Treena Orchard

Treena Orchard
The University of Western Ontario | UWO · School of Health Studies

Ph.D. Anthropology

About

106
Publications
63,535
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
I am a medical anthropologist with expertise in sexuality, gender, the body, and critical health studies. I conduct collaborative ethnographic research with women, men, youth, and gender variant groups on a range of issues. I also engage in creative writing and am completing my riveting, humorous memoir about using dating apps. Check out my website for more: https://treenaorchard.com/
Additional affiliations
July 2014 - present
The University of Western Ontario
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2008 - July 2014
Western University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2006 - August 2008
St. Paul's Hospital
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 1999 - June 2004
University of Manitoba
Field of study
  • Anthropology
September 1996 - April 1998
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Field of study
  • Anthropology
May 1994 - April 1995
University of Saskatchewan
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (106)
Article
Full-text available
Social science research on the relationship between space and sex work, specifically among women in street-based settings, demonstrates the spatialized nature of risk and how different forms of civic and legal governance contribute to their socio-economic marginalization. However, these studies rarely consider the women’s spatial practices and gend...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropological analyses of blurred researcher-participant relationships and fieldwork boundaries in settings that double as the field and the researcher’s home typically focus on the anthropologist’s experiences, to the exclusion how participants construct their own subjectivities in these fluid fieldsites. Using ethnographic vignettes from our re...
Book
Full-text available
This book explores body mapping, an arts-based methodology that originated in the global South as a means of community mobilization and advocacy regarding women’s reproductive health and HIV-related care needs. Increasingly popular with qualitative researchers, health practitioners, and community agencies, the unique challenges and benefits of empl...
Book
Full-text available
Sex work continues to provoke controversial legal and public policy debates worldwide that raise fundamental questions about the state’s role in protecting individual rights, status quo social relations, and public health. This book unites ethnographic research from China, Canada, and the United States to argue that criminalization results in a tot...
Article
Full-text available
People with drug addictions have among the lowest rates of adherence to HIV medications (i.e. HAART) of any infected population, which is often explained through reference to the instability associated with problematic drug use and the ‘chaos’ that is assumed to characterize the lives of people with addictions. Many studies examine the links betwee...
Article
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Despite decades of research and education, sexual and gender-based violence remain distressingly prevalent on university and college campuses globally. The taboos associated with sex, gender inequity, and living in a patriarchal world where misogyny is glorified and criminalised are key socio-cultural determinants driving these forms of violence. L...
Chapter
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This autoethnographic chapter illuminates the challenges of using dating apps like Bumble, the empowering opportunities they can offer older women, and the ways young men are struggling to consolidate their sexual desires and selfhood in relation to the increasingly powerful status of women.
Article
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Using qualitative data from an interdisciplinary research project about mental health and community engagement with Indigenous youth in Kasabonika Lake First Nation (Ontario, Canada), this paper explores the factors that constrain and facilitate their ability to contribute to the well-being of their community. Case studies are employed to demonstra...
Article
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I started watching Sex and the City after the HBO series wrapped in 2004. The show's zeitgeist rippled through conversations about sex, fashion and relationships, but I didn't know what the buzz was all about. As a PhD student in the mid 2000s with no cable subscription, my visual entertainment consisted of renting VHS tapes and snuggling my cats o...
Article
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Recent assaults on university campuses signal call to action to change toxic institutional cultures.
Article
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Language is key to culture and this holds true for sexual slang on university and college campuses. What sexual terms are our students using and what do they reveal about sexuality, gender, and cultural appropriation? Find out in this 'on topic' article!
Article
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The hot girl summer was ours, so the saucy "vaxxed and waxxed" memes said. Instead of the jubilant in-person pleasure I was hoping for, it's been a WTF-the-world-is-on-fire kinda season. Hot vax summer, where'd you go? To answer this questions, let's explore the top dating takeaways from summer 2021.
Article
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Five Tips To Manage the Emotional Uncertainties of Pandemic Relationships
Article
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Many qualitative studies about the exchange of sex for money, drugs, and less tangible outcomes (i.e., social status) contend that this activity contributes to high levels of internalized stigma among people in sex work. The cis (n = 33) and trans people (n = 5) who participated in our project about health, violence, and social services acknowledge...
Article
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How does gender impact how we Zoom, specifically in relation of using custom backgrounds, and what does this reveal about our pandemic selves?
Article
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My skills as an anthropologist trained to observe people and insights as a woman struggling to make sense of pandemic life combine in this narrative about vulnerability and human connection. There is no mention of epidemiology or wet markets, topics that flooded the first pandemic stories when people were frantic to place blame and socially situate...
Article
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An article about this popular streaming series and the roots of my obsession.
Article
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Exploring age-hypogamous relationships with flair and fun!
Article
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A fun, introspective piece about coping during Covid-19
Article
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A date gone wrong and a woman's reflexive musings on sexuality, gender, dating, and how to communicate in our digital age.
Article
This article explores body mapping, a participant-driven approach wherein people create richly illustrated life-size maps that articulate their embodied experiences relative to various issues. First developed in the global South as a means of community mobilization and advocacy regarding women’s health and HIV-related care needs, body mapping is no...
Article
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An overview of sex work and prostitution: history, research, trends.
Article
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Sexting as a dominant socio-sexual practice.
Article
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Definition Dating apps are software applications designed to generate connections between people who are interested in romance, casual sex, or friendship. Downloaded onto mobile phones, they feature algorithms based on factors like age, gender of user and desired partner, and the distance users will travel to meet one another. Many apps also access...
Article
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Computerized dating systems have existed since the earliest days of computer technology in the 1960s and 1970s, primarily in the United States and parts of northern Europe. During the 1980s compatibility algorithms and matching software became increasingly sophisticated, and with the introduction of the Internet in 1991 online dating systems began...
Article
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Synonyms Computer sex; Cybersex; Cybersexuality; Inter-net sex; Online sex; Virtual sex Definition The use of computer technology and online websites to generate sexual arousal, performance, exchange, and/or connection.
Chapter
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Adults with mild intellectual disability (MID) often rely on professionals and family for support, giving caregivers the power to control many aspects of their daily lives This extends to research, where investigators wanting to include adults with MID must seek the cooperation of caregivers. This chapter features data from a qualitative study cond...
Article
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An overview of my five months using the so-called 'feminist' dating app called Bumble.
Article
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There is an abundance of health research with women in street-based sex work, but few studies examine what health means and how it is practiced by participants. We embrace these tasks by exploring how a convenience sample of sex workers (n = 33) think about and enact health in their lives. Findings reveal pluralistic notions of health that include...
Article
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Most research on child sexual abuse has been on survivors to the exclusion of service providers. This paper focuses on one group of findings from a larger qualitative study. The aim of the paper is to identify existing services and highlight the gaps in the current programs available for male CSA survivors from the perspective of service providers....
Article
Full-text available
Most spatially-oriented studies about health, safety and service provision among women in street sex work have taken place in large urban cities and document how the socio-legal and moral surveillance of geographical spaces constrain their daily movements and compromise their ability to care for themselves. Designed to contribute new knowledge abou...
Chapter
Full-text available
Motherhood among Street-Involved Women in North America
Article
Research regarding child sexual abuse (CSA) indicates significant gender differences in disclosure rates, with males less likely to disclose their abuse compared to females. CSA can have lasting impact on a children's emotional, physical, and psychological wellbeing. While service providers play an instrumental role in providing care and support fo...
Conference Paper
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At the heart of this paper is a story about my transformation into a writer and into a different woman through the adoption of my 'writerly self.' The central backdrop against which this discussion takes place is my sobriety journey, which has shaped and been shaped by creative writing in revolutionary ways. While the example of artists finding the...
Article
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The value of Arts-based methods in HIV research and it discusses my novel body mapping work in this regard.
Chapter
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In most body mapping research, the findings selected for analysis elucidate the most dominant and commonly identified issues relative to the study objectives, and they are presented thematically. I sought to develop a systematic analytical approach that would enable me to more fully account for the depth and breadth of data featured on the women an...
Chapter
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Although cultural appropriation is often discussed in terms of the theft of Indigenous material culture and knowledge during colonial times, these practices continue today and have been reconfigured within the global economy; i.e. racially offensive sport team names or mascots, the use of ceremonial objects in fashion shows. This includes body mapp...
Chapter
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The body mapping literature is replete with moving, powerful data, however, less attention has been paid to how the research experience itself can produce meaningful outcomes for those involved. This chapter explores these issues, which are of ethical importance because they highlight the multiple ways in which this research experiences has impacte...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of the project upon which this book is based, which was designed to examine how gender and the body structure medication practices among HIV-positive men and women who struggle with drug addictions and multiple forms of socio-economic, cultural, and sexual marginalization. Following a discussion of the relevant lit...
Article
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Since its inception in the Caribbean and Southern Africa in the late 1990s–early 2000s as a research tool and vehicle for community mobilization regarding women’s health and HIV/AIDS, body mapping has become popular among researchers and community agencies from around the world who are interested in exploring issues related to body and the social d...
Research
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From the Cerulean Sea (National Library of Canada, Ottawa ISBN 978-1-926774-31-2), pg. 167 (2014).
Article
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Book
Full-text available
This volume explores the arts-based methodology of body mapping, a participant-driven approach wherein people create richly illustrated life-size maps that articulate their embodied experiences with various health issues. First developed in the global South as a means of community mobilization and advocacy regarding women’s health and HIV-related c...
Chapter
Full-text available
Globally, sex work remains a controversial legal and public policy issue because its regulation raises questions about the state’s role in protecting individual rights, status quo social relations, and public health. National, state or provincial, and municipal forces govern the regulation of sex industry sectors worldwide by choosing one of three...
Chapter
Full-text available
A substantial body of academic literature demonstrates how legal and regulatory frameworks impact sex workers’ healthcare access, relations with the criminal justice system, and interactions with clients. Worldwide, sex workers in criminalized contexts report police harassment, seizure of condoms as evidence of the intent to engage in prostitution,...
Chapter
Researchers working in countries or locales that criminalize prostitution face numerous ethical concerns as well as barriers at the practical, institutional, and political levels in conducting their work with women in the sex trade. Developing relationships with partners or gatekeepers in order to conduct the work while ensuring confidentiality and...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropological analyses of blurred researcher-participant relationships and fieldwork boundaries in settings that double as the field and the researcher's home typically focus on the anthropologist's experiences, to the exclusion of how participants construct their own subjectivities in these fluid field sites. Using ethnographic vignettes from ou...
Article
Full-text available
New permanent residents to Ontario can experience difficulties accessing health services due to the 3-month residency requirement for provincial healthcare coverage. This scoping literature review, which included peer-reviewed articles and gray literature from 1993–2013, examined the effects of the 3-month waiting period on the health of new perman...
Presentation
Full-text available
In-service presentation on our on-going sex work research in London, Ontario
Research
Full-text available
Treena Orchard The Dancing Girls of Lahore by Louise Brown provides a richly detailed and insightful account of the lives of several Pakistani kanjar (traditional caste of entertainers, including prostitutes) women as they shift under the weight of new socioeconomic and political conditions that are restructuring the traditional system of prostitut...
Chapter
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Women who sell or trade sex in criminalized contexts throughout the world actively negotiate and resist the restrictions placed on their rights and personal autonomy via arrest avoidance and client management strategies, self-treatment of health issues, selective mutual aid, rights-based organizing, and further entrenchment in the sex trade or othe...
Book
Sex work continues to provoke controversial legal and public policy debates world-wide that raise fundamental questions about the state’s role in protecting individual rights, status quo social relations, and public health. This book unites ethnographic research from China, Canada, and the United States to argue that criminalization results in a to...
Article
Full-text available
For many people living with HIV/AIDS taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is difficult due to various individual and social factors, including the side effects of these medications, HIV/AIDS stigma and poor patient-provider relationships. Most studies that examine barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HAART have been conducted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Art has long been a powerful vehicle for political mobilization and social change, perhaps most notably during the early era of HIV/AIDS when it was a vital tool in the expression of identity politics, recognition of sexual and human rights, and the fight for equitable access to HIV medications. Despite the critical role played by art and arts-base...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ethnographic research requires strong bonds of rapport with research participants, which have traditionally been understood as unfolding more or less symbiotically over the course of a project and within relatively well-defined parameters of ‘the field’. Conducting research in settings that do not resemble the socio-spatial or temporal conditions a...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents findings from a qualitative research project that sought to explore the organization of sex work and women’s experiences in the trade in a medium-size Canadian city. Drawing upon 14 semistructured life-history interviews with women between 24 and 60 years of age who have taken part in sex work, primarily street-based, this dis...
Book
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from a qualitative research project that sought to explore the organization of sex work and women’s experiences in the trade in a medium-size Canadian city. Drawing upon fourteen semi-structured life-history interviews with women between 24-60 years of age who have taken part in sex work, primarily street-based, this di...
Article
Full-text available
This case study aimed to understand safety culture in a high-risk secured unit for cognitively impaired residents in a long-term care (LTC) facility. Specific objectives included the following: diagnosing the present level of safety culture maturity using the Patient Safety Culture Improvement Tool (PSCIT), examining the barriers to a positive safe...
Article
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Sexuality, self-image and identity formation are significant topics for all adolescents, including those with physical disabilities. However, for youth living with physical limitations, these issues are often ignored or overshadowed by more immediate health concerns due to discomfort, anxiety, or a lack of information that parents and care provider...
Data
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Sexuality is an aspect of health and development that is often overlooked among people with physical disabilities, particularly adolescents. Studies have demon-strated that youth with physical disabilities show considerably lower levels of sexual knowledge and receive inadequate sex education compared to their peers without such disabilities. The d...
Article
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Sex work, and ideas about women in the trade, have long been represented as tragic and/or threatening. However, such portrayals tell us very little about how women think about themselves and the kinds of work they do. The data for this paper come from an ethnographic, community-based study in London, Ontario, that involves women in street-based, in...
Data
Full-text available
This paper presents findings from an ethnographic, community-based research project with women in the sex trade in London, Ontario, the first of its kind in this Canadian city. Drawing upon 19 semi-structured life-history interviews with women between 24 and 60 years of age who have taken part in various aspects of the sex trade (i.e. street-based,...
Article
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Abstract This study identifies factors associated with self-perceived HIV-related stigma (stigma) among a cohort of individuals accessing antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia, Canada. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services study, which collects social, clinical, and quality of life (...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to share the details, outcomes and deliverables from an international workshop on work transitions in London, Ontario, Canada. Researchers, graduate students, and community group members met to identity ways to advance the knowledge base of strategies to enhance work participation for those in the most disadvantaged g...
Article
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This article argues that visual research methodologies have potential to contribute to the study of occupation. The use of visual research methodologies is quickly growing in a number of disciplines and can help researchers to access information and reasoning not accessible through interview, log or survey. The reflexive, reflective, engaged proces...
Article
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Douching is a common practice among certain groups of women and MSM, and it is conducted for the purpose of cleanliness as part of bodily hygiene maintenance. Although there has been considerable research about female vaginal douching, understandings of rectal douching (RD) for MSM are limited. In the epidemiological and medical literature, RD is p...
Article
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The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with HIV testing among Aboriginal peoples in Canada who live off-reserve. Data were drawn for individuals aged 15-44 from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001), which represents a weighed sample of 520,493 Aboriginal men and women living off-reserve. Bivariable analysis and logistic regre...
Article
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This paper examines cultural and social meanings associated with semen, along with related issues of unprotected receptive anal intercourse, HIV seroconversion, treatment optimism and viraemia. The findings are derived from qualitative interviews conducted with 12 HIV-positive young gay men and 12 HIV-negative counterparts who participated in a pro...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines cultural and social meanings associated with semen, along with related issues of unprotected receptive anal intercourse, HIV seroconversion, treatment optimism and viraemia. The findings are derived from qualitative interviews conducted with 12 HIV-positive young gay men and 12 HIV-negative counterparts who participated in a pro...
Article
Full-text available
In the popular imagination and certain academic fields, sex workers’ experiences of sexuality and intimate relationships are often “naturalized,” to the point where they are assumed to be deviant or completely different than those of women in mainstream society. Researchers and sex worker organizations are challenging these reified constructions by...
Article
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The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through t...
Article
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The practice of integrating western and traditional indigenous medicine is fast becoming an accepted and more widely used approach in health care systems throughout the world. However, debates about intercultural health approaches have raised significant concerns. This paper reports findings of five case studies on intercultural health in Chile, Co...
Chapter
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This ethnographic story comes from teenage mothers’ participation in a high school physical education program designed specifically for adolescent mothers and incorporating the principals of culturally relevant education (Ladson-Billings, 1994) as a means to engage young women in meaningful and relevant physical activities. An articulation of cultu...