Tricia Breen Carmichael

Tricia Breen Carmichael
University of Windsor · Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

BSc.,PhD

About

89
Publications
7,224
Reads
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3,009
Citations
Introduction
Research in the Carmichael Group develops new and innovative ways to integrate functional electronic materials with soft substrates and textiles to build elastomeric electronic devices that conform to the human body and textile-based wearable electronics (e-textiles). We specialize in surface chemical modification and analysis, materials printing, device fabrication, mechanical and electrical characterization, and wearable device design. More details at www.carmichaellab.com
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
University of Windsor
Position
  • Professor (Full)
May 2005 - June 2016
University of Windsor
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 1999 - April 2005
IBM
Position
  • Research Staff Member
Education
September 1992 - August 1996
University of Windsor
Field of study
  • Organometallic Chemistry
September 1988 - April 1992
University of Windsor
Field of study
  • Chemistry

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
We present new flexible, transparent, and conductive coatings composed of an annealed silver nanowire network embedded in a polyurethane optical adhesive. These coatings can be applied to rigid glass substrates, as well as to flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic and elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates to produce highly f...
Article
Full-text available
To realize the full gamut of functions that are envisaged for electronic textiles (e-textiles) a range of semiconducting, conducting and electrochemically active materials are needed. This article will discuss how metals, conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene and MXenes, can be used in concert...
Article
Full-text available
Integrating soft sensors with wearable platforms is critical for sensor-based human augmentation, yet the fabrication of wearable sensors integrated into ready-to-wear platforms remains underdeveloped. Disposable gloves are an ideal substrate for wearable sensors that map hand-specific gestures. Here, we use solution-based metallization to prepare...
Article
Despite the development throughout human history of a wealth of textile materials and structures, the porous structures and non-planar surfaces of textiles are often viewed as problematic for the fabrication of wearable e-textiles and smart clothing. Here, we demonstrate a new textile-centric design paradigm in which we use the textile structure as...
Article
The advancement of wearable electronics depends on the seamless integration of lightweight and stretchable energy storage devices with textiles. Integrating brittle energy storage materials with soft and stretchable textiles, however, presents a challenging mechanical mismatch. It is critical to protect brittle energy storage materials from strain-...
Article
Despite having favorable optoelectronic and thermomechanical properties, the wide application of semiconducting polymers still suffers from limitations, particularly with regards to their processing in solution which necessitates toxic chlorinated solvents due to their intrinsic low solubility in common organic solvents. This work presents a novel...
Article
Full-text available
This protocol describes the fabrication of patterned conductive gold films on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) gloves for wearable strain sensors using electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) plating, a solution-based metallization technique. The resulting NBR/ENIG films are strain sensitive; resistance measurements of a patterned sensing array can...
Article
Full-text available
Light‐emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) are simple electroluminescent devices comprising an emissive material containing mobile ions sandwiched between two electrodes. The operating mechanism of the LEC involves both ionic and electronic transport, distinguishing it from its more well‐known cousin, the organic light‐emitting diode (OLED). While...
Article
Full-text available
Stretchable electronic devices rely on stretchable conductors to form device interconnects and electrodes that maintain electrical performance during deformation. Although the high conductivity of metals makes them desirable materials for these applications, the lack of intrinsic stretchability of metals is a fundamental problem in stretchable elec...
Article
This paper focuses on the fabrication, characterization and comparative study of flexible pressure sensors, prepared from structured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as flexible dielectric. In specific, four different patterning methods on PDMS dielectric surface were investigated including inverse mold, replica mold, photolithographic and non-shaped mi...
Article
The current growth of the wearable electronics market has inspired the development of soft and stretchable interfacing between electronics and the human body. Stretchable conductors are critical to the evolution of stretchable and wearable electronics. In this topical review, we discuss notable contributions to the field of stretchable metal films....
Article
The future of soft, conformable, and robust wearable electronics will require elastomers to provide mechanical stabilization, a soft surface to interact with human wearers, and a crucial physical barrier to protect stretchable devices from the environment. It is a difficult challenge, however, for a single elastomer to fulfill each of these needs....
Article
Full-text available
The vision for wearable electronics involves creating an imperceptible boundary between humans and devices. Integrating electronic devices into clothing represents an important path to this vision; however, combining conductive materials with textiles is challenging due to the porous structure of knitted textiles. Stretchability depends on maintain...
Conference Paper
http://www.mrs.org/technical-programs/programs_abstracts/2016_mrs_fall_meeting_exhibit/bm4/bm4_9_13/bm4_9_05_4
Article
Transparent butyl rubber is a new elastomer that has the potential to revolutionize stretchable electronics due to its intrinsically low gas permeability. Encapsulating organic electronic materials and devices with transparent butyl rubber protects them from problematic degradation due to oxygen and moisture, preventing premature device failure and...
Article
Butyl rubber is renowned for its gas impermeability and has been used for decades in everyday applications such as automobile tires and watertight seals. On page 5222, T. B. Carmichael and co-workers report a new transparent rubber for stretchable electronics. Transparent butyl rubber protects sensitive electronic materials from degradation and cor...
Article
The development of stretchable electronic devices that are soft and conformable has relied heavily on a single material—polydimethylsiloxane—as the elastomeric substrate. Although polydimethylsiloxane has a number of advantageous characteristics, its high gas permeability is detrimental to stretchable devices that use materials sensitive to oxygen...
Article
We demonstrate films of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that are stretchable, conductive, and transparent. Our fabrication method uses the supramolecular functionalization of SWNTs with conjugated polyelectrolytes to generate aqueous dispersions of positively- and negatively-charged SWNTs, followe...
Article
We demonstrate a simple, low-cost, and green approach to deposit a microstructured coating on the silicone elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that can be coated with gold to produce highly stretchable and conductive films. The microstructured coating is fabricated using an aqueous emulsion of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc): common, commercially avai...
Article
This paper compares rates of charge transport across self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkanethiolates having odd and even numbers of carbon atoms (nodd and neven) using junctions with the structure MTS/SAM//Ga2O3/EGaIn (M = Au or Ag). Measurements of current density, J(V), across SAMs of n-alkanethiolates on AuTS and AgTS demonstrated a statis...
Article
For over 20 years, template stripping has been the best method to prepare ultrasmooth metal surfaces for studies of nanostructures. However, the organic adhesives used in the template stripping method are incompatible with many solvents, limiting the conditions that may be used to subsequently prepare samples; in addition, the film areas that can b...
Article
We report the formation and characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of dialkyldithiophosphinic acid adsorbates [CH3(CH2)n]2P(S)SH (R2DTPA) (n = 5, 9, 11, 13, 15) on ultrasmooth gold substrates prepared by the template stripping method. The SAMs were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection-absorption infrared sp...
Patent
A method of rendering a substrate catalytic to electroless metal deposition comprising the steps of: (a) depositing a ligating chemical agent on the substrate, which is capable of both binding to the substrate and ligating to an electroless plating catalyst; and (b) ligating the electroless plating catalyst to the ligating chemical agent, wherein t...
Article
We report the formation and characterization of new self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from dihexadecyldithiophosphate (C16)2DDP, and compare their properties with those of SAMs formed from the structurally similar adsorbate dihexadecyldithiophosphinic acid (C16)2DTPA. The new (C16)2DDP SAMs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectro...
Article
We report the formation and characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on dialkyldithiophosphinic acid adsorbates {[CH3(CH2)n]2P(S)SH (n = 5, 9, 11, 13, 15)} on gold substrates. The SAMs were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and electrochem...
Article
We report the formation and characterization of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on dialkyldithiophosphinic acid adsorbates {[CH(3)(CH(2))(n)](2)P(S)SH (n = 5, 9, 11, 13, 15)} on gold substrates. SAMs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and electro...
Article
On page 2673, T. B. Carmichael and co-workers describe an emerging methodology in which devices, rather than device interconnects, are designed to tolerate strain. Intrinsically stretchable light-emitting devices provide uniform and diffuse light emission over large areas, suitable for new applications in lighting. The image shows an intrinsically...
Article
We report the fabrication and characterization of new self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from dihexadecyldithiophosphinic acid [(C(16))(2)DTPA] molecules on gold substrates. In these SAMs, the ability of the (C(16))(2)DTPA headgroup to chelate to the gold surface depends on the morphology of the gold substrate. Gold substrates fabricated by el...
Article
We report a simple, low-cost method for the fabrication of copper wires and contacts on a wide range of flexible, rigid, and inert polymeric substrates. This method relies on procedures to oxidize the polymeric substrates to form surface-bound carboxylic acid groups. Patterning of an aluminum porphyrin ink using microcontact printing results in the...
Article
This paper describes a new approach to mesoscale self-assembly in which a stream of nitrogen is used to propel micrometer-scale components toward a template of patterned liquid adhesive drops. This approach combines the use of capillary forces to hold the components in place with dry processing conditions. Eliminating the use of a liquid medium to...
Article
Tricia Carmichael and co-workers employ a simple, low-cost method for the fabrication of patterned metal films on elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates, as described on p. 59. The metal/PDMS composites are electrically conductive and mechanically flexible, making them suitable for use in the fabrication of lightweight, flexible devic...
Patent
The present invention describes organic solvent-soluble Diels-Alder adducts of polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as, oligothiophene, perylene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene and polyacenes, with variety of dienophiles containing at least one heteroatom and in some cases two heteroatoms bonded to aromatic moiety, such as, thioxomalonates, azodicarbo...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a process that consists of embossing a bas-relief pattern into the surface of a layer of photoresist and flood illuminating the embossed resist; this process uses the topography of the resist to generate a pattern of optical intensity inside the resist layer. Development of embossed, illuminated = 365– 436 nm photoresist yiel...
Article
We report a low-cost approach to selectively deposit films of nickel and copper on glass substrates. Our approach uses microcontact printing of organic inks containing phosphonic acid groups to bind the ink to a glass substrate and phosphine groups to bind a colloidal catalyst that initiates electroless metallization. We demonstrate this procedure...
Article
The Lewis acid-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of the organic semiconductor pentacene with N-sulfinylacetamide yields a soluble adduct. Spin-coated thin films of this adduct undergo solid-phase conversion to form thin films of pentacene at moderate temperatures. Organic thin film transistors fabricated by spin-coating this adduct, followed by therma...
Article
We report a new approach for the synthesis of symmetrical oligothiophenes based on a highly efficient palladium-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reaction. This synthetic route enables the simple preparation of substituted oligothiophenes with a wider range of functionalities and in higher yield compared to previously reported syntheses. We demonstrate ou...
Article
We report a procedure that uses microcontact printing and wet chemical etching to fabricate patterned films of indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium zinc oxide (IZO). The procedure consists of three steps:  (1) inking a patterned elastomeric stamp with an alkanephosphonic acid; (2) microcontact printing to form a patterned multilayer film of alkanephos...
Article
Full-text available
We report the simple, low-cost, and parallel fabrication of patterned organic–inorganic thin-film transistors (TFTs) by microcontact printing a molecular template on the substrate surface prior to film deposition. We printed molecules with hydrophobic tail groups on the gate oxide surfaces of TFTs to chemically, differentiate the substrate surface...
Article
Full-text available
Self-assembly of millimeter-scale polyhedra, with surfaces patterned with solder dots, wires, and light-emitting diodes, generated electrically functional, three-dimensional networks. The patterns of dots and wires controlled the structure of the networks formed; both parallel and serial connections were generated.
Article
Full-text available
Self-assembly provides the basis for a procedure used to organize millimeter-scale objects into regular, three-dimensional arrays ("crystals") with open structures. The individual components are designed and fabricated of polyurethane by molding; selected faces are coated with a thin film of liquid, metallic alloy. Under mild agitation in warm, aqu...
Article
Full-text available
This letter demonstrates that features embossed on the surface of a layer of photoresist can direct UV light in the photoresist layer. These topographical features act as optical elements: they focus/disperse and phase shift incident light in the optical near field, inside the resist layer. A number of different surface topographies have been exami...
Article
The employment of phosphazirconacycles in metallacycle transfer reactions is a facile method for the synthesis of main-group phosphacycles. Reactions of Cp2Zr(PPh)3 (1), Cp2Zr(P(R*)C(Ph)CPh) (2), and Cp2Zr(P(Mes)P(Mes)C(Ph)CPh) (3) with various main-group dihalides results in cleavage of TM−MG bonds and formation of new MG−MG bonds. Triphosphanato...
Article
Elimination of methane from Cp2Zr(PR*H)(Me) (R* = C6H2-2,4,6-t-Bu3) (4) in the presence of diphenylacetylene or phenylpropyne afforded the [2 + 2] cycloaddition products Cp2Zr(P(R*)C(Ph)CPh) (3) and Cp2Zr(P(R*)C(Me)CPh) (5), respectively. Alternatively, the [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction between (Cp2ZrPR*)(PMe3) (1) and phenylacetylene yielded Cp2Z...
Article
The reaction of Cp2ZrMe(PHR) with benzophenone, cyclohexanone, acetone, benzaldehyde, and benzophenone results in the insertion of the organic substrate into the Zr−P bond. In this way, the complexes Cp2ZrMe(OCPh2PH(C6H2-2,4,6-t-Bu3)) (3), Cp2ZrMe(OC6H10PH(C6H2-2,4,6-t-Bu3)) (4), Cp2ZrMe(OCMe2PHR) (R = (C6H2-2,4,6-t-Bu3) (5), R = (C6H2-2,4,6-Me3) (...
Article
Additions of PhEH (E = O, S), PhEH2 (E = N, P), MesPH2, and Ph2PH to Cp2Zr(PR*)(PMe3) (2) provide a facile route to complexes of the form Cp2Zr(PHR*)(ER) (R* = 2,4,6-t-Bu-C6H2; ER = OPh (3), SPh (4), NHPh (5), PHPh (6), PHMes (7), PPh2 (8)). Variable-temperature NMR studies are consistent with facile metal-mediated inversion at phosphorus as well a...