropriate control conditions when designing olfactory experiments. Olfactory experiments are compared to behavioral neuroscience experiments in which a sham operation is used as a control condition. These comparisons point out the difficulty of using no-odor control conditions in...
Article
Two studies were conducted to examine whether facial feedback can modulate implicit racial bias as assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Participants were surreptitiously induced to smile through holding a pencil in their mouth while viewing photographs of unfamiliar Black or White males or performed no somatic configuration while viewin...
Article
Evidence from a variety of sensory modalities has suggested that the left hemisphere may be 'tuned' to process more rapidly changing stimuli than the right and some have suggested that this difference forms the foundation of the functional dichotomy often drawn between the two hemispheres. Odors may be thought to engage these same temporally depend...
Article
The smell of a cup of coffee is produced by many different odor chemicals combined in a mixture, yet the perception of that odor is of a single unified whole. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mixtures of odors share some of the same spatiotemporal features of speech sounds and may use similar brain resources in associating those features with...
Article
Full-text available
Complaints of health symptoms from ambient odors have become more frequent in communities with confined animal facilities, wastewater treatment plants, and biosolids recycling operations. The most frequently reported health complaints include eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hoarseness, sore throat, cough, chest tightne...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social psychology is the scientific study of social behavior, with an emphasis on under-standing the individual in a social context. Accordingly, social psychologists study a delightfully diverse range of topics ranging from intrapersonal processes shaped by or in response to others such as the self, attitudes, emotions, social identity, normative...
Article
Full-text available
Complaints of health symptoms from ambient odors have become more frequent in communities with confined animal facilities, wastewater treatment plants, and biosolids recycling operations. The most frequently reported health complaints include eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hoarseness, sore throat, cough, chest tightne...
Article
This article describes a module of NMR-smell experiments for the general chemistry laboratory that can be taught in two-week or three-week formats; the module has also been run in a modified form with high school students during the summer. The series of experiments involves an exploration of organic stereochemistry via hands-on model building, sev...
Article
Full-text available
Developments within the neurosciences, cognitive sciences, and social sciences have contributed to the emergence of social neuroscience. Among the most obvious contemporary developments are brain-imaging procedures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging. The authors outline a set of first principles designed to help make sense of brain-imagi...
Article
The use of a variety of electrophysiological techniques to determine the effects of odor on the nervous system is reviewed. Methods and problems associated with the collection of on-going EEG, chemosensory event-related potentials, and contingent negative variation data are discussed in depth as is the use of odors as modulators of brain potentials...
Article
Full-text available
A design for an inexpensive and reliable olfactometer is presented. The design has several advantages for fMRI and electrophysiology investigators. These advantages include relatively rapid odorant rise times, computer control, multiple odor administration, and no ferrous materials near the subjects. In addition, the device is contamination resista...
Article
The association between olfaction and language is discussed. The effects of odor on human behavior and cognitive processing are reviewed as are electrophysiological studies of odor/language interactions. Also reviewed are specific effects of odor administration on language-dependent tasks. The hypothesis is advanced that odor information processing...
Article
Previous research has found both facilitation and interference when odors are administered during the performance of cognitive tasks. The present research was designed to investigate the possibility that odors might differentially effect different varieties of cognitive tasks. Twelve subjects performed matched verbal, numeric, and spatial tasks as...
Article
During normal olfaction, stimulation is dependent upon nasal inhalation. When collecting chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs), inhalations may produce artifacts such as respiration-related brain potentials that confound interpretation of the data. To avoid this type of artifact, CSERPs have often been collected using stimulation that is i...
Article
Commercial ERP software is often inflexible and may be of little use to investigators using nontraditional forms of ERP analysis. An approach to this problem is presented usingMathematica, a high-level, symbolic mathematics and graphical programming language and environment. A description of the software and its application to ERP data are included...
Article
Fifteen subjects participated in an experiment designed to assess the contingent negative variation (CNV) during the labeling of odors and shapes. Odors or shapes were presented (S1) and followed 3 s later by a lexical label (A, B, or C) (S2). In 75% of the trials, the S2 was the correct label for the odor or shape. In the remaining trials, the S2...
Article
A technique for visualizing event-related potential data which preserves both spatial and temporal dimensions is presented. This technique can be implemented by several different types of software and may be useful when spatio-temporal information is of critical importance in a data set. It is especially useful for comparing spatio-temporal differe...
Article
Evidence from four EEG/ERP experiments is presented. Findings of these experiments consistently demonstrate the ability of low-level and undetected odors to alter neurophysiology. Behavioral and cognitive effects are also described. These data may have applicability to theories of MCS since they illustrate the possibility that low-level or undetect...
Article
Full-text available
Repressive personality style has often been identified as an important variable governing a variety of individual differences. There is debate, however, concerning the mechanisms by which this style is expressed. One hypothesis suggests that threatening information, after encoding, is suppressed from awareness. Another theory maintains that threate...
Chapter
Electrophysiology has been applied to the study of many human senses with outstanding success. Vision, audition, the somatosensory system, and even the vestibular system have been studied extensively and fruitfully using the electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs). The application of these techniques to taste and smell has si...
Article
Chemosensory event-related potentials hold great promise for furthering the understanding of the olfactory system, the processing of olfactory information, and disease processes affecting olfaction. Collection of this type of data has been difficult and suggestions are presented to aid investigators new to this field. Suggestions for nomenclature,...
Article
Sixteen subjects judged the accuracy of visual labels which identified previously occurring olfactory or visual stimuli. Labels correctly identified the previous stimuli on 75 % of the trials (frequent condition) and incorrectly identified the previous condition in 25 % of the trials (rare condition). Event-related potentials were recorded from run...
Article
This article describes a contact-lens method to sustain asymmetry in visual deprivation and the use of this method to test the general hypothesis that asymmetry in input deprivation can shift activation balance in the integrated brain, differentially influencing lateral hemispheric function. Effects of asymmetrical visual deprivation were as predic...
Article
Electroencephalogram (EEG) changes in response to trauma and non-traumarelated odors were examined in five Vietnam veterans with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and in five Vietnam veterans with adjustment-related problems (non-PTSD). Period analysis of the EEG indicated that the odors differentially affected the PTSD...
Chapter
Neuropsychological testing has experienced enormous growth in recent years. It is a standard procedure for pre- and postassessment of neurosurgical patients in most medical centers and many smaller hospitals. Referrals for neuropsychological testing from neurologists and neurosurgeons are growing and are a testament to the usefulness of these asses...
Conference Paper
An attempt was made to correlate performance on a clinical olfactory battery with visual ERPs (event related potentials) to odor labels. In phase 1, subjects watched a video monitor while pairs of labels were presented two seconds apart. In 80% of the trials, the labels were identical. Phase 2 was identical to phase 1 except that the first stimulus...
Article
Conducted 2 experiments to replicate the finding by G. Kobal and C. Hummel (1988) and T. S. Lorig and G. E. Schwartz (see record 1989-18115-001) that low concentration odors affect central nervous system (CNS) activity even when undetected and to determine the behavioral effects of low concentration odor administration. In Exp 1, EEG data were col...
Article
Amplitude of the contingent negative variation component of the EEG was assessed in 18 subjects exposed to several odor conditions. Three primary odors were used as well as a mixture of the primary odors. Subjects were led to believe that the odor mixture was actually three different odors which were low concentrations of each of the primary odors....
Article
Full-text available
Examined whether odors produced significant changes in brain activity even when they were undetected. 16 Ss (aged 17–34 yrs) were exposed to 4 concentrations of 2 odorants while EEG data were recorded. The concentrations used in the study were no odor, low (undetected in half the Ss), medium, and high. The distribution of EEG theta activity differe...
Article
CNS activation, as measured by the EEG, has been assumed to be a unitary and homogeneous phenomenon which comprises shifts in the amount of activity in the alpha and beta frequency ranges. Factor analysis of EEG activity in the present study revealed a structure of EEG frequencies inconsistent with traditional EEG bands such as alpha and beta. Fact...
Article
Two experiments examined the relationship between time domain patterns of EEG activity and self-reports for individuals exposed to different odorants. In Exp 1, 3 odorants produced different patterns of EEG theta activity and self reports from 9 adults, suggesting that odor administration is a reliable variable in manipulating neurophysiological re...
Article
Recorded EEG data from 20 adults while they inhaled room air through the mouth or the nose. It was found that EEG alpha activity in the left hemisphere was reduced for Ss inhaling through the nose and that EEG beta activity showed greater spatial diversity during nose inhalations. Results demonstrate that room air passing through the nose has a des...
Article
A microcomputer-based technique to evaluate the scalp topography of event-related potentials is described. This technique uses only four electrode locations and produces a 24 × 24 element color matrix of the topography of scalp electrical activity across time. The program also displays the coordinates, latency, and value of the maximum point within...
Article
Five groups of albino rats were trained in a straight runway for 44 pre-shift trials, 2 trials per day with a 3- to 5-min intertrial interval (ITI). Two of the groups (30–0 and 30–3) received 1 ml of 30% sucrose solution as a reward, two groups (3–0 and 3–3) received an equal volume of 3% sucrose, and one group (0–0) received no reward. During 20 p...
Article
The 60 second timing task has been used with little success to determine focal lesions of the cerebral cortex. The present study investigates hemispheric utilization during this task by examining the EEG using period analysis. Results of the study indicate that EEG activity differs between the hemispheres for high versus low estimators. The low est...
Article
Accurate interpretation of task-related EEG studies is highly dependent upon the sensitivity of the analysis technique used. These techniques may differ in their sensitivity to task-related changes in the EEG. To examine the sensitivity of these techniques, EEG data were recorded from 7 subjects while they completed the two forms of the Trailmaking...
Article
The Trail Making Test has been a widely used tool for neuropsychological assessment. Localization value for the test has, however, been disputed. To better understand the areas of the cortex which contribute to the ability to perform the Trail Making Test, EEG activity was recorded from 14 normal subjects. Period analysis of the EEG revealed a diff...
Article
Event-related potential (ERP) research is a valuable technique for understanding neural mechanisms underlying cognition. With few exceptions, this research has used minicomputer-based data-acquisition systems, thus limiting ERP research to labs with large computers. The hardware and software presented here allow the Apple II+ or Apple IIe microcomp...
Article
To establish the reliability of the finding that runway-trained rats show clear preshift superiority if the reward is 12 sucrose pellets, as opposed to one, but do not show the successive negative contrast effect (SuNCE) when reward is reduced, albino rats were trained for 24 days, two trials per day, in a runway for one or 12 sucrose (92.4%) Noyes...
Article
In Experiment 1, four groups of albino rats (N = 33) were trained for 22 preshift and two postshift days in a straight runway. Training during preshift was at two trials per day, during postshift at 10 trials per day. Reward conditions consisted of either single or multiple presentations of .5 ml sucrose concentrations of either 30% or 3%. Multiple...
Article
Period analysis has been a popular method of quanti­ tative study of the EEG for many years (Brazier & Finesinger, 1944). The technique involves the measure­ ment of the duration of the major period of the EEG wave. These measurements may then be converted to frequencies so that the mean frequency of the EEG can be determined or the measurements ma...
Article
In two age groups of squirrel monkeys, subjects performed an operant response for light onset in the presence or absence of white noise. Results of the study indicate that light is an effective reinforcer for both younger and older monkeys, but differentially. The study also indicates that the presence of white noise affects responding in both age...
Article
A small, low-cost, integrated circuit device is described. This circuit reduces electrical noise, such as that produced from a poor electrode-skin interface and power-line interference (60 Hz). Advantages of this device, with regard to use in electrically noisy environments and with long cables, are discussed.
Article
An inexpensive circuit is described for the control of light intensity. The control is obtained by a method that produces no color changes and may be programmed by any system that can express itself in four-digit binary numbers.
Article
EEG activity was recorded in 9 Ss (aged 19–56 yrs) while they engaged in 8 cognitive tasks. The tasks involved mental arithmetic, relaxation imagery, food imagery and imagery related to neutral stimuli (bicycle and automobile). Period analysis of the EEG indicated significant differences in EEG factor activity related to tension and anxiety for the...

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