Tullio Jappelli

Tullio Jappelli
University of Naples Federico II | UNINA · Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance CSEF

PhD Economics

About

178
Publications
78,442
Reads
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14,028
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
5095 Citations
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Introduction
Tullio Jappelli currently works at the Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance CSEF, University of Naples Federico II. Tullio does research in Macroeconomics and Financial Economics.
Additional affiliations
October 2006 - September 2013
University of Naples Federico II
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (178)
Article
We measure wealth effects on consumption using a novel research design: responses to direct survey questions asking how much a household would change consumption in response to unexpected (positive and negative) shocks to own home value. The average wealth effect is in the 2-5% range, in line with econometric estimates that associate changes in hou...
Article
The life‐cycle model predicts an association between increased demand for retirement saving and the level of expected future social security benefits. The precautionary saving model shows that the risk associated to future benefits also matters. If social security benefits become more uncertain, individuals should react by increasing their demand f...
Article
Panel data on reported marginal propensity to consume in the 2010 and 2016 Italian Survey of Household Income and Wealth uncover a strong negative relationship between cash on hand and MPC. Even though the relationship is attenuated when using regression methods that control for unobserved heterogeneity, the amount of bias is moderate. MPC estimate...
Article
Financial information allows investors to condition the portfolio allocation on valuable signals on asset returns. Therefore investors have incentives to spend on information gathering. If interpreted correctly, information signals allow investors to obtain higher returns and more efficient portfolios. Since information is costly, wealthier and mor...
Article
Using survey data from a representative sample of Dutch households, we estimate the strength of precautionary saving by eliciting subjective expectations on future consumption. Expected consumption risk is positively correlated with self-employment and income risk, and negatively with age. We insert these subjective expectations (rather than consum...
Article
Using micro data from the 2015 Dutch CentERpanel, we examine whether trust in the European Central Bank (ECB) influences individuals’ expectations and uncertainty about future inflation, and whether it anchors inflation expectations. We find that higher trust in the ECB lowers inflation expectations on average, and significantly reduces uncertainty...
Article
We use the responses of a representative sample of Dutch households to survey questions that ask how much their consumption would change in response to unexpected, transitory income shocks (positive or negative). The questionnaire also distinguishes between relatively small income changes (a one-month increase or drop in income), and relatively lar...
Article
The paper contributes to the literature on gender gap in research investigating whether there is a gender gap in research evaluation. We use detailed data on 180,000 research papers evaluated during the Italian national research assessment (VQR 2004–2010) conducted by the Agency for the Evaluation of Universities and Research Institutes (Anvur). Th...
Article
We propose a model in which financial sophistication improves portfolio returns and therefore the incentive to substitute consumption intertemporally. The model delivers an Euler equation in which consumption growth is positively correlated with financial sophistication. We test the model's prediction using panel data on consumption and financial s...
Article
More transparent firms enjoy better access to finance, and also enable closer scrutiny by tax authorities and thus face a heavier tax burden, insofar as they are required to report the same data to tax authorities and investors (book-tax conformity). We study this trade-off in a model with distortionary taxes and finance rationing, and test its pre...
Article
In 2000, Italy replaced its traditional system of severance pay for public employees with a new system. Under the old regime, severance pay was proportional to the final salary before retirement; under the new regime it is proportional to lifetime earnings. This reform entails substantial losses for future generations of public employees, in the ra...
Article
We present an intertemporal portfolio choice model where individuals invest in financial literacy, save, allocate their wealth between a safe and a risky asset, and receive a pension when they retire. Financial literacy affects the excess return from and cost of stock-market participation. Investors simultaneously choose how much to save, their por...
Article
Using survey data from a representative sample of Dutch households, we estimate the strength of the precautionary saving motive by eliciting subjective expectations on future consumption. We find that expected consumption risk is higher for the young and the self-employed, and is correlated positively with income risk. We insert these subjective ex...
Article
We estimate the effect of taxes on intergenerational transfers exploiting a sequence of Italian reforms culminating with the abolishment of transfer taxes. We use the 1993-2006 Survey of Household Income and Wealth, which has data on real estate transfers received and information on potential donors as well as recipients. Differences-in-differences...
Article
A relevant question for the organization of large-scale research assessments is whether bibliometric evaluation and informed peer review yield similar results. In this paper, we draw on the experience of the panel that evaluated Italian research in Economics, Management and Statistics during the national assessment exercise (VQR) relative to the pe...
Chapter
Financial integration has made great steps forward in Europe in the last decade. Yet, if a single currency is a necessary condition for the emergence of pan-European capital markets, it is not a sufficient one. Even after the removal of exchange rate risk, persistent differences in the regulations applying to financial intermediaries, tax treatment...
Article
Using a representative sample of Italian investors, we measure the uncertainty of social security benefits by eliciting for each individual the subjective distribution of the replacement rate as a summary indicator of pension uncertainty. We find that pension uncertainty varies across individuals in a way that is consistent with what one would expe...
Article
Full-text available
Prior research suggests that those who rely on intuition rather than effortful reasoning when making decisions are less averse to risk and ambiguity. The evidence is largely correlational, however, leaving open the question of the direction of causality. In this paper, we present experimental evidence of causation running from reliance on intuition...
Article
We study a model in which financial sophistication improves portfolio returns and therefore the incentive to substitute consumption intertemporally. The model delivers a Euler equation in which consumption growth is positively correlated with financial sophistication. We test the model's prediction using panel data on consumption and financial lite...
Article
We use responses to survey questions in the 2010 Italian Survey of Household Income and Wealth that ask consumers how much of an unexpected transitory income change they would consume. We find that the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is 48 percent on average, and that there is substantial heterogeneity in the distribution. We find that househo...
Book
Crisis Issue: The papers in this title have been written in response to the global financial and economic crisis that has been ongoing since Summer 2007. Top economists provide a concise and accessible evaluation of major developments in trade and trade policy. Economic Policy has earned a reputation around the world as the one publication that alw...
Article
More transparent firms enjoy better access to finance, and also enable closer scrutiny by tax authorities and thus face a heavier tax burden, insofar as they are required to report the same data to tax authorities and investors (book-tax conformity). We study this trade-off in a model with distortionary taxes and finance rationing, and test its pre...
Article
Full-text available
We use two data sets, from a large brokerage and a major bank, and regional data, to ask: (i) whether financial advisors tend to be matched with poorer, uninformed investors or with richer, experienced but presumably busy investors; (ii) how advised accounts actually perform relative to self-managed accounts; (iii) whether the contribution of indep...
Article
We use data from the 2009 Internet Survey of the Health and Retirement Study to examine the consumption impact of wealth shocks and unemployment during the Great Recession in the US. We find that many households experienced large capital losses in housing and in their financial portfolios, and that a non-trivial fraction of respondents have lost th...
Article
We relate indicators of cognitive abilities and health promotion to the propensity to screen for breast cancer, using microeconomic data available in a sample of women aged 50 or above in 11 European countries. Our findings suggest that health promotion activities attenuate the effect of human capital on the decision to undertake mammography, thus...
Article
Full-text available
We estimate the effect of pension reforms on households' expectations and wealth accumulation decisions. We rely on self-reported expectations to measure perceived social security benefits and to a series of pension reforms as a source of exogenous variations in pension wealth. Two parameters are crucial to estimate pension wealth: the age at which...
Article
We use data from the 2009 Internet Survey of the Health and Retirement Study to examine the consumption impact of wealth shocks and unemployment during the Great Recession in the US. We find that many households experienced large capital losses in housing and in their financial portfolios, and that a non-trivial fraction of respondents have lost th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Mike Mariathasan (EUI) and Ramon Marimon (EEA-SCR, EUI, UPF and Barcelona GSE). With contributions from the ACO-MWP (EUI) researchers, Igor Guardiancich and Eva Rossi, and from the EES-SCR members and collaborators Executive Summary Developing a competitive and open European research area (ERA) is essential for growth and to the process of Europea...
Article
Full-text available
Using a large sample of retail investors as well as experimental data we find that risk and ambiguity aversion are positively correlated. We show the common link is decision style: intuitive thinkers tolerate more risk and ambiguity than effortful reasoners. One interpretation is that intuitive thinking confers an advantage in risky or ambiguous si...
Article
We present an intertemporal consumption model of consumer investment in financial literacy. Consumers benefit from such investment because their stock of financial literacy allows them to increase the returns on their wealth. Since literacy depreciates over time and has a cost in terms of current consumption, the model determines an optimal investm...
Article
Full-text available
This study surveys the existing debate on the taxation of the intergenerational transfers. Understanding the effect of transfer taxes on the intergenerational transmission of wealth requires answering the difficult question of what is the effect of taxes on bequest. On the one hand, the economic literature is far from sharing a unanimous view on th...
Article
We provide a theoretical and empirical study of the relation between financial development and the size of the underground economy. In our theoretical framework agents allocate investment between a low-return technology which can be operated with internal funds, and a high-return technology which requires external finance. Firms can reduce the cost...
Article
Using a representative sample of Italian investors, we estimate the risk associated with social security benefits by eliciting for each individual the subjective distribution of the replacement rate as a summary indicator of social security wealth. Pension risk varies across individuals in a way that is consistent with what one can expect a priori,...
Article
Full-text available
We review different empirical approaches that researchers have taken to estimate how consumption responds to income changes. We critically evaluate the empirical evidence on the sensitivity of consumption to predicted income changes, distinguishing between the traditional excess sensitivity tests, and the effect of predicted income increases and in...
Article
This paper uses international panel data on 55 countries from 1995 to 2008, merging indicators of financial literacy with a large set of macroeconomic and institutional variables. Results show that there is substantial heterogeneity of financial and economic competence across countries, and that human capital indicators (PISA test scores and colleg...
Article
Full-text available
We merge administrative information from a large German discount brokerage firm with regional data to examine if financial advisors improve portfolio performance. Our data track accounts of 32,751 randomly selected individual customers over 66 months and allow direct comparison of performance across self-managed accounts and accounts run by, or in...
Article
This paper presents stylized facts on labor supply, income, consumption, wealth, and several measures of consumption and income inequality drawn from the 1980–2006 Survey of Household Income and Wealth (SHIW) conducted by the Bank of Italy. The SHIW provides information on consumption, income and wealth, and a sizable panel component that allows ec...
Article
We study the relation between cognitive abilities and stockholding using the recent Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), which has detailed data on wealth and portfolio composition of individuals aged 50+ in 11 European countries and three indicators of cognitive abilities: mathematical, verbal fluency, and recall skills. We f...
Article
We estimate the portfolio effect of changes in social security wealth exploiting a decade of Italian pension reforms. The Italian Survey of Household Income and Wealth records detailed portfolio data and elicits expectations of retirement outcomes, thus allowing us to measure expected social security wealth and assess to what extent Italian househo...
Article
Full-text available
We estimate the effect of estate taxation on bequests exploiting a sequence of Italian reforms culminating with the reduction of estate taxes in 1999 and their abolishment in 2001. We use the 1993-2006 Survey of Household Income and Wealth, which has data on real estate transfers received, and information on potential donors as well as recipients....
Article
The article examines the distribution of income and wealth among the generation of Europeans aged 65 and over, using data drawn from the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). It looks at how cross-country comparisons of income, wealth and debt are affected by differences in purchasing power, household size and...
Article
Full-text available
We estimate the portfolio effect of changes in social security wealth exploiting a decade of Italian pension reforms as a source of exogenous variation. The Italian Survey of Household Income and Wealth records detailed portfolio data and elicits expectations of retirement outcomes, thus allowing us to measure the expected social security wealth an...
Article
Full-text available
The single most important policy-induced innovation in the international financial system since the collapse of the Bretton-Woods regime is the institution of the European Monetary Union. This paper provides an account of how the process of financial integration has promoted financial development in the euro area. It starts by defining financial in...
Article
Full-text available
Using a representative sample of Italian investors, we estimate the risk associated with pension benefits by eliciting for each individual the subjective distribution of the replacement rate as a summary indicator of social security wealth. We find substantial heterogeneity of pension risk and show that it is consistently related to observable feat...
Article
Many studies show that most people are not financially literate and are unfamiliar with even the most basic economic concepts. However, the evidence on the determinants of economic literacy is scant. This paper uses international panel data on 55 countries, merging indicators of economic literacy with a large set of macroeconomic and institutional...
Article
The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) has completed its second step, having interviewed some 25,000 Europeans aged 55 years and over about their income and health. SHARE is an interdisciplinary study that answers questions on the relation between family income and disease, which, like education level and disease, are correla...
Article
Recent models with liquidity constraints and impatience emphasize that consumers use savings to buffer income fluctuations. When wealth is below an optimal target, consumers try to increase their buffer stock of wealth by saving more. When it is above target, they increase consumption. This important implication of the buffer stock model of saving...
Article
Full-text available
The association between health outcomes and education – the health-education gradient - is widely documented but little is known about its source. Using microeconomic data on a sample of individuals aged 50+ in eight European countries, we find that education and cognitive skills (such as verbal fluency) are associated with a greater propensity for...
Article
Full-text available
We present a model in which individuals' preferences are defined over their consumption, transfers to offspring, and social status associated with income. We show that a separating equilibrium exists where individuals' expenditure on conspicuous consumption is a signal for their unobserved income. In this equilibrium, poor families that climb up th...
Article
Full-text available
In the United States, religious attendance rises sharply with education across individuals, but religious attendance declines sharply with education across denominations. This puzzle is explained if education both increases the returns to social connection and reduces the extent of religious belief, and if beliefs are closely linked to denomination...
Article
The international financial crisis manifests itself in Ireland not only as a crisis of the banking system, but also as a major fiscal crisis, aggravated by years of soft revenue policy and a housing bubble that has burst spectacularly. The severe drop in economic output results in a crisis of employment and a definitive end to the ‘Celtic Tiger’ er...
Article
We investigate whether information sharing among banks has affected credit market performance in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, using a large sample of firm-level data. Our estimates show that information sharing is associated with improved availability and lower cost of credit to firms. This correlation is...
Article
Full-text available
We review savings trends in Italy, summarizing available empirical evidence on Italians’ motives to save, relying on macroeconomic indicators as well as on data drawn from the Bank of Italy’s Survey of Household Income and Wealth from 1984 to 2004. The macroeconomic data indicate that households’ saving has dropped significantly, although Italy con...
Article
We investigate whether information sharing among banks has affected credit market performance in the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, using a large sample of firm-level data. Our estimates show that information sharing is associated with improved availability and lower cost of credit to firms. This correlation is...
Article
We argue that health care quality has an important impact on economic inequality and on saving behavior. We exploit district-wide variability in health care quality provided by the Italian universal public health system to identify the effect of quality on income inequality, health inequality and precautionary saving. We find that in lower quality...
Article
Before 1992 mortgage interests in Italy were fully tax deductible up to 3500 Euro (7000 for two cosigners). In 1992–1994 the government implemented a series of tax reforms whose ultimate effect was to eliminate the relation between the after-tax mortgage rate and the marginal tax rate. Using data from the 1989–2002 Survey of Household Income and We...
Article
Full-text available
This paper performs an efficiency analysis of households portfolios based on the comparison of observed portfolios with the mean-variance frontier of assets returns. Data on household portfolios are drawn from the 2001 Centro Einaudi survey, a representative sample of the Italian population with at least a bank account. We find that most households...
Article
Full-text available
The asymptotic distributions of cointegration tests are approximated using the Gamma distribution. The tests considered are for the I(1), the conditional I(1), as well as the I(2) model. Formulae for the parameters of the Gamma distributions are derived from response surfaces. The resulting approximation is flexible, easy to implement and more accu...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the pattern of elderly homeownership using microeconomic surveys of 17 OECD countries. In most countries the survey is repeated over time, permitting construction of an international dataset of repeated cross-sectional data, merging 59 national household surveys on about 300,000 individuals. We find that ownership rates decline considera...
Article
We estimate the effect of pension reforms on households' expectations of retirement outcomes and private wealth accumulation decisions exploiting a decade of intense Italian pension reforms as a source of exogenous variation in expected pension wealth. The Survey of Household Income and Wealth, a large random sample of the Italian population, elici...
Article
The theory of intertemporal consumption choice makes sharp predictions about the evolution of the entire distribution of household consumption, not just about its conditional mean. In the paper, we study the empirical transition matrix of consumption using a panel drawn from the Bank of Italy Survey of Household Income and Wealth. We estimate the p...
Article
Full-text available
The paper documents lack of awareness of financial assets in the 1995 and 1998 Bank of Italy Surveys of Household Income and Wealth. It then explores the determinants of awareness, and finds that the probability that survey respondents are aware of stocks, mutual funds and investment accounts is positively correlated with education, household resou...
Article
Il lavoro riassume le principali implicazioni dell’ipotesi del ciclo vitale per quanto riguarda il risparmio individuale e aggregato, la politica fiscale e la previdenza sociale, soffermandosi sui contributi più importanti di Modigliani su questi temi. Anche se non è facile conciliare alcuni risultati empirici recenti con l’ipotesi del ciclo vitale...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reviews some of the most important results of the Life Cycle Hypothesis for understanding individual and aggregate saving behaviour. It then turns to the implications for fiscal policy and social security, highlighting Modigliani’s seminal contributions. Over time competing theories have emerged, and some empirical findings are difficult...
Article
Full-text available
Information sharing about borrowers’ characteristics and their indebtedness can have important effects on credit markets activity. First, it improves the banks’ knowledge of applicants’ characteristics and permits a more accurate prediction of their repayment probabilities. Second, it reduces the informational rents that banks could otherwise extra...
Article
This paper provides basic statistics on household total wealth, financial assets, and financial assets composition of the elderly as key indicators of the well-being and quality of life of the elderly. Median total wealth varies much less than median financial wealth across countries. As for financial asset ownership, the chapter focuses on bonds,...
Article
We estimate the effect of pension reforms on households’ expectations of retirement outcomes and private wealth accumulation decisions exploiting a decade of Italian pension reforms as a source of exogenous variation in expected pension wealth. Two parameters are crucial to estimate pension wealth: the age at which workers expect to retire and the...
Article
Full-text available
Data revisions and the availability of a longer sample offer the opportunity to reconsider empirical findings that suggest that in the OECD countries national saving responds non-monotonically to fiscal policy. The paper confirms that the circumstance most likely to give rise to a non-monotonic response of national saving to a fiscal impulse is a "...
Article
The current diversity in the degree of financial development across the EU can be a great opportunity at a time where this area is poised to become increasingly financially integrated. Integration should accelerate the development of the most backward financial markets, and allow companies from these countries to access more sophisticated credit an...
Article
Full-text available
Before 1992 mortgage interest in Italy was fully tax deductible up to 3,500 euro (7,000 for two cosigners). Between 1992-94 the government implemented a series of tax reforms whose ultimate effect was to cancel the relation between the after-tax mortgage rate and the marginal tax rate. Using data from the 1987-2000 Survey of Household Income and We...
Article
Full-text available
The Paper reviews the literature on these tax incentives, with special focus on long-term saving, housing, and household liabilities. The Paper addresses several areas of policy intervention: (1) the interest rate effect on personal saving; (2) the effect of tax incentives on long-term mandatory saving programmes; (3) government programmes that tar...
Article
We discuss the current state of stockownership among households in major European countries, drawing parallels and contrasts with the US experience. Our analysis of detailed microeconomic data documents increasing stock market participation and persistent differences across countries in our sample: many more US, UK and Swedish households participat...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the current state of stockownership among households in major European countries, drawing parallels and contrasts with the US experience. Our analysis of detailed microeconomic data documents increasing stock market participation and persistent differences across countries in our sample: many more US, UK and Swedish households participat...
Article
Full-text available
We provide evidence that the quality of health care affects health outcomes, exploiting the substantial variability in the quality of the Italian public health service. The data are drawn from the 2001 Survey of Health, Aging and Wealth, providing detailed information on health status, and detailed demographic and economic variables for a sample of...
Chapter
Full-text available
The 1990s witnessed significant increases in stock market participation by households, both in Europe and in the United States. This participation took the form both of direct involvement in stock market trading of individual stocks and of indirect stockholding through participation in managed investment accounts. By the end of the 1990s, 17.3 per...
Chapter