Truls Raastad

Truls Raastad
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (NIH) · Department of Physical Performance

Professor

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218
Publications
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Publications

Publications (218)
Article
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Background A striking effect of old age is the involuntary loss of muscle mass and strength leading to sarcopenia and reduced physiological functions. However, effects of heavy-load exercise in older adults on diseases and functions as predicted by changes in muscle gene expression have been inadequately studied. Methods Thigh muscle global transc...
Preprint
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Cancer survivors suffer impairments in skeletal muscle (SkM) in terms of reduced mass and function. Interestingly, human SkM possesses an epigenetic memory of earlier stimuli, such as exercise. Long-term retention of epigenetic changes in SkM following cancer survival and/or exercise training have not yet been studied. We therefore investigated gen...
Preprint
UNSTRUCTURED Background: (Neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is effective but has deleterious side effects on muscle tissue resulting in reduced skeletal muscle mass, muscle function and cardiorespiratory fitness. Various exercise regimens during cancer treatment have been shown to counteract some of these side effects. However, no study...
Article
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IntroductionThe results from the physical training and cancer randomized controlled trial (Phys-Can RCT) indicate that high intensity (HI) strength and endurance training during (neo-)adjuvant cancer treatment is more beneficial for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, measured as peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak]) than low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) exerci...
Article
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Purpose: A typical football match leads to neuromuscular fatigue and physical performance impairments up to 72-96 h post-match. While muscle damage is thought to be a major factor, damage on the ultrastructural level has never been documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate post-match cellular muscle damage by quantifying the heat sh...
Article
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Background Higher maximal- and explosive strength is associated with better physical function among older adults. Although the relationship between isometric maximal strength and physical function has been examined, few studies have included measures of isometric rate of force development (RFD) as a measure of explosive strength. Furthermore, littl...
Article
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This study analyzed the impact of performing four consecutive football matches separated by 48‐72 hours during a FIFA tournament on physical load, technical performance and plasma markers of redox state, muscle damage and inflammation in elite female players. Forty‐eight players from three national teams were evaluated at seven time points: before...
Article
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Background: Loss of muscle mass and muscle function is a common side effect from androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we explored effects of heavy-load resistance training (RT) on lean body mass and muscle strength changes reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among PCa patients on ADT and in healthy elderl...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The Physical Activity in Childhood Cancer Survivors (PACCS) study consists of four work packages (WPs) aiming for objective determination of PA, and self-reported health behaviour, fatigue and quality of life (QoL) (WP 1), physical fitness (WP 2), evaluation of barriers/facilitators to PA (WP 1 and 3) and the feasibility testing of an in...
Article
Background: Survivors of childhood cancer represent a growing population with a long life expectancy but high risks of treatment-induced morbidity and premature mortality. Regular physical activity (PA) may improve their long-term health; however, high-quality empirical knowledge is sparse. Objective: The Physical Activity and Fitness in Childho...
Article
Obesity is associated with increased muscle mass and muscle strength. Methods taking into account the total body mass to reveal obese older individuals at increased risk of functional impairment are needed. Therefore, we aimed to detect methods to identify obese older adults at increased risk of functional impairment. Home-dwelling older adults ( n...
Article
Blood flow restriction (BFR) with low-load resistance exercise (RE) is often used as a surrogate to traditional high-load RE to stimulate muscular adaptations, such as hypertrophy and strength. However, it is not clear whether such adaptations are achieved through similar cellular and molecular processes. We compared changes in muscle function, mor...
Article
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Background Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prone to accelerated decay of muscle strength and mass with advancing age. This is believed to be driven by disease-inherent systemic pathophysiologies, which are also assumed to drive muscle cells into a state of anabolic resistance, leading to impaired abilities to adapt to...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of short‐term high‐frequency failure versus non‐failure blood flow‐restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on changes in satellite cells (SC), myonuclei, muscle size and strength. Seventeen untrained men performed 4 sets of BFRRE to failure (Failure) with one leg and not to failure (Non‐fai...
Article
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Purpose Aging is associated with increased myocellular stress and loss of muscle mass and function. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are upregulated during periods of stress as part of the cells protective system. Exercise can affect both acute HSP regulation and when repeated regularly counteract unhealthy age-related changes in the muscle. Few studies...
Article
Davids, CJ, Raastad, T, James, L, Gajanand, T, Smith, E, Connick, M, McGorm, H, Keating, S, Coombes, JS, Peake, JM, and Roberts, LA. Similar morphological and functional training adaptations occur between continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The aim of the study was to compare skeletal muscle...
Article
Myocellular stress with high-frequency blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) was investigated by measures of heat shock protein (HSP) responses, glycogen content and inflammatory markers. Thirteen participants (24±2 years [mean±SD], 9 males) completed two 5-day-blocks of 7 BFRRE sessions, separated by 10 days. Four sets of unilateral kn...
Article
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Exercise during cancer treatment improves cancer-related fatigue (CRF), but the importance of exercise intensity for CRF is unclear. We compared the effects of high vs. low-to-moderate intensity exercise with or without additional behaviour change support (BCS) on CRF in patients undergoing (neo-)adjuvant cancer treatment. This was a multicentre, 2...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: (Neo-)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer has a deleterious impact on muscle tissue resulting in reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, skeletal muscle mass and function. Physical exercise during treatment may counteract some of these negative effects. However, the effects of resistance training (RT) alone have never been explored. T...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rationale. Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prone to accelerated decay of muscle strength and mass with advancing age. This is mediated by systemic pathophysiologies, which are also believed to impair responses to exercise training, a notion that remains largely unstudied. Objectives. To investigate the presence of imp...
Article
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Exercise training has been hypothesized to lower the inflammatory burden for patients with cancer, but the role of exercise intensity is unknown. To this end, we compared the effects of high-intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) exercise on markers of inflammation in patients with curable breast, prostate and colorectal cancer undergoi...
Article
Aging is associated with alterations in skeletal muscle autophagy, potentially affecting both muscle mass and quality in a negative manner. Strength training with protein supplementation has been reported to improve both muscle mass and quality in frail elderly individuals, but whether improvements are accompanied by alterations in protein quality...
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The effects of 4 mg·kg‐1caffeine ingestion on strength and power were investigated for the first time, in resistance‐trained females during the early follicular phase utilizing a randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, crossover design. Fifteen females (29.8±4.0 years, 63.8±5.5 kg [mean±SD]) ingested caffeine or placebo 60 minutes before comp...
Article
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Background Adjuvant therapy may cause multiple sideeffects on long term health, including reduced cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients with breast cancer (1, 2). However, there is currently limited knowledge regarding the effect of different types of adjuvant cancer treatment on CRF in other cancer populations. The primary objective of the p...
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Purpose To investigate sex differences in the effect of a military field exercise on physical performance, body composition and blood biomarkers. Methods Measurements were done in 23 male and 12 female conscripts before, and 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after a 6‐day military field exercise. Results During the field exercise, body mass decreased more i...
Article
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Background: Altitude training stresses several physiological and metabolic processes and alters the dietary needs of the athletes. International Olympic Committee (IOC)’s Nutrition Expert Group suggests that athletes should increase intake of energy, carbohydrate, iron, fluid and antioxidant-rich foods while training at altitude. Objective: We inv...
Article
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Low-load blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) can stimulate whole-muscle growth and improve muscle function. However, limited knowledge exists on the effects at the myocellular level. We hypothesize that BFRRE possesses the ability to produce concurrent skeletal muscle myofibrillar, mitochondrial, and microvascular adaptations, thus of...
Article
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PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate if endurance athletes, sustaining their normal endurance training, experience attenuated adaptations to strength training compared to untrained individuals.Methods Eleven non-strength-trained female endurance athletes (E + S) added 11 weeks of strength training to their normal endurance training (...
Article
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Introduction: Maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness often used to monitor changes in fitness during and after treatment in cancer patients. There is, however, limited knowledge in how criteria verifying [Formula: see text] work for patients newly diagnosed with cancer. Therefore, the aim of this stud...
Article
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The randomized “Testicular cancer and Aerobic‐ and Strength Training trial” (TAST‐trial) aimed to evaluate the effect of high‐intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness during cisplatin‐based chemotherapy (CBCT) for testicular cancer (TC). Here, we report on an unexpected high number of thromboembolic (TE) events among patients...
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Regular postexercise cooling attenuates muscle hypertrophy, yet its effects on the key molecular factors that regulate muscle growth and remodeling are not well characterized. In the present study, nine men completed two sessions of single-leg resistance exercise on separate days. On 1 day, they sat in cold water (10°C) up to their waist for 10 min...
Article
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Background: Clinical evidence suggests that body muscle mass is positively associated with bone mass, of significance for the elderly population at risk of osteoporosis (OP). Furthermore, muscle and bone interact mechanically and functionally, via local interactions as well as remotely via secreted components. Thus, it was of interest to compare mu...
Article
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Background Adaptation to strength training in very old mobility-limited individuals is not fully characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of the adaptation to a lower body strength training regime in this population, with particular emphasis on the relationship between changes in selected variables. M...
Article
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Introduction: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between the values of selected parameters of physical function, body composition, body mass index (BMI) and biochemical markers of metabolic health with the total testosterone (TT) levels in adult males. We aimed to analyse the correlation between these values and variations...
Article
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Background: The improvement in muscle strength generally exceeds the increase in muscle size following strength training in frail elderly, highlighting the complex aetiology of strength deficit in aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heavy-load strength training on a broad number of factors related to specific strength in...
Article
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Muscle inactivity reduces muscle protein synthesis (MPS), whereas a subsequent period of rehabilitation resistance training (retraining) increases MPS. However, less is known regarding muscle protein breakdown (MPB) during such conditions. Furthermore, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may have a dampening effect on MPB during periods o...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of a 1-week high-intensity aerobic-training shock microcycle composed of either 5 short-interval sessions (SI; n = 9, 5 series with 12 × 30-s work intervals interspersed with 15-s recovery and 3-min recovery between series) or 5 long-interval sessions (LI; n = 8, 6 series of 5-min work intervals with 2.5-min recover...
Article
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Objective: To compare muscle strength/endurance of knee extensors between patients with long-term juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and controls, and between patients with active and inactive disease. In patients; to explore associations between strength/endurance and i)clinical parameters ii)physical activity, and iii)humoral/structural adaptation i...
Article
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Background: Large amounts of protein (40 g) or supplementing suboptimal servings of protein with leucine are able to overcome the anabolic resistance in elderly muscle. Our aim was to compare the effects of supplementation of native whey, high in leucine, with milk on gains in muscle mass and strength during a period of strength training, in elder...
Article
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The aims of the present systematic review and meta‐analysis were to investigate the effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and to investigate whether exercise frequency, intensity, duration and volume are associated with changes in VO2max among adult patients with cancer undergoing treatment. Medline and Embase through OvidSP were sea...
Article
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Introduction Androgen deficiency of the ageing male is a clinical syndrome resulting from the low production of androgens (testosterone levels <6.9 nmol/L) with symptoms including decline in lean mass, muscle strength, increases in body mass and overall fat mass. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of a 12 week strength training intervent...
Article
Aging is associated with reduced specific strength, defined as strength normalized to the cross-sectional area of a given muscle or muscle group. Dysregulated autophagy, impairing removal of dysfunctional proteins and organelles, is suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of autophagic markers...
Presentation
The effects of caffeine ingestion on strength and power performance in resistance-trained females during the early follicular menstrual cycle phase.
Article
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Background Various altitude training regimes, systematically used to improve oxygen carrying capacity and sports performance, have been associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated whether increased intake of common antioxidant-rich foods attenuates these processes. Methods In a randomized controlled trial, 31 eli...
Article
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Background: Player tracking devices are commonly used to monitor external load from training and matches in team sports. Yet, how the derived external load variables relate to fatigue and recovery post-training or post-match is scarcely researched. The objective was, therefore, to investigate how external load variables affect recovery markers up t...
Article
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Previously trained mouse muscles acquire strength and volume faster than naïve muscles; it has been suggested that this is related to increased myonuclear density. The present study aimed to determine whether a previously strength-trained leg (mem-leg) would respond better to a period of strength training than a previously untrained leg (con-leg)....
Article
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Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate muscle hypertrophy, strength, myonuclear and satellite cell (SC) responses to high-frequency blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE). METHODS: Thirteen individuals (24±2 years [mean ± SD], 9 males) completed two 5-day-blocks of 7 BFRRE sessions, separated by a 10-day rest period. Four sets of unilateral kn...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate the effects of blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) on myofiber areas (MFA), number of myonuclei and satellite cells (SC), muscle size and strength in powerlifters. METHODS Seventeen national level powerlifters (25±6 yrs [mean±SD], 15 men) were randomly assigned to either a BFRRE group (n=9) performing two bloc...
Article
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Objective Elderly muscle seems less sensitive to the anabolic stimulus of a meal. Changes in blood concentrations of leucine are suggested as one important trigger of the anabolic response in muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether native whey protein, containing high amounts of leucine, may be a more potent stimulator of muscle pr...