Tuomas Eerola

Tuomas Eerola
Durham University | DU · Department of Music

PhD
Currently writing a teaching book (How to Conduct Empirical Study of Music)

About

239
Publications
139,253
Reads
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6,358
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Durham University
Position
  • Professor
January 2000 - December 2012
University of Jyväskylä
February 1998 - September 1999
University of Leicester
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 1997 - December 2003
University of Jyväskylä
Field of study
  • Music Cognition
September 1990 - July 1997
University of Jyväskylä
Field of study
  • Musicology

Publications

Publications (239)
Article
Full-text available
THE FIELD OF MUSIC AND EMOTION RESEARCH HAS grown rapidly and diversified during the last decade. This has led to a certain degree of confusion and inconsistency between competing notions of emotions, data, and results. The present review of 251 studies describes the focus of prevalent research approaches, methods, and models of emotion, and docume...
Article
Full-text available
The contrast between consonance and dissonance is vital in making music emotionally meaningful. Consonance typically denotes perceived agreeableness and stability, while dissonance disagreeableness and a need of resolution. This study addresses the perception of consonance/dissonance in single intervals and chords with two empirical experiments con...
Article
The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels o...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have a unique ability to coordinate their motor movements to an external auditory stimulus, as in music-induced foot tapping or dancing. This behavior currently engages the attention of scholars across a number of disciplines. However, very little is known about its earliest manifestations. The aim of the current research was to examine whet...
Article
Full-text available
Listening to music prompts strong emotional reactions in the listeners but relatively little research has focused on individual differences. This study addresses the role of musical preference and familiarity on emotions induced through music. A sample of 50 healthy participants (25 women) listened to 42 excerpts from the FMMS during 8 s while thei...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present here a unifying framework for affective phenomena: the Human Affectome. By synthesizing a large body of literature, we have converged on definitions that disambiguate the commonly used terms—affect, feeling, emotion, and mood. Based on this definitional foundation, and under the premise that affective states reflect allostatic concerns,...
Article
Full-text available
This article is a hypothesis and theory paper. It elaborates on the possible relation between music as a stimulus and its possible effects, with a focus on the question of why listeners are experiencing pleasure and reward. Though it is tempting to seek for a causal relationship, this has proven to be elusive given the many intermediary variables t...
Data
A graphical abstract of the CODA Model
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses contemporary advancements in the affective sciences (described together as skeptical theories) that can inform the music-emotion literature. Key concepts in these theories are outlined, highlighting their points of agreement and disagreement. This summary shows the importance of appraisal within the emotion process, provides a...
Article
Full-text available
Demography, particularly population size, plays a key role in cultural complexity. However, the relationship between population size and complexity appears to vary across domains: while studies of technology typically find a positive correlation, the opposite is true for language, and the role of population size in complexity in the arts remains to...
Article
Full-text available
As of recent a consensus is emerging in the field of music perception research that the Western notion of consonance/dissonance is a combination of the acoustic phenomena of roughness and harmonicity, and the cultural aspect of familiarity. In this commentary we point out in the light of cumulative research evidence (cross-cultural research, rigoro...
Article
Full-text available
Previous literature suggests that structural and expressive cues affect the emotion expressed in music. However, only a few systematic explorations of cues have been done, usually focussing on a few cues or a limited amount of predetermined arbitrary cue values. This paper presents three experiments investigating the effect of six cues and their co...
Article
Full-text available
The perception of consonance and dissonance in intervals and chords is influenced by psychoacoustic and cultural factors. Past research has provided conflicting observations about the role of frequency in assessing musical consonance that may stem from comparisons of limited frequency bands without much theorizing or modeling. Here we examine the e...
Article
Although music is one of the most important sources of pleasure for many people, there are considerable individual differences in music reward sensitivity. Behavioral and neurobiological characterizations of music reward variability have been topics of increasing scientific interest over the last two decades. However, it is not clear how difference...
Article
Full-text available
The Interpersonal Entrainment in Music Performance Data Collection (IEMPDC) comprises six related corpora of music research materials: Cuban Son & Salsa (CSS), European String Quartet (ESQ), Malian Jembe (MJ), North Indian Raga (NIR), Tunisian Stambeli (TS), and Uruguayan Candombe (UC). The core data for each corpus comprises media files and comput...
Article
Online studies using recruitment services (such as Prolific or Amazon’s MTurk) and online testing platforms (such as Gorilla or PsyToolkit) are becoming increasingly common in psychological science. Although auditory disciplines have been slower to adopt these methods, uptake is rapidly increasing in auditory perception and cognition research. Util...
Article
Anecdotal propositions that music is “special” as a memory cue have been partially supported by research demonstrating that music can evoke qualitatively different autobiographical memories than various other cues. However, it is unknown whether such differences in memory qualities may be attributed to inherent differences in properties of the retr...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion is one of the main reasons why people engage and interact with music [1] . Songs can express our inner feelings, produce goosebumps, bring us to tears, share an emotional state with a composer or performer, or trigger specific memories. Interest in a deeper understanding of the relationship between music and emotion has motivated research...
Preprint
A positive correlation between population size and cultural complexity is perhaps one of the most consistent findings in the field of cultural evolution. However, previous findings are largely based on studies of technology and are not necessarily generalisable across diverse cultural domains. We investigate the relationship between population size...
Article
Full-text available
Several computer systems have been designed for music emotion research that aim to identify how different structural or expressive cues of music influence the emotions conveyed by the music. However, most systems either operate offline by pre-rendering different variations of the music or operate in real-time but focus mostly on structural cues. We...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study is to determine which acoustic components of harmonic consonance and dissonance influence automatic responses in a simple cognitive task. In a series of affective priming experiments, eight pairs of musical intervals were used to measure the influence of acoustic roughness and harmonicity on response times in a word-cla...
Article
Full-text available
Many people enjoy sad music, and the appeal for tragedy is widespread among the consumers of film and literature. The underlying mechanisms of such aesthetic experiences are not well understood. We tested whether pleasure induced by sad, unfamiliar instrumental music is explained with a homeostatic or a reward theory, each of which is associated wi...
Article
Full-text available
The majority of research in the field of music perception has been conducted with Western participants, and it has remained unclear which aspects of music perception are culture dependent, and which are universal. The current study compared how participants unfamiliar with Western music (people from the Khowar and Kalash tribes native to Northwest...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic and musical components of consonance and dissonance perception have been recently identified. This study expands the range of predictors of consonance and dissonance by three analytical operations. In Experiment 1, we identify the underlying structure of a number of central predictors of consonance and dissonance extracted from an extensiv...
Article
Full-text available
Music can be a potent cue for autobiographical memories in both everyday and clinical settings. Understanding the extent to which music may have privileged access to aspects of our personal histories requires critical comparisons to other types of memories and exploration of how music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) vary across individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research conducted on the cross-cultural perception of music and its emotional content has established that emotions can be communicated across cultures at least on a rudimentary level. Here, we report a cross-cultural study with participants originating from two tribes in northwest Pakistan (Khow and Kalash) and the United Kingdom, with b...
Article
Interpersonal musical entrainment—temporal synchronization and coordination between individuals in musical contexts—is a ubiquitous phenomenon related to music’s social functions of promoting group bonding and cohesion. Mechanisms other than sensorimotor synchronization are rarely discussed, while little is known about cultural variability or about...
Article
Full-text available
The authors respond to the commentary by Michael Spitzer which appeared in Vol. 14, No. 1-2 of Empirical Musicology Review. The response 1) points out the problem with equating nostalgia and tension in the perception of single chords, 2) makes a case for why studying the role of vertical harmony, isolated from other musical cues, is insightful, and...
Article
The literature review reveals different conceptual and methodological challenges in the field of music and emotion, such as the lack of agreement in terms of standardized datasets, and the need for replication of prior findings. Our study aimed at validating for Spanish population a set of film music stimuli previously standardized in Finnish sampl...
Preprint
Acoustic and musical components of consonance and dissonance perception have been recently identified. This study expands the range of predictors of consonance and dissonance by three analytical operations: In the first stage, we identify the underlying structure of acoustic and musical predictors within a large set of potential variables using an...
Preprint
The aim of the present study is to determine which acoustic components of harmonic consonance and dissonance influence automatic responses in a simple cognitive task. In a series of experiments, ten musical interval pairs were used to measure the influence of acoustic roughness and harmonicity on response times in an affective priming task conducte...
Preprint
The authors respond to the commentary of Michael Spitzer which appeared in Vol. 14, No. 1-2 of Empirical Musicology Review. The response 1) points out the problem with equating between nostalgia and tension in the perception of single chords, 2) makes a case why studying the role of vertical harmony isolated from other musical cues is insightful, a...
Article
Full-text available
After losing a close other, individuals usually confide in an empathic friend to receive comfort and they seem to have a heightened desire for mood-congruent, consoling music. Hence, it has been proposed that affect-congruent music acts as a social surrogate for an empathic friend. Thus, we hypothesized that listening to comforting music, as a resp...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies using an affective priming paradigm have shown that valenced chords (e.g., consonant–positive; dissonant–negative) facilitate the evaluation of similarly valenced target words. The role of numerosity (the total number of pitches in a chord) and timbre has not yet been systematically investigated in previous priming studies using co...
Article
Full-text available
Music is often intimately linked to identity, as evidenced by the high value many people place on musical activities and the way in which music can become seemingly effortlessly coupled to important memories from throughout one’s lifespan. Previous research has revealed a consistent reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory—the disproportionate...
Preprint
Full-text available
The contrast between consonance and dissonance is a vital factor in making music emotionally meaningful. Consonance typically denotes perceived agreeableness and stability, while dissonance in turn disagreeableness and a need of resolution. The current research addresses the perception of consonance/dissonance in intervals and chords isolated from...
Article
Full-text available
Dance is an icon of human expression. Despite astounding diversity around the world’s cultures and dazzling abundance of reminiscent animal systems, the evolution of dance in the human clade remains obscure. Dance requires individuals to interactively synchronize their whole-body tempo to their partner’s, with near-perfect precision. This capacity...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerous computer systems have been designed for music emotion research, aiming to identify how different structural and expressive cues of a musical piece affect the emotion conveyed by the music and perceived by the listener. However, most systems are either offline systems, which work by pre-rendering different variations of the music, or real-t...
Article
Full-text available
Two complementary aspects of interpersonal entrainment – synchronization and movement coordination – are explored in North Indian classical instrumental music, in the auditory and visual domains respectively. Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is explored by analysing pairwise asynchronies between the event onsets of instrumental soloists and their...
Article
Full-text available
Art brings rich, pleasurable experiences to our daily lives. However, many theories of art and aesthetics focus on specific strong experiences—in the contexts of museums, galleries, and concert halls and the aesthetic perception of canonized arts—disregarding the impact of daily experiences. Furthermore, pleasure is often treated as a simplistic co...
Article
Full-text available
Experiencing pleasure and displeasure is a fundamental part of life. Hedonics guide behavior, affect decision-making, induce learning, and much more. As the positive and negative valence of feelings, hedonics are core processes that accompany emotion, motivation, and bodily states. Here, the affective neuroscience of pleasure and displeasure that h...
Article
Studies have suggested that visual imagery forms an important part of the listening experience and might be one of the mechanisms by which music induces emotions in a listener. However, little is known about the content, prevalence, and function of visual imagery during music listening. To that end, an online survey was constructed to explore music...
Article
Full-text available
Experiencing pleasure and displeasure is a fundamental part of life. Hedonics guide behavior, affect decision-making, induce learning, and much more. As the positive and negative valence of feelings, hedonics are core processes that accompany emotion, motivation, and bodily states. Here, the affective neuroscience of pleasure and displeasure that h...
Article
Full-text available
Music is known to evoke emotions through a range of mechanisms, but empirical investigation into the mechanisms underlying different emotions is sparse. This study investigated how affective experiences to music and pictures vary when induced by personal memories or mere stimulus features. Prior to the experiment, participants were asked to select...
Article
Full-text available
Research on musical chills has linked the response to multiple musical features; however, there exists no study that has attempted to manipulate musical stimuli to enable causal inferences, meaning current understanding is based mainly on correlational evidence. In the current study, participants who regularly experience chills (N = 24) listened to...
Conference Paper
In Hindustani vocal improvisation singers often appear to engage with melodic ideas by manipulating imaginary objects with their hands while singing (Rahaim, 2012 and personal observations), such as through stretching, pulling, pushing and other effortful interactions, during which they seem to act as if they are encountering an increased resistanc...
Article
The social surrogacy hypothesis holds that people resort to temporary substitutes, so-called social surrogates, if direct social interaction is not possible. In this exploratory study, we investigate social motives for listening to music in comparison to watching TV and reading fiction. Thirty statements about possible social reasons for the engage...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Hindustani (dhrupad) vocal improvisation singers often engage with melodic ideas by manipulating intangible , imaginary objects with their hands while singing, such as through stretching, pulling and pushing. Such engagements ('MIIO' for Manual Interactions with Imaginary Objects) suggest that some patterns of change in the acoustic features rel...
Conference Paper
This paper examines relationships between the voice and the ecological knowledge of how the human body moves when interacting with objects of the environment in the context of Hindustani vocal music. In the Dhrupad genre of singing improvisation vocalists often appear to engage with melodic ideas by manipulating intangible, imaginary objects with t...
Book
Full-text available
Music impinges upon the body and the brain. As such, it has significant inductive power which relies both on innate dispositions and acquired mechanisms and competencies. The processes are partly autonomous and partly deliberate, and interrelations between several levels of processing are becoming clearer with accumulating new evidence. For instanc...
Article
Full-text available
asic Emotion theory has had a tremendous influence on the affective sciences, including music psychology, where most researchers have assumed that music expressivity is constrained to a limited set of basic emotions. Several scholars suggested that these constrains to musical expressivity are explained by the existence of a shared acoustic code to...
Article
Full-text available
Human interaction involves the exchange of temporally coordinated, multimodal cues. Our work focused on interaction in the visual domain, using music performance as a case for analysis due to its temporally diverse and hierarchical structures. We made use of two improvising duo datasets—(i) performances of a jazz standard with a regular pulse and (...
Chapter
The rapid rise in emotion research in psychology has brought forth a rich palette of concepts and tools for studying emotions expressed and induced by music. This chapter summarizes the current state of music and emotion research, starting with the fundamental definitions and the assumed structures of emotions (Sect. 29.2). A synthesis of the core...
Article
Any model aiming to explain the enjoyment of negative emotions in the context of the arts should consider how works of art are able to induce emotional responses in the first place. For instance, research on empathy and the arts suggests that the psychological processes that mediate the enjoyment of sadness and horror may be fundamentally different...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Musically-induced chills, the experience of shivers down the spine, gooseflesh or tingling sensations in response to music, have previously been linked to specific musical features such as sudden dynamic changes or unprepared harmonies. However, there currently exists no empirical research that tests these proposed relationships through the manipul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the Dhrupad genre of Hindustani vocal improvisation singers often appear to engage with melodic ideas by manipulating intangible, imaginary objects with their hands. Despite the fact that no real object is involved, we observe vocalists executing repeated patterns of bi-manual effortful gestures, comprising gripping, exerting and releasing phase...
Article
Full-text available
Increased age has been found to be associated with differences in musical preferences in adulthood. In past research, these differences were mostly attributed to changes in the social context. However, these influences were small and a large proportion of variance in age trends in musical preferences still remains to be explained. The aim of this a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Hindustani Dhrupad vocal improvisation singers often appear to engage with melodic ideas by manipulating intangible, imaginary objects and materials with their hands, such as through stretching, pulling, and pushing. This observation suggests that some patterns of change in acoustic features of the voice allude to the interactions that objects t...
Article
Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutr...