Trent Stellingwerff

Trent Stellingwerff
Canadian Sports Institute · Performance Services

Doctor of Philosophy - University of Guelph

About

173
Publications
162,965
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,635
Citations

Publications

Publications (173)
Article
We examined the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) delivery form on exogenous CHO oxidation, gastrointestinal discomfort, and exercise capacity. In a randomised repeated measures design (after 24 h of high CHO intake (8 g·kg-1) and pre-exercise meal (2 g·kg-1)), nine trained males ingested 120 g CHO·h-1 from fluid (DRINK), semi-solid gel (GEL), solid je...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To survey elite athletes and practitioners to identify (1) knowledge and application of heat acclimation/acclimatization (HA) interventions, (2) barriers to HA application, and (3) nutritional practices supporting HA. Methods: Elite athletes (n = 55) and practitioners (n = 99) completed an online survey. Mann-Whitney U tests (effect siz...
Article
Full-text available
Although sports nutrition guidelines promote evidence-based practice, it is unclear whether women have been adequately included in the underpinning research. In view of the high usage rates of performance supplements by female athletes, we conducted a standardised audit of the literature supporting evidence-based products: β-alanine, caffeine, crea...
Article
Full-text available
Sports nutrition is a relatively new discipline; with ~100 published papers/year in the 1990s to ~3,500+ papers/year today. Historically, sports nutrition research was primarily initiated by university-based exercise physiologists who developed new methodologies that could be impacted by nutrition interventions (e.g., carbohydrate/fat oxidation by...
Article
Female-specific research on sports science and sports medicine (SSSM) fails to mirror the increase in participation and popularity of women’s sport. Females have historically been excluded from SSSM research, particularly because their physiological intricacy necessitates more complex study designs, longer research times, and additional costs. Cons...
Article
Full-text available
The twenty-first century has seen an increase in para-sport participation and the number of research publications on para-sport and the para-athlete. Unfortunately, the majority of publications are case reports/case series or study single impairment types in isolation. Indeed, an overview of how each International Paralympic Committee classifiable...
Article
Full-text available
The symptom similarities between training-overload (with or without an Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) diagnosis) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) are significant, with both initiating from a hypothalamic–pituitary origin, that can be influenced by low carbohydrate (CHO) and energy availability (EA). In this narrative review we wish to s...
Article
This study determined the influence of a high (HI) vs. low-intensity (LI) cycling warm-up on blood acid-base responses and exercise capacity following ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB; 0.3 g·kg-1 body-mass (BM)) or a placebo (PLA; maltodextrin) 3-hours prior to warm-up. Twelve men (21±2 years, 79.2±3.6 kg BM, maximum power output (Wmax) 318±36 W...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of a 14-day field-based heat acclimatization (HA) training camp in 16 international female soccer players was investigated over three phases: phase 1: 8 days moderate HA (22. 1°C); phase 2: 6 days high HA (34.5°C); and phase 3: 11 days of post-HA (18.2°C), with heart rate (HR), training load, core temp (Tc), and perceptual ratings reco...
Article
Decades of laboratory research have shown impairments to several body systems after only 4-5 days of strictly controlled consistent low energy availability (LEA); where energy availability (EA) = Energy Intake (EI) – Exercise Energy Expenditure (EEE) / Fat-Free Mass. Meanwhile, cross-sectional reports exist on the interrelatedness of LEA, menstrual...
Article
Objectives To determine the effect of heat acclimatisation (HA) training on blood profile and resting cardiac function in elite athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Quasi-experimental. Methods Eleven athletes (10 m, 1f) with SCI (C5-T3) completed a five-day isothermic HA protocol whereby gastrointestinal temperature (Tc) was elevated to...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the sport-science and sports-medicine literature, the term “elite” subjects might be one of the most overused and ill-defined terms. Currently, there is no common perspective or terminology to characterize the caliber and training status of an individual or cohort. This paper presents a 6-tiered Participant Classification Framework where...
Article
Full-text available
PRESENT 2020: Texto que desarrolla la lista de verificación para el adecuado informe de la evidencia en ensayos clínicos de deporte y nutrición del ejercicio (Traducción Inglés-Español)
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary meta-analyses have generally demonstrated a positive effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on exercise performance. However, despite these claims, there is limited data on contrasting individualized and standardized timing of NaHCO3 ingestion prior to exercise to further enhance performance outcomes. Purpose: To determi...
Article
Background: Quantifying total running distance is valuable, as it comprises some aspects of the mechanical/neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and perceptual/psychological loads that contribute to training stress and is partially predictive of distance running success. However, running distance is only one aspect contributing to training stress. Clini...
Article
Full-text available
PRESENT 2020: Texto que desarrolla la lista de verificación para el adecuado informe de la evidencia en ensayos clínicos de deporte y nutrición del ejercicio (Traducción Inglés-Español)
Article
Some readers may not have access to the full paper, so a properly formatted and well-written abstract is imperative. Authors should give priority to information about the current study rather than using the abstract for an extensive background or rationale. 2a Methods: Key information regarding the study design, methods, and population should be su...
Article
Full-text available
Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) can result in negative health and performance outcomes in both male and female athletes. The underlying etiology of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), which occurs when there is insufficient dietary energy intake to meet exercise energy expenditure, corrected for fat-free mass, leaving inadequate ene...
Article
Full-text available
Training at low to moderate altitudes (~ 1600-2400 m) is a common approach used by endurance athletes to provide a distinctive environmental stressor to augment training stimulus in the anticipation of increasing subsequent altitude- and sea-level-based performance. Despite some scientific progress being made on the impact of various nutrition-rela...
Article
Full-text available
Since the 1960s there has been an escalation in the purposeful utilization of altitude to enhance endurance athletic performance. This has been mirrored by a parallel intensification in research pursuits to elucidate hypoxia-induced adaptive mechanisms and substantiate optimal altitude protocols (e.g., hypoxic dose, duration, timing, and confoundin...
Article
Full-text available
Middle-distance running provides unique complexity where very different physiological and structural/mechanical profiles may achieve similar elite performances. Training and improving the key determinants of performance and applying interventions to athletes within the middle-distance event group are probably much more divergent than many practitio...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This was the first study to analyze high-resolution pacing data from multiple global championships, allowing for deeper and rigorous analysis of pacing and tactical profiles in elite-standard middle-distance racing. The aim of this study was to analyze successful and unsuccessful middle-distance pacing profiles and variability across qual...
Article
Full-text available
Iron plays a significant role in the body, and is specifically important to athletes, since it is a dominant feature in processes such as oxygen transport and energy metabolism. Despite its importance, athlete populations, especially females and endur-ance athletes, are commonly diagnosed with iron deficiency, suggesting an association between spor...
Article
Full-text available
The International Association of Athletics Federations recognizes the importance of nutritional practices in optimizing an Athlete's well-being and performance. Although Athletics encompasses a diverse range of track-and-field events with different performance determinants, there are common goals around nutritional support for adaptation to trainin...
Article
This Horizons is part of a series that identifies key, forward-thinking research questions and challenges that need to be addressed. Specifically, this Horizons paper discusses research in nutritional supplements and nutraceuticals for health, physical activity, and performance, and is the product of a discussion by an expert panel that took place...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of hydration status was investigated during a 5‐day heat acclimation (HA) training protocol versus mild/cool control conditions on plasma volume (PV) and performance (20km time‐trial (TT)). Sub‐elite athletes were allocated to one of two heat training groups (90 min/day): 1) dehydrated to ~2% body weight (BW) loss in heat (35°C; DEH; n=1...
Article
Full-text available
Athletes participating in the athletics (track and field) events of jumps, throws, and combined events (CEs; seven-event heptathlon and 10-event decathlon) engage in training and competition that emphasize speed and explosive movements, requiring optimal power-weight ratios. While these athletes represent a wide range of somatotypes, they share an...
Article
Over the last decade, in support of training periodization, there has been an emergence around the concept of nutritional periodization. Within athletics (track and field), the science and art of periodization is a cornerstone concept with recent commentaries emphasizing the underappreciated complexity associated with predictable performance on dem...
Article
Full-text available
Athletes should achieve event-specific physiological requirements through careful periodization of training, underpinned by individualized and targeted nutrition strategies. However, evidence of whether, and how, elite endurance athletes periodize nutrition is scarce. Accordingly, elite international female (n = 67) and male (n = 37) middle/long-di...
Article
Purpose: To determine if a single versus a split equivalent daily dose of elemental iron was superior for haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) gains at altitude, while minimizing gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort. Methods: Twenty-four elite runners attended a 3.1 ± 0.3 week training camp (Flagstaff, AZ; 2106 m). A two-group design, randomized and stratified...
Article
Full-text available
Middle-distance runners utilize the full continuum of energy systems throughout training, and given the infinite competition tactical scenarios, this event group is highly complex from a performance intervention point of view. However, this complexity results in numerous potential periodized nutrition interventions to optimize middle-distance train...
Article
From the breakthrough studies of dietary carbohydrate and exercise capacity in the 1960s through to the more recent studies of cellular signaling and the adaptive response to exercise in muscle, it has become apparent that manipulations of dietary fat and carbohydrate within training phases, or in the immediate preparation for competition, can prof...
Article
Full-text available
It is not unusual for those participating in ultra-endurance (> 4 hr) events to develop varying degrees of either hypohydration or hyperhydration. Yet, it is important for ultra-endurance athletes to avoid the performance limiting and potentially fatal consequences of these conditions. During short periods of exercise (< 1 hr), trivial effects on t...
Article
Full-text available
Ultra-endurance activities (≥ 4h) present unique challenges that, beyond fatigue, may be exacerbated by sub-optimal nutrition during periods of increased requirements and compromised gastrointestinal function. The causes of fatigue during ultra-endurance exercise are multi-factorial. However, mechanisms can potentially include central or peripheral...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). Methods: Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-b...
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to (1) report energy availability (EA), metabolic/reproductive function, bone mineral density (BMD) and injury/illness rates in national/world-class female and male distance-athletes; and (2) investigate the robustness of various diagnostic criteria from the Female Athlete Triad (Triad), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LE...
Article
Purpose: to determine the effect of WASH on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and muscle activity (EMG) after 2 h of sub-maximal cycling while receiving CHO. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 10 well-trained males cyclists (VO2max: 65 mL·kg·min) completed two experimental trials. Each trial consisted of a standar...
Article
This case-study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data is emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anth...
Article
Objectives: To determine, in conjunction with a wider investigation, whether 11 genetic variants in the vicinity of vitamin D, collagen and Wnt signalling pathways were associated with stress fracture injury in the Stress Fracture Elite Athlete (SFEA) cohort. Design: Genotype-phenotype association study. Methods: Self-reported stress fracture...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a short-term, soccer-specific, isothermic heat acclimation (HA) protocol on plasma volume (PV) expansion in international female soccer players. Subjects: Eighteen non-HA players trained for 5 days in the heat (34.8 ± 0.2°C; 36.6%rh). Methods: Heart rate (HR), core temperature...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) distress in endurance athletes is prevalent and detrimental to performance. Adverse GI symptomatology can be analogous with irritable bowel syndrome, where fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyols (FODMAP) reduction has demonstrated efficacy. This study investigated the effects of lo...
Article
Full-text available
Iron deficiency (ID) has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by up-regulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micro- nutrients on blunting exercise induced hepcidin. Therefore,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To examine the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine in elite male volleyball players on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, as well as temporal concentric and eccentric phase effects. Methods: Ten elite male volleyball players took part in two experimental days via a randomized cross-over trial 1 week apart in which they ingested...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated one week of dietary micro-periodization in elite female (n=23) and male (n=15) runners and race-walkers by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods conducted with recommended carbohydrate (CHO) and protein availability. Food and training diaries were recorded in relation to HARD (intense or >90min sessions;...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in nation...
Article
Full-text available
To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion is commonplace. The individualised dose-response relationship between NaHCO3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO3 ingestion. S...
Article
Recent explosion in the prevalence of gluten-free athletes, exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims, has led to some professional athletes touting gluten-free diet as the secret to their success. Forty-one percent of athletes report adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is four-fold higher than the population-based clinical re...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contextual game factors on activity and physiological profiles of International-level women's Rugby Sevens players. Methods: Twenty international-level female Rugby Sevens players from the same national team participated in this study. Global positioning system and heart rate data were collected at five World...
Article
We surveyed 910 athletes to assess behaviours towards self-selected food/ingredient avoidance to minimize gastrointestinal distress. Fifty-five percent eliminated at least 1 high fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) food/category, with up to 82.6% reporting symptom improvement. In athletes indicating th...
Article
Full-text available
Athletes employ various dietary strategies in attempts to attenuate exercise-induced gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms to ensure optimal performance. This case-study outlines one of these GI-targeted approaches via the implementation of a short-term low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols) diet, with the ai...
Article
Full-text available
Military recruits and elite athletes are susceptible to stress fracture injuries. Genetic predisposition has been postulated to have a role in their development. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) gene, a key regulator of bone remodelling, is a genetic candidate that may contribute to stress fracture predisposition. The aim of this study is to evaluate the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We investigated nutrient timing in elite Finnish female (n = 11) and male (n = 7) distance runners by examining the frequency of training sessions and recovery periods done with optimal carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) availability. Seven-day food and training diaries were recorded during a pre-competition phase examining nutrient timing in rel...
Article
Full-text available
Recent explosion in the prevalence of gluten-free athletes, exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims, has led to some professional athletes touting gluten-free diet as the secret to their success. Forty-one percent of athletes report adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is four-fold higher than the population-based clinical re...
Poster
Full-text available
High-intensity exercise results in increased hydrogen cation (H+) production in the working muscle, reducing intracellular pH and potentially resulting in muscular fatigue. To reduce H+ accumulation and thus muscular fatigue, alkalinising agents such as sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) are ingested to defend against these local changes. Athletes are wid...