Trine Bilde

Trine Bilde
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Bioscience

PhD

About

140
Publications
19,264
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3,915
Citations
Citations since 2016
8 Research Items
1930 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (140)
Article
Mate preference based on relatedness may evolve in response to costs and benefits of inbreeding avoidance. Whereas mating with closely related individuals can have negative fitness consequences due to inbreeding depression, it may simultaneously be favoured by inclusive fitness benefits. Variation in the fitness payoff shaped by benefits of inbreed...
Article
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The findings that some plants alter their competitive phenotype in response to genetic relatedness of its conspecific neighbour (and presumed competitor) has spurred an increasing interest in plant kin‐interactions. This phenotypic response suggests the ability to assess the genetic relatedness of conspecific competitors, proposing kin selection as...
Article
Across several animal taxa, the evolution of sociality involves a suite of characteristics, a 'social syndrome', that includes cooperative breeding, reproductive skew, primary female biased sex-ratio, and the transition from outcrossing to inbreeding mating system, factors that are expected to reduce effective population size (Ne). This social synd...
Article
Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae constitute part of the Lycosoidea clade that includes a diverse range of wandering spider species that inhabit terrestrial and semi-aquatic environments. Phylogenetic studies of these three families based on morphological and behavioural traits have produced contradictory results on their evolutionary relatio...
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An elevated brooding temperature during the first wk post hatch of broilers may potentially increase activity levels and reduce welfare problems in terms of non- and slow-starters, lameness, and contact dermatitis. The effects of an elevated brooding temperature the first 7 d post hatch on behavior, welfare, and growth of Ross 308 broilers were inv...
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The evolution of sociality in spiders is associated with female bias, reproductive skew and an inbreeding mating system, factors that cause a reduction in effective population size and increase effects of genetic drift. These factors act to decrease the effectiveness of selection, thereby increasing the fixation probability of deleterious mutations...
Article
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Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inh...
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Analyses of arthropod genomes have shown that the genes in the different innate humoral immune responses are conserved. These genes encode proteins that are involved in immune signalling pathways that recognize pathogens and activate immune responses. These immune responses include phagocytosis, encapsulation of the pathogen, and production of effe...
Article
Arthropods include chelicerates, crustaceans, and insects that all have open circulation systems and thus require different properties of their coagulation system than vertebrates. Although the clotting reaction in the chelicerate horseshoe crab (Family: Limulidae) has been described in details, the overall protein composition of the resulting clot...
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Permanently-social spiders share a common suite of traits, including cooperative foraging and brood care, elimination of pre-mating dispersal, and the transition to an inbreeding mating system. Social spiders are confined to tropic and subtropical habitats, suggesting environmental constraints on the evolution of group living in spiders. Because so...
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Kin selected benefits of cooperation result in pronounced kin discrimination and nepotism in many social species and favour the evolution of sociality. However, low variability in relatedness among group members, infrequent competitive interactions with non-relatives, and direct benefits of cooperation may relax selection for nepotism. We tested th...
Article
Any field study showing convincing evidence of group selection would be a significant contribution to the field of evolutionary biology. Pruitt and Goodnight1 claim to provide such evidence in a 14–18-month field experiment on spiders. However, we contend that apparent flaws in their predictions, assumptions, methods and interpretations undermine t...
Article
Task differentiation in cooperative groups can arise through a wide range of mechanisms. A recent hypothesis, supported by empirical studies of social spiders, suggests that a variation in individual personalities might be one such mechanism. Personality-based task differentiation can either arise as an emergent property of group living based on in...
Article
More than 99 % of arachnid species are solitary, aggressive and often cannibalistic predators. A few species are social and cooperative, but they do not reach the level of eusociality found in some insects. Kin recognition is suggested to be a key feature for the evolution of cooperation and sociality and thus found predominantly in those few speci...
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Nuptial gifts may serve to increase male mating success, copulation duration, and fertilization success, as is known for the nuptial feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis Clerck, 1757. In this species, strong sexual selection for the gift-giving trait may lead to male strategies, such as gift enlargement or thanatosis behaviour (death feigning), which u...
Article
Mating systems and population dynamics influence genetic diversity and structure. Species that experience inbreeding and limited gene flow are expected to evolve isolated, divergent genetic lineages. Metapopulation dynamics with frequent extinctions and colonizations may, on the other hand, deplete and homogenize genetic variation, if extinction ra...
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Colonies of web building social spiders may persist at a site for several generations; therefore, their placement in the habitat is critical for survival. This study focuses on the development of spatial distribution patterns by means of different dispersal modes in a social spider species (Stegodyphus dumicola Pocock, 1898, Eresidae) in central Na...
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Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long...
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Producing equal amounts of male and female offspring has long been considered an evolutionarily stable strategy. Nevertheless, exceptions to this general rule (i.e. male and female biases) are documented in many taxa, making sex allocation an important domain in current evolutionary biology research. Pinpointing the underlying mechanism of sex rati...
Article
The transition to cooperative breeding may alter maternal investment strategies depending on density of breeders, extent of reproductive skew and allo-maternal care. Change in optimal investment from solitary to cooperative breeding can be investigated by comparing social species with non-social congeners. We tested two hypotheses in a mainly semel...
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Latitude, rainfall, and productivity have been shown to influence social organisation and level of sociality in arthropods on large geographic scales. Social spiders form permanent group-living societies where they cooperate in brood care, web maintenance, and foraging. Sociality has evolved independently in a number of unrelated spider genera and...
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Polyandrous females are expected to discriminate among males through postcopulatory cryptic mate choice. Yet, there is surprisingly little unequivocal evidence for female-mediated cryptic sperm choice. In species in which nuptial gifts facilitate mating, females may gain indirect benefits through preferential storage of sperm from gift-giving males...
Chapter
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Nuptial gifts are an intriguing male sexually selected trait that has evolved in a wide range of forms among different animals. Wrapped prey gifts have been intensively studied in two spiders: Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae), a neotropical species, and Pisaura mirabilis (Pisauridae), a Palearctic species. Interestingly, these species experience...
Article
Inbreeding mating systems are uncommon because of inbreeding depression. Mating among close relatives can evolve, however, when outcrossing is constrained. Social spiders show obligatory mating among siblings. In combination with a female-biased sex ratio, sib-mating results in small effective populations. In such a system, high genetic homozygosit...
Article
Deciphering the mechanisms involved in shaping social structure is key to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes leading to sociality. Individual specialization within groups can increase colony efficiency and consequently productivity. Here, we test the hypothesis that within-group variation in individual personalities (i.e. boldness...
Article
The relative force of direct and indirect selection underlying the evolution of polyandry is contentious. When females acquire direct benefits during mating, indirect benefits are often considered negligible. Although direct benefits are likely to play a prominent role in the evolution of polyandry, post-mating selection for indirect benefits may s...
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The evolutionary history of widespread and specialized species is likely to cause a different genetic architecture of key ecological traits in the two species groups. This may affect how these two groups respond to inbreeding. Here we investigate inbreeding effects in traits related to performance in 5 widespread and 5 tropical restricted species o...
Data
Mean trait values of control (‘c’) and inbred (‘i’) flies (with standard errors in parentheses) for each sex, species and trait observed in this study. ‘N’ equals the number of inbred lines tested (in parentheses the number of lines available after the 4 generations of full sub mating). N equals 3 for all traits in both males and females in the con...
Article
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Introduction Sociality has evolved independently multiple times across the spider phylogeny, and despite wide taxonomic and geographical breadth the social species are characterized by a common geographical constrain to tropical and subtropical areas. Here we investigate the environmental factors that drive macro-ecological patterns in social and s...
Data
List of 17 species with their distribution ranges, level of sociality and numbers of records used in the analysis. Table S2. Principal components scores and loadings on the Stegodyphus presence matrix with environmental variables listed. Table S3. References for site-specific biomass estimates of insects used for our supplementary insect biomass an...
Article
Reproductive partitioning is a key component of social organization in groups of cooperative organisms. In colonies of permanently social spiders of the genus Stegodyphus less than half of the females reproduce, while all females, including nonreproducers, perform suicidal allo-maternal care. Some theoretical models suggest that reproductive skew i...
Article
Understanding the social organization of group-living organisms is crucial for the comprehension of the underlying selective mechanisms involved in the evolution of cooperation. Division of labour and caste formation is restricted to eusocial organisms, but behavioural asymmetries and reproductive skew is common in other group-living animals. Perma...
Article
Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species sp...
Article
In many species, condition-dependent secondary sexual traits are important for female choice. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis, males offer females a nuptial gift (prey wrapped in silk) during courtship. Gift construction may involve high costs for males, and those in low condition invest less time and silk in wrapping the prey. We investigated how...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of sociality in spiders involves a transition from an outcrossing to a highly inbreeding mating system, a shift to a female biased sex ratio, and an increase in the reproductive skew among individuals. Taken together, these features are expected to result in a strong reduction in the effective population size. Such a decline in effect...
Data
Procedure for three way orthology identification. A) Three-way ortholog sequences were selected if they were detected as reciprocal best hits (arrows) in all three two-way comparisons. B) Only one comparison had reciprocal best hits. C) In some cases the reciprocal best hit was detected in two comparisons but not in the third. These were not accept...
Data
Nucleotide alignments of three way ortholog sequences. This file contains 1345 alignments of nucleotide sequences found to be ortholog in S. mimosarum, S. lineatus, and S. tentoriicola with open reading frames.
Data
PCR primer sequences. A set of 10 PCR primer sets that amplify in all tested Stegodyphus species (S. lineatus, S. mimosarum, S. tentoriicola, S. dumicola, S. sarasinorum, S. bicolor, S. mirandus, S. tibialis). The loci amplified are named after the S. lineatus transcript name.
Article
Full-text available
Polyandry is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. In the absence of direct benefits of mating with different males, the underlying basis for polyandry is enigmatic because it can carry considerable costs such as elevated exposure to sexual diseases, physical injury or other direct fitness costs. Such costs may be balanced by indirect genetic b...
Data
Skew analyses. PARENTAGE 1.0 estimates the contribution of each father to the offspring. For each iteration we calculated paternity skew as the sum of squared proportion of offspring assigned to each father (Simmons et al. 2007). For each number of fathers in the estimated range we tested the average skew against a simulated distribution. Simulatio...
Article
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In nuptial gift-giving species, benefits of acquiring a mate may select for male deception by donation of worthless gifts. We investigated the effect of worthless gifts on mating success in the spider Pisaura mirabilis. Males usually offer an insect prey wrapped in silk; however, worthless gifts containing inedible items are reported. We tested mal...
Article
Populations are from time to time exposed to stressful temperatures. Their thermal resistance levels are determined by inherent and plastic mechanisms, which are both likely to be under selection in natural populations. Previous studies on Drosophila species have shown that inherent resistance is highly species specific, and differs among ecotypes...
Article
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In animal societies, recognition of group members and relatives is an important trait for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior. In eusocial insects, nest mate recognition is based on cuticular hydrocarbons and allows colony members to reject competitors and parasites. The study of recognition cues in subsocial species can provide insigh...
Article
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Pisaura mirabilis males offer a prey wrapped in silk as a nuptial gift that functions as a male mating effort. If nuptial gift construction is costly, males in poor feeding condition would invest less in this behaviour than males in good condition. We investigated frequencies and characteristics of gift construction in males under different sexual...
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Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a...
Article
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Background: Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes ("intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis"), or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output ("sexual selection hypothesis"). The latter may lead to higher energy demands in females driven...
Article
Habitat selection has profound consequences for survival and reproductive success. We investigated web relocation behaviour in relation to plant structure and body condition as well as the plasticity of foraging behaviour of the spider Stegodyphus tentoriicola. Spiders inhabiting thorny vegetation were larger, built larger webs than spiders in thor...
Article
Group living occurs in two different forms in spiders, cooperatively breeding social species and colonial species. The social species construct a communal nest and capture web, capture prey and feed together and cooperate in raising the young. Social spiders lack pre-mating dispersal, which results in regular inbreeding within colonies. Social spec...
Article
Polyandrous females may gain genetic benefits for their offspring through postmating sexual selection. To facilitate postcopulatory choice for males of superior genetic quality females are expected to bias precopulatory mate choice towards novel males (i.e. genetically novel sources). Preference for novel partners is also expected to maximize male...
Article
Males can overcome female resistance to mating either by using luring behaviour or through sexual coercion. We studied mating behaviour in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Galeodidae) and Gluvia dorsalis (Desiidae), to determine the presence of luring and/or coercive traits. Several behavioural features de...
Article
Cooperation and group living are extremely rare in spiders and only few species are known to be permanently social. Inbreeding is a key characteristic of social spiders, resulting in high degrees of within-colony relatedness that may foster kin-selected benefits of cooperation. Accordingly, philopatry and regular inbreeding are suggested to play a...
Article
Foraging by intraspecific kleptoparasitism is widespread among animal taxa. Most kleptoparasitic interactions are considered facultative, and can be influenced by life history stage and trade-offs with other activities such as mate searching. Trade-offs with mating strategies are often sex specific when males are selected to invest in mate searchin...
Article
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Cooperative hunting and foraging in spiders is rare and prone to cheating such that the actions of selfish individuals negatively affect the whole group. The resulting social dilemma may be mitigated by kin selection since related individuals lose indirect fitness benefits by acting selfishly. Indeed, cooperation with genetic kin reduces the disadv...
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Two's a Crowd The process by which males and females compete to maximize their individual fitness also affects the fitness of their offspring. Sexual selection largely results from polyandry (multiple mating by females), and several competing hypotheses attempt to explain the evolution of polyandry. Bilde et al. (p. 1705 ) staged double mating expe...
Article
Cooperatively breeding animals commonly avoid incestuous mating through pre-mating dispersal. However, a few group-living organisms, including the social spiders, have low pre-mating dispersal, intra-colony mating, and inbreeding. This results in limited gene flow among colonies and sub-structured populations. The social spiders also exhibit female...
Article
We used DNA fingerprints to determine whether the population structure and colony composition of the cooperative social spider Stegodyphus dumicola are compatible with requirements of interdemic (‘group’) selection: differential proliferation of demes or groups and limited gene flow among groups. To investigate gene flow among groups, spiders were...
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Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA) have been proposed, but these ideas have rarely been tested experimentally. Alternatively, sexual dimorphi...
Article
Stegodyphus lineatus spiders live in groups consisting of closely related individuals. There appears to be no discrimination against related individuals as mates but females mate multiply, despite the fact that matings are shown to carry a cost. We have developed eight polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite markers that allow us to assess levels o...
Article
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Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual selection. In particular, the evolution of adaptive female ch...
Article
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Interaction within groups exploiting a common resource may be prone to cheating by selfish actions that result in disadvantages for all members of the group, including the selfish individuals. Kin selection is one mechanism by which such dilemmas can be resolved This is because selfish acts toward relatives include the cost of lowering indirect fit...
Article
Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female’s eggsac implying that males exploit the female maternal care instinct and not her foragi...
Article
The value of the cereal aphid species Metopolophium dirhodum (Wlk.), Sitobion avenae (F.) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) as prey for the linyphiid spider Erigone atra (Bl.) was assessed. Fecundity of females was determined for spiders fed on eight experimental diets: three single-species aphid diets, a mixed diet of all three aphid species, three mixe...
Article
Full-text available
Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is ex...
Article
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the occurrence of group living in spiders. Group living has arisen in spiders in basically two different forms. Cooperative or nonterritorial permanent‐social species are the main focus of the chapter. The form of group living in spiders has been termed “colonial” or “communalterritorial.” Colonial species h...
Article
The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occu...
Article
Selection by inbreeding depression should favour mating biases that reduce the risk of fertilization by related mates. However, equivocal evidence for inbreeding avoidance questions the strength of inbreeding depression as a selective force in the evolution of mating biases. Lack of inbreeding avoidance can be because of low risk of inbreeding, var...
Article
Full-text available
Social, cooperative breeding behaviour is rare in spiders and generally characterized by inbreeding, skewed sex ratios and high rates of colony turnover, processes that when combined may reduce genetic variation and lower individual fitness quickly. On these grounds, social spider species have been suggested to be unstable in evolutionary time, and...
Article
Nuptial feeding can evolve as sensory traps where the male exploits the female's foraging motivation in a sexual context. The nuptial prey gift of the nursery-web spider Pisaura mirabilis is wrapped in white silk, and it has been suggested that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct by producing a nuptial gift that resembles the female'...
Article
Abstract 1. Sexual conflict, which results from the divergence of genetic interests between males and females, is predicted to affect multiple behavioural, physiological, and morphological traits.2. Sexual conflict over mating may interact with population density to produce predictable changes in resource allocation into inter-sexual armament.3. In...