Tyler J. Carrier

Tyler J. Carrier
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel · Division of Marine Microbiology

PhD

About

30
Publications
13,742
Reads
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380
Citations
Introduction
Under which circumstances do marine invertebrates utilize microbial symbioses for reproduction and development, and when the contrary occurs? My long-term research goal is to provide an understanding of the functional interplay between the reproductive and developmental stages of marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms, how these partnerships evolve, and why symbioses are crucial for life in the plankton.
Education
September 2015 - May 2020
August 2011 - May 2015
University of Maine
Field of study
  • Marine Sciences

Publications

Publications (30)
Article
Full-text available
Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) form symbioses with diverse microbial communities that can be transmitted between generations through their developmental stages. Here, we integrate embryology and microbiology to review how symbiotic microorganisms are transmitted in this early-diverging lineage. We describe that vertical transmission is widespread...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial symbionts are functionally integral to animal reproduction and development, some of which have evolved additional mechanisms to override these host programs. One habitat that is increasingly recognized to contain phylogenetically related lineages of reproductive manipulators is the ocean. The reproduction of marine invertebrates often occ...
Article
Full-text available
Mothers impact the survival and performance of their offspring through the resources they provision, and the degree of maternal investment in an individual offspring can be broadly estimated by egg size for organisms that lack parental care. Animals may also actively maintain symbiotic partnerships with microorganisms through the germ line, but whe...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial symbionts are a common life-history character of marine invertebrates and their developmental stages. Communities of bacteria that associate with the eggs, embryos, and larvae of coastal marine invertebrates tend to be species-specific and correlate with aspects of host biology and ecology. The richness of bacteria associated with the dev...
Article
Full-text available
Animal gastrointestinal tracts harbor a microbiome that is integral to host function, yet species from diverse phyla have evolved a reduced digestive system or lost it completely. Whether such changes are associated with alterations in the diversity and/or abundance of the microbiome remains an untested hypothesis in evolutionary symbiosis. Here, u...
Article
Full-text available
Relationships between animals and their associated microbiota are dependent on both the evolutionary history of the host and on the environment. The majority of studies tend to focus on either one of these factors and rarely consider how both determine the community composition of the associated microbiota. One “natural experiment” to test how evol...
Article
Full-text available
Echinoderm larvae have served as a fundamental system for understanding development and life history evolution over much of the last century. In the last few decades, our understanding of echinoderm larvae has expanded to the microbiota that they associate with. These symbionts and the communities that they form in relation to echinoderm larval hos...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to and colonization by bacteria during development have wide-ranging beneficial effects on animal biology but can also inhibit growth or cause disease. The immune system is the prime mediator of these microbial interactions and is itself shaped by them. Studies using diverse animal taxa have begun to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological plasticity is an adaptive response to heterogenous environments when a fitness advantage is conferred. Larval sea urchins, for example, are hypothesized to increase individual fitness in dilute feeding environments by elongating their feeding structure relative to their body size. Morphological plasticity for larval sea urchins is als...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Microbes can play an important role in the physiology of animals by providing essential nutrients, inducing immune pathways, and influencing the specific species that compose the microbiome through competitive or facilitatory interactions. The community of microbes associated with animals can be dynamic depending on the local environment,...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the factors underlying the assembly, structure, and diversity of symbiont communities remains a focal point of animal-microbiome research. Much of these efforts focus on taxonomic variation of microbiota within or between animal populations, but rarely test the proportional impacts of ecological components that may affect animal-associa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Morphological plasticity is a genotype-by-environment interaction that enables organisms to increase fitness across varying environments. When faced environmental heterogeneity, an animal holobiont may acclimate by shifting the composition of the associated bacterial community. By inducing morphological plasticity in three confamilial sea urchins,...
Article
Full-text available
Development of some animals is influenced by and, in some cases, dependent on the associated microbiota. The timing of when associated bacterial communities are established during the development of marine invertebrates and their subsequent dynamics across stages are known for only a few species. Here, we compare the bacterial communities of three...
Article
Full-text available
Predation by the crown-of-thorns seastar (CoTS; Acanthaster sp.) is a pervasive stressor attributing to the decline of coral reefs. These outbreaks are suggested to be linked to eutrophy-driven recruitment pulses, where increased nutrients enhance larval success. CoTS larvae, however, are tolerant of oligotrophic conditions typical of tropical ecos...
Article
Full-text available
The microbial assemblages of marine organisms play fundamental biological roles in their eukaryotic hosts. Studies aimed at characterizing this diversity have increased over the last decade and with the availability of high-throughput sequencing, we are now able to characterize bacteria that were non-culturable and, therefore, went undetected. With...
Article
Full-text available
The feeding environment for planktotrophic larvae has a major impact on development and progression towards competency for metamorphosis. High phytoplankton environments that promote growth and development also correlate with a greater abundance of environmental microbes and incidence of pathogenic microbes, making these habitats potentially risky...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological plasticity is a genotype-by-environment interaction that enables organisms to increase fitness across varying environments. Symbioses with diverse microbiota may aid in acclimating to this variation, but whether the associated bacterial community is phenotype-specific remains understudied. Here we induce morphological plasticity in th...
Book
Full-text available
For more than a century, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and oceanographers alike have been intellectually stimulated by marine invertebrate larval forms. In 1995, Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae, edited by the late Dr. Larry McEdward, captured the fundamental phenomenon and tremendous diversity of reproductive, biological, and oceanogra...
Preprint
Full-text available
The feeding environment for planktotrophic larvae has a major impact on development and progression towards competency for metamorphosis. High phytoplankton environments that promote growth often have a greater microbial load and incidence of pathogenic microbes, while areas with lower food availability have a lower number of potential pathogens. T...
Article
Full-text available
Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the f...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past two decades fishery landings for the highly valued green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) have decreased significantly in the Gulf of Maine. Methods for sea urchin aquaculture have been developed in the region, but further growth of the industry is inhibited by the expense of formulated feeds. A potential low-cost soluti...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Some metazoa have the capacity to regenerate lost body parts. This phenomenon in adults has been classically described in echinoderms, especially in sea stars (Asteroidea). Sea star bipinnaria larvae can also rapidly and effectively regenerate a complete larva after surgical bisection. Understanding the capacity to reverse cell fates i...
Article
Full-text available
Die erscheinung der symbiose, meaning symbiosis in English or de la symbiose in French, is a transcription of the 1878 lecture by the German botanist and mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary in which he first used the term 'symbiosis' in a biological context. De Bary’s speech was published in 1879 in German, later to be translated into French; but tho...
Thesis
Full-text available
Larvae of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis are present in the Gulf of Maine (GoM) from April to August; their distribution and patterns of abundance overlap in space and time with blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Cell densities in the GoM and Bay of Fundy reach 10 and 100 cells/mL, respectively. Theref...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
To be applied to aquaculture. The largest I've found in the literature is 10L for this species. 

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The distribution and abundance of marine invertebrate larvae and blooms of toxic phytoplankton (harmful algal blooms, HABs) tend to overlap in space and time. Marine invertebrate larvae are known to readily consume these cells and their toxins can have detrimental impacts on development. Our understanding of how development is impacted and the ecological consequences of these grazing dynamics are limited. This project uses various species of larvae to discern which larvae ingest harmful phytoplankton, what are their impacts on developmental processes are, and whether larvae are adapted to HAB toxins?
Project
Sea urchins and other marine animals are spawned into a microbe-dense environment and must develop in the presence of a diverse array of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This project seeks to understand how the emerging sea urchin larval immune system negotiates interactions with these microbes, regulates bacterial colonization, and educates itself to protect the larva from infection while recruiting commensals and symbionts.
Project
Reproduction, development, and symbiosis are deeply rooted and this is particularly evident in marine invertebrates. The eggs, embryos, and larvae of annelids, bivalves, bryozoans, cnidarians, crustaceans, echinoderms, and gastropods tend to form partnerships with microbial symbionts and these are interconnected with host function. A major theme of my research focuses on the functional role of these interactions during embryonic and larval development, how this changes in response to environmental variation (phenotypic plasticity), and over evolutionary time (life-history transitions). This has been on-going project since 2015 with myself and colleagues having completed several studies in many locations around the globe.