Travis R WhitneyTX A&M AgriLife Research · San Angelo
Research Items (94)
- Sep 2018
Nutritional characteristics of Juniperus species are now well known and suitability as an abundant, low-cost feedstuff for ruminant animal production is a possibility. Juniperus species produce plant secondary metabolites including condensed tannins (CT) and volatile oils. Maturity of Juniperus species has been shown to affect the concentration of plant secondary metabolites produced. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Juniperus species (Juniperus ashei, J. monosperma, J. pinchotii and J. virginiana) and maturity on protein precipitating polyphenolic (PPP) compounds, their biological activity and relatedness of these effects to rumen digestibility characteristics. We found a species by maturity interaction for PPP (P < 0.001) and for the amount of protein bound (PB; P < 0.001) by PPP. Protein precipitable phenolic concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) for all species in the immature stage as compared to the mature stage except for J. virginiana, for which PPP were unaffected by maturity. The PB by J. pinchotii and J. monosperma was greater (P < 0.001) in the immature stage as compared to the mature stage whereas that of J. ashei and J. virginiana remained unchanged by stage of maturity. Linear regression within species and maturity of 48-h IVTDMD and total gas production on PPP suggested a positive correlation exists for immature J. virginiana (R2 = 0.71) and mature J. pinchotii (R2 = 0.68) for IVTDMD, and J. virginiana (R2 = 0.81) for total gas production. There was no relationship for PB within species and maturity of juniper and 48-h IVTDMD or total gas production, suggesting that biological activity of protein binding by PPP is unrelated to overall in vitro digestion of Juniperus species. The effect of maturity on concentration and biological activity of PPP in juniper is dependent upon species.
- Apr 2018
Boer × Spanish kid goats (n = 48) were used to evaluate effects of using ground woody products in feedlot diets on growth performance and blood serum chemistry. A completely randomized study design was used with two feeding periods (Period 1 = 70% concentrate, d 0 to 26; Period 2 = 86% concentrate, d 27 to 64). Goats were individually fed 1 of 6 diets that differed only by roughage source (n = 4 wether males and 4 females/treatment; initial BW = 22 ± 2 kg): cottonseed hulls (CSH; control) or ground wood consisting of redberry (RED), blueberry (BLUE), one-seed (ONE), or eastern red cedar (ERC) Juniperus spp., or Prosopis glandulosa (MESQ). Ground woody diets were individually compared to CSH. During Period 1, goats fed CSH had greater (P < 0.05) average daily DMI (DMI), ADG, and G:F than goats fed MESQ and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) ADG and G:F than goats fed BLUE. A Treatment × d interaction (P = 0.008) was observed for goat BW during Period 1 and goats fed CSH tended (P < 0.09) to have greater BW on d 27 than goats fed BLUE or MESQ. During Period 2, Treatment × d interactions were not observed (P > 0.29) for DMI, ADG, G:F, or BW and no differences were observed between goats fed CSH and goats fed any of the treatment diets. Various blood serum variables were different between CSH and goats fed diets containing woody plants (mainly during Period 1); however, blood serum profiles did not indicate hepatotoxicity or any other health issue. Collectively, results suggested that ground Juniperus pinchotii, J. ashei, or J. monosperma can completely replace cottonseed hulls in goat feedlot diets without negatively affecting growth performance or animal health. During Period 1, feeding diets to goats that contain 30% J. virginiana (ERC) or Prosopis glandulosa (MESQ) may not be economically justifiable in most scenarios, even though goat health, assessed by blood serum profiles, was not negatively impacted. However, using 14% J. virginiana (ERC) or Prosopis glandulosa (MESQ) in finishing diets is warranted.
- Jan 2018
Effects of using ground woody plants in Rambouillet wether lamb (n = 48) feedlot diets on carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and sensory panel traits were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = fed a 70% concentrate diet from d 0 to 27 d; Period 2 = fed an 86% concentrate diet from d 28 to 57), lambs were individually fed 6 diets that differed only by roughage source (n = 8 animals/treatment; initial BW = 32.9 ± 3.2 kg): cottonseed hulls (CSH; control) or ground wood consisting of either redberry (RED), blueberry (BLUE), one-seed (ONE), or eastern red cedar (ERC) Juniperus spp., or Prosopis glandulosa (MESQ). After 57 d, the lambs were humanely harvested and after chilling (2 ± 1 oC) 24 h, carcasses were evaluated for carcass traits. At 48 h postmortem, the longissimus thoracis (LT) was removed from the left side of the carcass, and after freezing for no more than 3 mo, were thawed for 24 h, cooked, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Additionally, volatile aroma chemicals on the LT were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer/olfactory (GC/MS/OF, respectively) analyses. Lamb HCW was greater (P = 0.01) for lambs fed CSH compared to all other diets, but lambs had similar (P > 0.08) LM area, back fat thickness, leg circumference, and body wall. Neither adipose tissue fatty acid composition (P > 0.08) nor trained sensory panel evaluation (P > 0.18) were affected by finishing diet roughage source. Of the 81 volatile aroma compounds found in the grilled lamb chops, only seven were affected (P < 0.05) by dietary roughage source and included 1-pentanol (a sweet, pleasant aroma), heptenal (a fishy aroma), pentanal (fermented, bready aroma description), 1-(1H-pyrol-2yl)-ethanone (caramel-like), 2-heptanone (cheesy, banana, fruity aromatic), 6,7-dodecanedione (unknown aroma), and butanoic acid (a sweaty, rancid aroma). The addition of any of four species of juniper or mesquite may be substituted for cottonseed hulls without negatively impacting carcass fat and muscling, fatty acid, or sensory traits.
This study evaluated effects of ground redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) and urea in dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplements fed to Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 48) on rumen physiological parameters and bacterial diversity. In a randomized study (40 d), individually-penned lambs were fed ad libitum ground sorghum-sudangrass hay and of 1 of 8 supplements (6 lambs/treatment; 533 g/d; as-fed basis) in a 4 × 2 factorial design with 4 concentrations of ground juniper (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 levels of urea (1% or 3% of DM). Increasing juniper resulted in minor changes in microbial β-diversity (PERMANOVA, pseudo F = 1.33, P = 0.04); however, concentrations of urea did not show detectable broad-scale differences at phylum, family, or genus levels according to ANOSIM (P > 0.05), AMOVA (P > 0.10), and PERMANOVA (P > 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis indicated some genera were specific to certain dietary treatments (P < 0.05), though none of these genera were present in high abundance; high concentrations of juniper were associated with Moraxella and Streptococcus, low concentrations of urea were associated with Fretibacterium, and high concentrations of urea were associated with Oribacterium and Pyramidobacter. Prevotella were decreased by juniper and urea. Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, and Succiniclasticum increased with juniper and were positively correlated (Spearman’s, P < 0.05) with each other but not to rumen factors, suggesting a symbiotic interaction. Overall, there was not a juniper × urea interaction for total VFA, VFA by concentration or percent total, pH, or ammonia (P > 0.29). When considering only percent inclusion of juniper, ruminal pH and proportion of acetic acid linearly increased (P < 0.001) and percentage of butyric acid linearly decreased (P = 0.009). Lamb ADG and G:F were positively correlated with Prevotella (Spearman’s, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with Synergistaceae, the BS5 group, and Lentisphaerae. Firmicutes were negatively correlated with serum urea nitrogen, ammonia, total VFA, total acetate, and total propionate. Overall, modest differences in bacterial diversity among treatments occurred in the abundance or evenness of several OTUs, but there was not a significant difference in OTU richness. As diversity was largely unchanged, the reduction in ADG and lower-end BW was likely due to reduced DMI rather than a reduction in microbial fermentative ability. © 2017 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Effects of using ground woody plants in Rambouillet wether lamb feedlot diets on growth performance, blood serum, and rumen parameters were evaluated. A randomized design study was used with 2 feeding periods (70% concentrate diet from d 0 to 27 [Period 1] and 86% concentrate diet from d 28 to 57 [Period 2]); the concentrate portion of the diets mainly consisted of dried distiller’s grains with solubles and sorghum grain. Lambs were individually fed 6 diets that differed only by roughage source (n = 8 animals/ treatment; 32.9 ± 3.2 kg initial BW): either cottonseed hulls (CSH; control) or ground wood consisting of redberry juniper (RED), blueberry juniper (BLUE), one-seeded juniper (ONE), or eastern red cedar (ERC) Juniperus spp. or honey mesquite (MESQ; Prosopis glandulosa). Using ground wood vs. CSH as the roughage source did not affect (P > 0.12) BW. There tended to be a treatment × day interaction (P = 0.07) for lamb DMI, attributed to Period 1 when DMI was greater (P < 0.05) for lambs fed CSH vs. RED, ONE, ERC, or MESQ during the first 14 d and greater (P < 0.05) during d 14 to 28 vs. lambs fed ERC. Overall, ADG was less for lambs fed ERC (P < 0.10) or MESQ (P < 0.05) vs. lambs fed CSH, but G:F was similar (P > 0.10) among all lambs. Dietary treatments did not affect (P > 0.15) ruminal pH, but treatment × day interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for rumen fluid ammonia N or molar proportions of propionate and butyrate; few differences were observed within day. However, overall, lambs fed RED or MESQ had greater (P < 0.05) total rumen VFA than lambs fed CSH. A treatment × day interaction (P = 0.04) was observed for the acetate:propionate ratio, but no differences (P > 0.10) were observed within day. Treatment × day interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for blood serum glucose, γ-glutamyl transferase, the albumin:globulin ratio, total bilirubin, β-hydroxybutyrate, P, Cl, and Mg, with most results being less for lambs fed the wood-based diets than for lambs fed the CSH diets. Results suggested that even though lamb DMI was reduced during the growing period when diets contained 30% ground woody products (RED, ONE, ERC, and MESQ), animal health and rumen fluid parameters were not negatively affected by ground woody plants. © 2017 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum. Treatment DM diet intake overall (g/kg BW) in ewes receiving no juniper was similar (P ≥ 0.38) to that of those receiving increasing concentrations of juniper. Changes in ewe BW and BCS were similar (P ≥ 0.24) in ewes throughout gestation. All serum metabolites and hormones were within normal clinical ranges; however, serum IGF-1 decreased linearly (P = 0.003), alanine increased (linear; P = 0.003), and serum Na decreased (linear; P = 0.049) as the percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Ewe milk fatty acid composition was similar (P > 0.05) for the majority of fatty acids across treatment groups, with the exception of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) being greater (P < 0.02) in 54JUN vs. CNTL ewe milk. Lamb birth weights were similar (P = 0.13), whereas lamb ADG tended to differ (quadratic; P = 0.06) from d 0 to 14, with 18JUN being the least. At weaning, BW tended (P = 0.09) to linearly decrease in lambs born to ewes consuming greater concentrations of juniper but were not different (P = 0.26) between CNTL and 18JUN, 36JUN, and 54JUN. Results indicated that feeding increasing levels of ground juniper in supplements did not negatively alter ewe performance or serum metabolites and hormones measured pre- and postpartum. Lamb birth weight and preweaning performance appeared unaffected by maternal consumption of ground juniper containing supplements. Results also provide novel information regarding the effects of plant secondary compound consumption throughout pregnancy on ewe and progeny performance and health. © 2017 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Effects of using ground woody plants in Rambouillet wether lamb feedlot diets on growth performance, blood serum, and rumen parameters were evaluated. A randomized design study was used with 2 feeding periods (70% concentrate diet from d 0 to 27 [Period 1] and 86% concentrate diet from d 28 to 57 [Period 2]); the concentrate portion of the diets mainly consisted of dried distiller's grains with solubles and sorghum grain. Lambs were individually fed 6 diets that differed only by roughage source ( = 8 animals/treatment; 32.9 ± 3.2 kg initial BW): either cottonseed hulls (CSH; control) or ground wood consisting of redberry juniper (RED), blueberry juniper (BLUE), one-seeded juniper (ONE), or eastern red cedar (ERC) spp. or honey mesquite (MESQ; ). Using ground wood vs. CSH as the roughage source did not affect ( > 0.12) BW. There tended to be a treatment × day interaction ( = 0.07) for lamb DMI, attributed to Period 1 when DMI was greater ( < 0.05) for lambs fed CSH vs. RED, ONE, ERC, or MESQ during the first 14 d and greater ( < 0.05) during d 14 to 28 vs. lambs fed ERC. Overall, ADG was less for lambs fed ERC ( < 0.10) or MESQ ( < 0.05) vs. lambs fed CSH, but G:F was similar ( > 0.10) among all lambs. Dietary treatments did not affect ( > 0.15) ruminal pH, but treatment × day interactions ( < 0.05) were observed for rumen fluid ammonia N or molar proportions of propionate and butyrate; few differences were observed within day. However, overall, lambs fed RED or MESQ had greater ( < 0.05) total rumen VFA than lambs fed CSH. A treatment × day interaction ( = 0.04) was observed for the acetate:propionate ratio, but no differences ( > 0.10) were observed within day. Treatment × day interactions ( < 0.05) were observed for blood serum glucose, γ-glutamyl transferase, the albumin:globulin ratio, total bilirubin, β-hydroxybutyrate, P, Cl, and Mg, with most results being less for lambs fed the wood-based diets than for lambs fed the CSH diets. Results suggested that even though lamb DMI was reduced during the growing period when diets contained 30% ground woody products (RED, ONE, ERC, and MESQ), animal health and rumen fluid parameters were not negatively affected by ground woody plants.
- Aug 2017
Ground woody products and urea are low-cost roughage and N sources. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 48, 6 lambs/treatment; initial BW = 42 kg ± 3.8) were used to evaluate effects of using ground Juniperus pinchotii (juniper) and urea in supplements on feedlot lamb growth traits, blood serum parameters, and fecal characteristics. In a randomized complete block design (40 d), lambs were individually fed an ad libitum basal sorghum-Sudangrass hay diet, which was fed separate from 1 of 8 supplemental diets (6 lambs/diet; 533 g of supplement/d, as-fed basis). Treatment structure was a 4 × 2 factorial: 4 concentrations of ground juniper (JN: 15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of DM) and 2 concentrations of urea (UR: 1 or 3% of DM). Lamb growth traits were evaluated on d 0, 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, and 40; blood serum was evaluated on d 6 to 8, 20 to 22, and 34 (at h 3 and 6), and feces was evaluated on d 35. Compared to lambs fed all of the other treatments, lambs fed JN60UR1 or JN60UR3 had reduced supplement DMI (negative quadratic, P = 0.007). Hay and total DMI were variable across day (JN × UR × day, P < 0.04), but no linear or quadratic trends were detected (P > 0.10). A JN × day interaction was detected (P < 0.001) for lamb BW and the JN × day negative quadratic trend (P = 0.02) for BW was influenced by reduced ADG (linear decrease, P < 0.001) of lambs fed JN60. Lambs supplemented with UR3 vs. UR1 tended (P = 0.06) to have reduced BW but had similar (P > 0.17) ADG and G:F. Lamb G:F fluctuated across day (JN × day, P = 0.007), but the JN × day quadratic trend (P < 0.001) was mainly due to reduced G:F in lambs fed JN45 or JN60 diets. As the percentage of JN increased in the supplement, serum IGF-1 linearly decreased (P = 0.04), and serum urea N quadratically increased (P < 0.001). The UR × hour interaction (P < 0.001) for serum urea N resulted from a greater decline from 3 to 6 h after feeding in lambs supplemented with UR1 vs. UR3. Increasing JN concentration tended to quadratically increase (P = 0.09) fecal DM and linearly decrease (P = 0.002) fecal N, but an effect due to dietary UR was not detected (P > 0.34). Results indicated that daily supplement DMI was restricted only by using JN60. However, a 60% JN-based supplement will not make an effective rangeland supplement for growing ewe lambs, and using 3% UR should not be considered, especially since daily UR intake was not restricted enough to be considered safe. © 2017 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
- Jul 2017
The objective of this research was to evaluate effects of replacing sorghum × Sudangrass hay with ground juniper in gestating ewe supplements on pre- and postpartum growth performance, serum metabolites and hormonal concentrations, milk fatty acid composition, and progeny preweaning performance. In a completely randomized design, commercial Rambouillet ewes (age = 3 to 5 yr; initial BW = 65.2 ± 1.6 kg) on a base diet of long-stem sorghum × Sudangrass hay were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary supplements in which ground juniper replaced 0% (CNTL), 33% (18JUN), 66% (36JUN), or 100% (54JUN) of the ground sorghum × Sudangrass hay in a pelleted supplement with ground juniper from d 38 ± 4 of gestation to 2 d postpartum. Treatment DM diet intake overall (g/kg BW) in ewes receiving no juniper was similar ( ≥ 0.38) to that of those receiving increasing concentrations of juniper. Changes in ewe BW and BCS were similar ( ≥ 0.24) in ewes throughout gestation. All serum metabolites and hormones were within normal clinical ranges; however, serum IGF-1 decreased linearly ( = 0.003), alanine increased (linear; = 0.003), and serum Na decreased (linear; = 0.049) as the percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Ewe milk fatty acid composition was similar ( > 0.05) for the majority of fatty acids across treatment groups, with the exception of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) being greater ( < 0.02) in 54JUN vs. CNTL ewe milk. Lamb birth weights were similar ( = 0.13), whereas lamb ADG tended to differ (quadratic; = 0.06) from d 0 to 14, with 18JUN being the least. At weaning, BW tended ( = 0.09) to linearly decrease in lambs born to ewes consuming greater concentrations of juniper but were not different ( = 0.26) between CNTL and 18JUN, 36JUN, and 54JUN. Results indicated that feeding increasing levels of ground juniper in supplements did not negatively alter ewe performance or serum metabolites and hormones measured pre- and postpartum. Lamb birth weight and preweaning performance appeared unaffected by maternal consumption of ground juniper containing supplements. Results also provide novel information regarding the effects of plant secondary compound consumption throughout pregnancy on ewe and progeny performance and health.
- Jun 2017
- West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci.
Determine what percentage of ground juniper that can economically be used in steer feedlot diets
- Jun 2017
- West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. Fargo, ND.
- May 2017
- TX A&M AgriLife Research and US Forest Service Conference: Strategic Supplementation Strategies to Enhance Texas Rangelands and Reduce Livestock Production Costs.
Presentation related to the economic feasibility of harvesting, processing, and feeding ground woody products.
Question - Molecular weight of CT in Juniperus plant species?
Hey Harley. Do you know anyone who could analyze the MW?
Ground redberry juniper and urea in DDGS-based supplements do not adversely affect ewe lamb rumen microbial communities. Link to video: https://videos.files.wordpress.com/B06295hN/ishaqetal_lamb_jam2016.mp4
Question - Using nylon bags technique for feedstuffs degradability, which is better to put bags in rumen before morning feed or after?
We always go 4 hr after feeding.
Question - What is the more efficient technique to extract essential oil from Juniperus plants ?
Distillation for 8 to 10 hours. Collect over a diethyl ether. Shorter time periods can be used, as long as you come up with a calibration curve after distilling 8-10 samples to completeness. Basically, you would distill for say, 6 hr and then extrapolate what it would be at 8. See literature by "R. P. Adams." He's the world-renowned expert on distilling juniperus and a co-author of mine. Here's my SOP (with Dr. Adam's input):
1) Mix 5 g sodium bicarb to 325 mL of RO water until in solution in graduated cylinder.
2) Weigh 20 g of juniper material. Determine juniper DM to be able to calculate yield. Ensure a representative sample is taken by mixing contents in bag before weighing.
3) Add material to 1,000 mL long neck Erlenmeyer flask.
4) Add approx. 10 boiling stones to flask.
5) Add 325 mL of buffered water to flask.
6) Add 100 ul (4 mg) standard solution (methyl deconate) to erlemeyer flask. This requires a 4% or 40mg/mL solution be made from a 95% stock solution i.e., (1.01 mL of standard to 2.5 mL of diethyl ether Dr. Adams protocol).
7) Attach the distillation apparatus and condenser (water finger to top of apparatus). Make sure to slightly ventilate the water finger at the top using a small diameter copper. Rule of thumb-water finger should not be snuggly fit inside of distillation apparatus allow to sit approx. 1/8 inch above rim.
8) Turn on circulating water unit. Ensure water circulating through the condenser finger is less than 60 Fahrenheit.
9) Turn burners on to the highest setting. This would be 6 for the LAB LINE multi-unit extraction heaters used in the Nut Lab. Settings can be slightly adjusted but be consistent once an appropriate setting is determined.
10) A full 8 hr required for ground juniper samples. Note the first drip off the condenser finger as the start time; 45 min is usually required once burners are turned on.
11) Label and empty weigh glass vials with Teflon cap. Make sure you note what vial will correspond to each flask.
12) At 8 hr, turn off heat source.
13) Using glass pipette take off oil layer in distillation apparatus and add to glass vials with Teflon Cap. Some water will be taken out as well this can be extracted separately. Note the approximate volume of oil prior to removal, using marks on glassware; this can also help to ensure you do not over evaporate.
14) For the slight amount of oil that remains, gently add 0.2 to 1.0 mL of ether to top of apparatus to allow remaining oil to dissolve into solution. Remove this oil-ether solution with pipette and add to the same glass vial. Inevitably some oil will adhere to glass surfaces and will be lost. Optional: If too much oil adheres to glass pipette a small amount of ether can be used to flush the pipette, however the more ether added to oil the greater loss during the evaporation phase (azeotrope formation).
15) At this point you will have oil-ether solution and water in the glass vial. You can distinguish the water as it is at the bottom of the vial and looks like a bubble. Carefully remove this water bubble/layer with the glass pipette.
16) Place vial under the compressed air flow. Note: you want to turn on the compressed air first and carefully monitor the airflow to avoid forcing solution out of vial due to excess pressure. Air pressure should not splash the solution rather gently agitate.
17) Depending how much ether was added evaporation time will vary. Make sure to hold (warm) the vial with fingers as evaporation will be cool to the touch. When most of the ether is evaporated, vial will begin to feel warmer to the touch. If you monitored the approx. volume of oil in the distillation apparatus you can avoid over evaporation.
18) Place vial containing oil on scale with cap open to equilibrate for 1 min. After equilibration, screw on cap and record total wt. Vial w/cap minus empty oil vial w/cap = mg of oil. Mg of oil/DM wt of material x 100 = oil yield.
19) To make a 9% diluted oil-ether solution for storage and later terpene analysis, multiply mg of oil by 10 i. e, 0.182 g of oil X 10 = 1.82. Zero vial w/cap and add 1.82 g of ether to vial. Resultant solution will be a 9% solution.
20) Label the mg of oil in the volume, juniper species, lab idea, and solution percentage (9%).
Question - Does anyone have knowledge about the toxicity of chestnut tannins in animal feed?
When discussing "tannins", it is important to note if they are hydrolyzable or condensed. Condensed are not "toxic" but it's a different story with hydrolz. "Toxic" is in the dose and the definition of toxicity is unfortunately related (by some) to be defined as "reducing intake," which is incorrect. Just thought I'd throw that out there.
Question - Future of 'natural' feed additives. How do you think that essential oils, plant extracts and similar products will evolve?
Gurhan: Condensed tannins are not absorbed across the GI wall, thus no concern in meat/milk. As for any metabolites, not sure. However, humans consume CT all the time, thus I don't believe there is any residual problems in milk/meat.
Rising feed costs and recurring feed shortages necessitate the investigation into alternative and underutilized feed resources. Nutritional characteristics of species are either unknown or limited to leaves and ground material from small stems. Therefore, the objective was to quantify nutritional characteristics, 48-h true IVDMD (tIVDMD), microbial gas production, and secondary compound characteristics of entire woody plant material of 4 species-, , , and -at immature and mature stages of growth. Immature plants had greater CP concentrations and lower NDF concentrations ( < 0.001) than mature plants regardless of species. Mature plants also had greater ( < 0.001) concentrations of ADF compared with immature plants with the exception of . In general, immature , , and had greater ( < 0.02) tIVDMD and total 48-h and asymptotic gas production than mature plants. Immature and plants were more digested (tIVDMD; < 0.001) than immature and , but tIVDMD did not differ in mature plant material across species. Condensed tannins (CT) were greater ( < 0.001) in immature and than mature plants; differences in CT concentrations among immature species were also detected ( < 0.04). Volatile oil yields were similar across maturity and species with 1 exception: immature yielded more ( < 0.02) volatile oil than mature material. Volatile oil composition across species varied and contained a range of 65 to 70 terpene compounds. The dominant terpenes across species were generally greater ( < 0.05) in immature vs. mature plant material with the exception of . Labdane acids were negligible in , , and and greater in ( < 0.001). Ground material from mature juniper species, although inferior in nutritional quality compared with immature plants, is comparable to traditional low-quality roughage ingredients. Given that has been successfully fed in lamb feedlot diets, the similarities of , and suggest that all three species have potential to be effective roughage ingredients.
- Jun 2015
We hypothesized that ground juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) fed to lambs would have no negative effects on end products. Lambs were individually fed diets containing mainly sorghum grain and oat hay (control) or DDGS-based diets consisting mainly of DDGS, sorghum grain, and oat hay (0JUN), or 33% (33JUN), 66% (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the hay replaced by juniper. Lambs fed control had greater (P < 0.03) shrunk BW and HCW vs. lambs fed 0JUN, but other carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were similar (P > 0.23). As juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets, HCW increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and LM fatty acid composition was altered. Feeding juniper did not negatively affect (P > 0.57) off-flavor in chops, but enhanced (linear, P < 0.05) juiciness, tenderness, and flavor intensity. Lambs fed diets with a combination of oat hay and ground juniper appeared to produce the most acceptable carcasses and lamb chops.
- Feb 2014
Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed five isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper, or DDGS-based diets where 0% (0JUN), 33% (33JUN), 66% (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI and ADG and tended to have greater (P < 0.10) G:F than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P < 0.008) as juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P < 0.05) DMI than lambs fed 0JUN or lambs fed DDGS-based diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03) and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P < 0.05), and serum Ca and P and fecal P were similar (P > 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth/kg of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves and stems in lamb growing and finishing diets is not detrimental to animal performance and that DDGS-based diets can reduce total feedlot costs, as compared to sorghum grain and cottonseed meal-based diets. However, compared to using juniper or oat hay as the sole roughage source, using both during the growing period (Period 1) enhanced growth performance and further reduced total feedlot costs.
Question - What are the methods for determining "antinutritional factors " in feed?
I agree with Willamil: Numerous methods available depending on what you want to analyze (condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins, heavy metals, lignin,,,.
Volatile oils (terpenes/terpenoids, etc.): steam distillation or solvent extraction
Condensed tannins and hydrolysable tannins: various methods.
Some references to get you started:
1. Juha-Pekka Salminen* and Maarit Karonen. 2011. Chemical ecology of tannins and other phenolics: we need a change in approach. Functional Ecology 2011, 25, 325–338
2. . Irene Mueller-Harvey. Review: Unravelling the conundrum of tannins in animal nutrition and health. J Sci Food Agric 86:2010–2037 (2006).
3. Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 4th ed. Allured Publishing, Carol Stream, IL.
4. Adams, R. P., C. A., Taylor, Jr., T. R. Whitney, W. C. Stewart, and J. P. Muir. 2013. Goats and deer do not use terpenoids to select or avoid browsing on Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. trees. Phytologia. 95:238−245.
5. Terrill, T. H., A. M. Rowan, G. B. Douglas, and T. N. Barry. 1992. Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrate meals, and cereal grains. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58:321–329.
6. Utsumi, S. A., A. F. Cibils, R. E. Estell, and Y. F. Wang. 2006. Influence of plant material handling protocols on terpenoid profiles of one-seed juniper saplings. Rangel. Ecol. Manage. 59:668−673.
Question - How can anti-nutritive components in feed like tannins, saponins, and phytates be removed to improve feed intake, digestion, and nutrient digestion?
Chemical extraction of CT from feeds is not economical. I agree with the above statements in that CT intake (not necessarily % CT unless only consuming 1 ingredient) is the driving factor; thus, mix CT-containing feeds with non-CT containing feeds. Also, heat and/or steam and pelleting can bind "extractable CT," which can make the CT less bioavailable. Look up papers by Terrill, Muir, etc. or search for keywords (condensed tannins, heat, pelleting, serecia, analysis). Also, remember that numerous reports show that "some" CT is beneficial to the rumen & animal.
- Jun 2013
Objectives of this study were to determine if a redberry juniper-based diet can reduce fecal egg counts (FEC) and increase ivermectin (IVM) efficacy in IVM-resistant Haemonchus contortus. Predominant genera present were Haemonchus (range 45-100%) and Trichostrongylus (range 0-47%). The FEC reduction for IVM in the ewe flock was 25% (95% confidence intervals 79% to -162%) and confirmed IVM resistance. After natural infection was established, Barbados Blackbelly and St. Croix lambs (n=64, 6 months old) were randomly assigned to pens and fed a pelleted treatment diet (4 pens/treatment and 8 lambs/pen) consisting of traditional feed ingredients mixed with either 30% hay (CNTL) or 30% ground juniper leaves and stems (JUN). Lambs were fed during two periods: Period 1 (days 0-28) and Period 2 (days 28-42). On day 28, half of the lambs from each treatment and pen were treated with IVM orally (0.2mg/kg), creating four treatment groups: lambs fed CNTL or JUN and either not treated (CNTLn, JUNn) or treated (CNTLi, JUNi) with IVM. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P<0.001) average daily gain than lambs fed JUN, which was probably caused by the CNTL diet having greater protein and less acid detergent fiber, lignin, and condensed tannins than the JUN diet. Lambs had similar (P>0.46) FEC on days 0 and 28, but lambs fed JUN had 69.1% lower (P<0.001) FEC on day 15 as compared to lambs fed CNTL. During Period 2, CNTLi lambs had greater (P<0.05) average daily gain than JUNn and JUNi lambs. Lambs fed JUN and treated with IVM (JUNi) had 66%, 65%, and 61% lower (P<0.05) FEC as compared to CNTLn, CNTLi, and JUNn lambs, respectively. Results suggest that feeding lambs a diet containing 30% redberry juniper reduced FEC and increased IVM efficacy by 65% (JUNi vs. CNTLi). Specific mechanisms involved in increasing IVM efficacy by feeding diets containing bioactive compounds warrants further investigation.
- Apr 2013
A modified larval migration inhibition assay was used to determine if redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) can reduce Haemonchus contortus in vitro motility and increase ivermectin (IVM) efficacy. Ruminal fluid was mixed with buffer solution and either no material (CNTL) or Tifton 85 Bermudagrass hay (T85), dried juniper (DRY), fresh juniper (FRE), or distilled juniper terpenoid oil (OIL) to make treatment solutions and anaerobically incubated for 16h. For Trial 1, larvae were incubated in CNTL, T85, DRY, or IVM. During Trial 2, larvae were incubated in CNTL, DRY, FRE, or OIL for 4h. Trials 3 (CNTL or OIL) and 4 (CNTL, DRY or FRE) evaluated larvae after incubation in treatment solution for 2h, then incubated an additional 2h in various IVM doses (0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 6μg/mL IVM) and placed onto a screen. Larvae that passed through the 20-μm screen within a 96-well plate were considered motile. Larvae incubated in CNTL or T85 had similar (P=0.12) motility, but larvae incubated in DRY were less (P<0.02) motile than larvae incubated in CNTL or T85 (Trial 1). During Trial 2, adding DRY, FRE, or OIL reduced (P<0.001) larval motility as compared to CNTL. A treatment×IVM dose interaction (P=0.02) was observed during Trial 3, due to OIL unexpectedly decreasing IMV efficacy at IVM concentrations of 1 (P=0.07), 3, and 6 (P<0.002)μg/mL. No treatment×IVM dose interaction (P=0.57) was observed during Trial 4, but larvae incubated in DRY had less (P<0.004) total motility than larvae incubated in CNTL or FRE. Juniper forage material reduced in vitro H. contortus larval motility, but IVM efficacy was increased only by initially incubating larvae in DRY.
In an effort to identify a forage legume with condensed tannins (CT) that reduce gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) in small ruminants without negative effects on nutrition, this trial looked at the effects of two legumes containing CT on average daily gain (ADG) and fecal egg counts (FEC) in kid goats. Lespedeza cuneata (sericea lespedeza, SL) and Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick-clover; PTC) were pelleted into isonitrogenous complete feeds containing 3.8% CT in a 4-week feeding trial. Compared to Medicago sativa, SL decreased (P≤0.05) feed efficiency and ADG while PTC had the same (P>0.05) feed efficiency as alfalfa. Sericea lespedeza and PTC increased (P≤0.05) average daily feed intake 5.1 kg and 4.3 kg, respectively, compared to alfalfa while kids consuming SL and PTC showed an average 44% reduction (P≤0.05) in FEC compared to alfalfa. Panicled tick-clover, an herbaceous, perennial legume native to much of North America, may be a natural means of reducing ruminant GIN while simultaneously providing protein.
Four mature, ruminally cannulated wether goats (Boer × Spanish) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment and consecutively assigned to one of four complete isonitrogenous and isoenergetic pelleted treatment rations with 0, 6.6, 13.2, or 20% DDG. Alfalfa and cottonseed hulls (CSH) were incubated in situ for 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 96 h and analyzed for dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) disappearance.Replacing up to 20% of the diet with DDG did not affect ruminal in situ alfalfa or CSH disappearance. Further research is needed to determine the maximum levels of DDG inclusion in goat diets for optimal nutrient utilization.
Leaf secondary compounds were examined in browsed and non-browsed Juniperus ashei trees to identify selective browsing patterns by goats and deer. Analysis of volatile leaf oils (terpenoids) revealed that the browsed trees were lower in total oil than non-browsed trees (2.18 vs. 3.46%, DW basis). Extractable and fiber-bound condensed tannins (CT) were not different but protein-bound CT concentrations were greater in browsed trees. Among digestibility measures (NDF, ADF, IVDMD), IVDMD was greater in non-browsed leaves. Terpene components analyzed on a percent total oil basis had 3 differences versus 12 significant differences on a mg/g DW basis. The terpenoid components profile differed little between browsed and non-browsed trees. Total CT are negatively associated with oil yields. No association was found between crude protein and oil yields or between digestibility (IVDMD, NDF, ADF) and oil yields. The question of whether individual plants or populations may invest less in CT when greater amounts of terpenes are produced (or vice-versa) may have evolutionary implications since individual browsers or populations may adapt to consuming or avoiding either CT or terpenes. The fact that browsed tree leaves were less digestible than non-browsed tree leaves may be a result of complex interactions between CT, terpenes, fiber, and nutrients.
- Oct 2011
Effects of replacing cottonseed hulls with juniper leaves on end products were investigated in lambs. Lambs were individually fed diets containing cottonseed hulls (CSH), half of the CSH replaced by juniper (CSHJ), or all the CSH replaced by juniper (JUN). Lambs grew the same amount of wool when measured as greasy fleece (P>0.19), clean fleece (P>0.46), and clean wool production per unit of BW (P>0.54). Average fiber diameter quadratically decreased (P=0.04) and became more uniform (P<0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.16) by diet. Myristic, palmitoleic, and arachidic acids, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and the ∆9 desaturase index linearly increased (P<0.09) and stearic acid linearly decreased (P=0.05) as percentage of juniper increased in the diet. Off-flavor linearly increased (P=0.02) as juniper increased in the diet.
- Aug 2011
The Penn State particle separator (PSPS) was used to determine if molasses can reduce sorting of ground juniper when juniper is used as a feed intake limiter for lambs. Rambouillet wether lambs (n=21) were fed ad libitum treatments in the morning that consisted of coarse-ground juniper material, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and either no water or molasses (CNTL; 50:50:0), water (WAT; 45:45:10), or a 50:50 water:cane molasses solution (MOL; 45:45:10); lambs were fed an ad libitum basal pelleted diet in the afternoon. Lamb body weight, average daily gain, basal diet and total dry matter intake (DMI), and gain to feed efficiency were similar (P>0.17) among treatments, but DMI of MOL was greater than CNTL (P19.0mm was excluded from calculations, geometric mean length and standard deviation decreased for all treatments, but CNTL still had less (P
Native warm-season grasses have the potential to provide summer grazing because of their adaptation and persistence. Little nutritive value information is available, however, on the effects of maturity and soil amendments for native North American warm-season grasses during establishment. Multi flower false rhodesgrass (Chloris pluriflora E. Fourn.), pink pappusgrass (Pappophorum bicolor E. Fourn.), and plains bristle grass [Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roem. & Schult.] were harvested monthly during the first 2 yr after establishment on a Wind thorst sandy loam soil and fertilized with 0 or 67 kg N and P ha-1 yr-1. Spring application of fertilizer resulted in early season herbage N concentrations 58 to 79% greater (p ≤ 0.10) than unfertilized herbage and maintained N concentrations (p ≤ 0.10) above the 11.2 g kg-1 considered minimum for cattle maintenance through September for most entries. Multi flower false rhodesgrass had the least (p ≤ 0.10) fiber and greatest N and in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD). During Year 1 and early in Year 2, IVOMD was sometimes greater (p ≤ 0.10) when goat rumen liquid was used compared to steer liquid. This relationship was nullified or even reversed as plants matured in Year 2, indicating that donor species of rumen liquid should be considered when interpreting IVOMD results for native warm-season grasses.
Redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) is a common invasive plant species in west-central Texas. Goats will consume redberry juniper, but intake is limited by monoterpenoids found in the plant. Previous research has shown that goats will increase juniper intake through 1) conditioning and 2) protein supplementation. This study compared intake of juniper when goats received different protein supplements either with or without protein sources that are high in amino acids that escape digestion in the rumen. Recently weaned Boer-cross goats (n547) were randomly placed into five treatments. Treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4 received a protein supplement and juniper for 1 h daily for 14 d, along with a basal diet of alfalfa pellets (2% body weight). Treatment 5 received only a basal diet of alfalfa pellets and juniper. All supplements were formulated to be isonitrogenous (37%crude protein [CP]). Treatment 1 contained cottonseed meal (high CP escape value), treatment 2 contained cottonseed meal and distiller’s dried grain (higher CP escape value), treatment 3 contained soybean meal (low CP escape value), and treatment 4 contained soybean meal and distiller’s dried grain (moderate CP escape value). Refusals of juniper, supplements, and alfalfa were weighed daily to determine intake. Supplementation with 1) cottonseed meal, 2) soybean meal, or 3) soybean meal and distillers dried grain did not influence (P.0.05) juniper intake. Conversely, goats supplemented with cottonseed meal and distiller’s dried grain ate more (P,0.05) juniper than goats receiving only alfalfa, possibly because of increased escape of glucogenic amino acids. We contend that supplementation with feeds high in protein escape values should increase juniper intake on rangelands.
- Nov 2010
Anthelmintic effects of plant secondary compounds may be occurring in the rumen, but in vitro larvae migration inhibition (LMI) methods using rumen fluid and forage material have not been widely used. Forage material added to an in vitro system can affect rumen pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acids, which may affect larvae viability (LV). Validating a LMI assay using rumen fluid and a known anthelmintic drug (Ivermectin) and a known anthelmintic plant extract (Quebracho tannins; QT) is important. Rumen fluid was collected and pooled from 3 goats, mixed with buffer solution and a treatment (1 jar/treatment), and placed into an anaerobic incubator for 16h. Ensheathed larvae (<3 months old) were then anaerobically incubated with treatment rumen fluid for 2, 4, or 16h depending on the trial. Larvae (n=15-45) were then transferred onto a screen (n=4-6 wells/treatment) within a multi-screen 96-well plate that contained treatment rumen fluid. Larvae were incubated overnight and those that passed through the 20-μm screen were considered viable. Adding dry or fresh juniper material reduced (P<0.05) pH, ammonia N, and isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids, and increased (P<0.001) acetic, propionic, and total VFA. Including 4.5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) in rumen fluid mixture with or without forage material reduced (P<0.01) LV. However, LV was similar at all PEG concentrations tested (0-2%, w/v; 89.4, 78.9, 76.5, 75.5, and 77.5% viable). Q. tannin concentrations from 0 to 1.2% (w/v) quadratically reduced (P<0.001) LV; 89.4, 65.5, 22.8, and 9.2%. Ivermectin concentrations from 0 to 15μg/mL quadratically reduced (P<0.001) LV; 90.2, 82.6, 73.6, 66.3, 51.9, 56.5, 43.5, 41.9, 29.3, and 19.9% viable, respectively. Effects of altering in vitro rumen fluid pH, ammonia N, and VFA and using PEG when evaluating LV need to be further investigated. In vitro rumen fluid assays using QT and Ivermectin resulted in decreased LV, validating the efficacy of this technique for measuring Haemonchus contortus larval viability.
Effects of percentage of roughage on growth, serum urea N, NEFA, and IGF-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid (FA) characteristics were investigated in Rambouillet wether lambs (n = 33). Lambs were individually fed ad libitum pelleted diets for 98 d containing 40% dried distillers grains and other ingredients, with 10% (CSH10), 20% (CSH20), or 30% (CSH30) cottonseed hulls replacing an increasing amount of ground sorghum grain. Results indicated no interaction between diet and day for lamb BW, ADG, or G:F. Percentage of roughage did not affect lamb BW, even though ADG linearly increased (P = 0.005) as cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Increasing percentage of cottonseed hulls in the diet linearly increased (P < 0.001) daily DMI, which resulted in a linear increase (P = 0.001) in degradable protein intake. All lambs had similar G:F: 0.200, 0.181, and 0.190 for lambs fed CSH10, CSH20, and CSH30 diets, respectively. Diet x day interactions were not observed (P > 0.45) for serum urea N, NEFA, or IGF-1 concentrations. Serum urea N linearly increased (P = 0.005) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. All lambs had similar NEFA concentrations, but serum IGF-1 linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Lambs had similar wool fiber characteristics except that average fiber curvature and SD of fiber curvature linearly increased (P = 0.03) as percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. Carcass characteristics and sensory panel traits were not affected (P > 0.19) by diet, except for body wall thickness (quadratic, P = 0.03) and a linear decrease in sustained tenderness (P = 0.02) as the percentage of cottonseed hulls increased in the diet. As cottonseed hulls increased in the diet, percentages of myristic and palmitoleic (linear, P < 0.05) and arachidic SFA (quadratic, P = 0.03) decreased and cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased (linear, P = 0.007). When sorghum grain and cottonseed hull prices are similar to those reported for this study, lamb feeders are advised to use the CSH30 diet vs. CSH10 or CSH20 diets because even though DMI was greater for lambs consuming CSH30 diet, those lambs had greater ADG and the least cost of feed x kg(-1) of BW gain.
The invasive plant species, Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) and common tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), are altering native rangeland communities in western North Amer-ica (Tyser and Key, 1988; Jacobs, 2008). To increase our under-standing of why sheep consume these species to a certain extent and cattle avoid them, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), microbial gas production (MGP), and microbial purine concentrations (MPC) of C. maculosa or T. vulgare leaves or stems incubated in sheep or cattle rumen fluid were measured. Rumen microbes were not conditioned to these plants in Trials 1a and 1b, but were conditioned in Trials 2a and 2b. Total MGP of C. maculosa leaves or stems (Trial 1a; P < 0.004) and T. vulgare leaves (Trial 1b; P < 0.07) was less, but IVDMD of these plant parts were greater (P < 0.05) with cat-tle than sheep-rumen fluid. Conditioning ewe or cow rumen microbes to C. maculosa did not enhance 24-h MGP, IVDMD, or MPC of A. arundinaceus grass hay or C. maculosa leaves or stems (Trial 2a; P > 0.10). Conversely, conditioning ewe rumen microbes to T. vulgare increased (Trial 2b; P < 0.04) IVDMD of A. arundinaceus hay and T. vulgare leaves or stems. Centaurea maculosa leaves and stems and T. vulgare leaves were used by rumen microbes as a nutritious feedstuff and nutrient charac-teristics and overall low IVDMD and MPC suggest that T. vul-gare stems represent a poor quality forage. To increase con-sumption, further research is warranted to determine species composition and physiological differences between sheep-and cattle-adapted rumen microbes.
Effects of replacing cottonseed hulls with dry redberry juniper leaves on performance and serum NEFA, urea N, and IGF-1 were investigated in Rambouillet lambs (n = 24, initial BW = 28.6 +/- 4.94 kg). In a study with 2 feeding periods (period 1 = 65% concentrate ration, 28 d; period 2 = 85% concentrate ration, 49 d), lambs were individually fed ad libitum treatment diets containing cottonseed hulls (control; CSH), one-half of the cottonseed hulls replaced by dry juniper leaves (CSHJ), or all the cottonseed hulls replaced by dry juniper leaves (JUN). Lamb BW was similar on d 0 and 14, but increasing juniper in the diet linearly reduced (P = 0.04) BW on d 28. Differences in BW during period 1 are attributed to ADG and average daily DMI linearly decreasing (P < 0.001) with increasing concentrations of juniper, with lambs fed CSH, CSHJ, or JUN diets having ADG of 0.34, 0.30, and 0.14 kg, respectively. Differences in average daily DMI are attributed to secondary compounds in the cottonseed hulls and juniper and nutrient-toxin interactions. Lambs fed CSHJ diets had the greatest (P = 0.04) G:F compared with lambs fed CSH and JUN during period 1. Lambs fed JUN diets tended to have the greatest (P = 0.09) NEFA concentrations during period 1, and increasing juniper in the diet linearly reduced (P = 0.006) serum urea N and IGF-1 on d 14 and 28, respectively. During period 2, intake and growth of lambs fed JUN diet rapidly increased, resulting in all lambs having similar ADG, DMI, G:F, and BW. When period 2 began (d 33), serum NEFA and urea N were similar (P > 0.12) among lambs, but serum IGF-1 tended to be linearly reduced (P = 0.09) by increasing juniper in the diet. At times during period 2, lambs fed CSHJ had the greatest (P < 0.02) serum urea N (d 40 and 82) and IGF-1 (d 54) concentrations. Results were interpreted to indicate that air-dried redberry juniper leaves can replace all of the cottonseed hulls in lamb feedlot rations. Feeding 30% juniper in the diet for a longer period of time during the initial feeding period probably would have further reduced growth performance.
Effects of replacing cottonseed meal (CSM) with corn dis-tillers dried grains (DDG) on growth, wool, and serum NEFA, urea N (SUN), and IGF-1 concentrations were investigated in Rambouillet wether lambs. Lambs (n = 44) were individually fed ad libitum diets for 84 d containing DDG that replaced 0 percent (0DDG), 33 percent (33DDG), 66 percent (66DDG), or 100 percent (100DDG) of the CSM in a completely ran-domized design. Diet × day interactions were not observed (P > 0.12) for BW, ADG, DMI, degradable protein intake, or G:F. As DDG increased in the diet, ADG and G:F decreased qua-dratically (P = 0.08), but no difference (P = 0.13) in daily DMI was observed. Lambs fed 100DDG diet had similar (P > 0.23) ADG, average DMI, and G:F compared to lambs fed 0DDG diet. A diet × day interaction (P < 0.001) was observed for SUN, but not for serum NEFA or IGF-1 concentrations (P > 0.16). At times, SUN increased (P < 0.10) as DDG increas-ingly replaced CSM, which was attributed to an increase (qua-dratic, P < 0.001) in degradable protein intake. Serum NEFA decreased linearly (P < 0.08) and serum IGF-1 decreased qua-dratically (P < 0.05) as DDG increasingly replaced CSM in the diets. Wool characteristics were not affected (P > 0.10) by diet. Results indicated that DDG can replace all the CSM in lamb-finishing diets without negatively affecting growth, efficiency of gain, or wool characteristics, and can potentially reduce cost of feed • kg -1 gain.
Mature Dorper and Rambouillet ewes were maintained together for 2 years in a range environment to evaluate their nutritional status before and during gestation. During Years 1 and 2, nutritional status of mature Dorper (n = 46 and 71, respectively) and Rambouillet (n = 33 and 81, respectively) ewes were evaluated during pre-(August), mid-(late October) and late gestation (December). Ewes were selected from multi-ple Dorper (n = 20) and Rambouillet (n = 13) flocks. All ewes performed well while grazing and did not lose weight or BCS during gestation, except in Year 1 during late gestation when Dorper and Rambouillet ewes both lost weight. Compared to Rambouillet ewes, Dorper ewes had higher BCS (P < 0.03) dur-ing pre-gestation in Year 1 and throughout Year 2 (P < 0.01), but similar BW (P > 0.10) during both years. Dorper ewes tended to have greater IGF-1 concentrations (P < 0.08) during Year 1 in pre-gestation, and maintained greater IGF-1 concen-trations (P < 0.005) than Rambouillet ewes throughout Year 2. Dorper ewes had less serum NEFA and serum urea nitrogen (P < 0.05) than Rambouillet ewes during mid-and late gestation in Year 2. Results suggest that nutritional status differed at times, between Dorper and Rambouillet ewes in a range pro-duction system during gestation. Reasons for Dorper ewes hav-ing higher BCS and serum IGF-1 concentrations throughout gestation need to be investigated further.
- Sep 2007
The spread of the invasive, Eurasian spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) across the northwestern United States would be reduced if livestock regularly consumed it. We determined if white-face yearling ewes (n = 36) conditioned for 12 days to fresh-cut spotted knapweed, with or without molasses, would increase their use of it during a 5-day field trial and/or a 4-day drylot trial. Ewes were assigned to one of three treatments: ewes not conditioned to spotted knapweed or molasses (NC), ewes conditioned to spotted knapweed (SK), or ewes conditioned to spotted knapweed sprayed with liquid beet molasses (SKM). During conditioning, all groups consumed high amounts of their feed. Nonconditioned ewes (NC) consumed less than ewes conditioned to spotted knapweed (SK, SKM), indicating spotted knapweed did not inhibit initial consumption. In the field, SKM ewes spent more time grazing spotted knapweed and other forbs than SK ewes. In a drylot, time spent eating and intake of spotted knapweed and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) varied through time. Conditioning yearling ewes to spotted knapweed, with or without molasses, did not increase consumption of this invasive plant, possibly because sheep inherently graze spotted knapweed only to a certain extent, or we did not use enough spotted knapweed during conditioning.
- Nov 2006
Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) is an invasive plant that alters species composition and grazing value of rangelands in the northwestern United States. The spread of invasive plants may be reduced by using livestock as a biological control. We determined if mature ewes and their lambs (n=34ewe/lamb pairs) consume more spotted knapweed when ewes and/or lambs are conditioned to fresh-cut spotted knapweed. Ewe/lamb pairs were randomly assigned to one of four conditioning treatments: ewes and lambs not conditioned to spotted knapweed (N), conditioned ewes with non-conditioned lambs (E), non-conditioned ewes with conditioned lambs (L), or conditioned ewes and lambs (both—B). Then, ewes and lambs were observed together for 5 days (Trial 1); 11 days later, lambs were observed for 4 days without their mothers (Trial 2). During conditioning, intake by conditioned and non-conditioned ewes and lambs varied over time (as-fed basis, treatment by day interaction; ewes P=0.03; lambs P=0.05). Overall, non-conditioned lambs (N, E) consumed more than conditioned lambs (L, B; P=0.02). In Trial 1, N ewes consumed similar amounts of spotted knapweed and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) as the E, L, and B ewes (P=0.67). E ewes spent more time eating spotted knapweed than L ewes (P=0.001), and E ewe/lamb pairs consumed more spotted knapweed than L ewe/lamb pairs (P=0.02). In Trial 2, N lambs consumed less spotted knapweed than E, L, and B lambs (P=0.06). L lambs consumed more than E lambs (P=0.007). Conditioning ewes, lambs, or ewes and lambs did not increase time spent eating spotted knapweed when both grazed together in a drylot, but conditioned lambs, without their mothers present, consumed more spotted knapweed 11 days later than non-conditioned lambs. Conditioning lambs only in a group setting with their peers may have the greatest potential to enhance consumption of spotted knapweed, because of social facilitation and the predilection for young animals to try novel feeds.
- May 2006
Early-weaned crossbred steers (n = 33; initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; average age at weaning = 132 d) were used to evaluate effects of protein supplementation of forage diets vs. a 70% concentrate diet fed during a backgrounding phase (d 0 to 84) on performance, metabolic profiles, and febrile response to an infectious bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) challenge during a receiving phase (d 84 to 112). The four treatments during backgrounding included a bermudagrass hay diet (CTRL); bermudagrass hay plus soybean meal (SBM) fed at 0.175% of BW (asfed); bermudagrass hay plus SBM at 0.35% of BW; or a 70% concentrate (CONC) diet. During the receiving phase, all steers were fed CONC and intranasally challenged on d 85 with BHV-1. No differences (P = 0.69) were observed among treatments for G:F during the receiving phase. Treatment x day interactions (P < 0.01) were observed for serum concentrations of NEFA, total protein, urea nitrogen, glucose, immunoglobulin G (IgG), insulin, and for rectal temperature. On d 88 (P < 0.05) and 91 (P = 0.07), serum IgG was greater for steers fed forage diets vs. CONC, and NEFA and glucose were greater (P < 0.02) for CONC vs. forage diets. On d 88 and 89 (3 and 4 d after the BHV-1 challenge), rectal temperature was greater (P < 0.01) for protein supplemented steers vs. CTRL steers. We conclude that a higher quality diet fed during a backgrounding phase enhances performance of early-weaned steers and increases febrile response (as measured by rectal temperature) to an infectious BHV-1 respiratory challenge.
AbstractEffects of early weaning calves on serum metabolites and hepatic insulin-like growth factor-1 messenger RNA (IGF-1 mRNA) of first-calf heifersor mature cows was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial and included 14 crossbred first-calf heifers and 14 crossbred maturecows assigned randomly to one of two treatment regimens: early-weaned (EW, calves weaned at an average age of 114 d) or normal-weaned (NW,calves weaned at an average age of 197 d). Blood samples were collected from dams on d 114, 141, 197 and 205 postpartum via coccygealvenipuncture. Heifers with calves EW experienced a greater increase (parity x weaning; P = 0.02) in BW over heifers with calves NW, but no changein BW due to weaning was observed for mature cows (P>0.71). Early weaning (vs. NW) increased (P<0.05) body condition (BC) and change in BCof heifers and cows. Effects of weaning regimen or parity were not observed for ADG. There were no parity x weaning or parity x weaning x dinteractions (P>0.16) observed for serum IGF-1, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), or serum urea nitrogen (SUN). A parity x d interaction(P<0.05) for hepatic IGF-1 mRNA, serum IGF-1 and SUN, and a trend for parity x d for NEFA (P<0.10) were observed, but no differences weredetected between first-calf heifers and mature cows within sampling d. Early weaning tended to decrease (P = 0.06) SUN compared with NWstatus. These results suggest that EW can increase BW and BC in first-calf heifers, and decrease SUN in both first-calf heifers and mature cows.However, no other differences in performance or serum chemistry were detected between first-calf heifers and mature cows with either weaningregimen applied, in open rangeland conditions of the arid southwest United States during drought.
- Dec 2004
This experiment investigated the effects of dietary urea fed at 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% [dry mater (DM) basis] of the diet on systemic acid-base balance in feedlot steers. Results indicated that increasing urea concentrations in feedlot diets had no effect on arterial pH, blood gas profile, serum urea nitrogen, or urine pH.
This study investigated effects of early weaning calves in first-calf heifers and mature cows in terms of performance and metabolic indices. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial and included 14 crossbred first-calf heifers and 14 crossbred mature cows assigned randomly to one of two treatment regimens: early-weaned (EW, calves weaned at an average age of 114 d) or normal- weaned (NW, calves weaned at an average age of 197 d). Blood samples were collected from heifers and cows on d 114, 141, 197, and 205 postpartum via coccygeal venipuncture. Heifers with calves EW experienced 3.06% increase (parity x weaning; P < 0.05) in BW over heifers with calves NW, but no change in BW was observed for mature cows (parity x weaning; P > 0.10). Early weaning increased body condition (P < 0.05) and change in body condition (BC) of dams when compared with NW. Effects of weaning regimen or parity were not observed for ADG. There were no parity x weaning or parity x weaning x day interaction effects observed for IGF-1, NEFA, or serum urea nitrogen (SUN). Significant parity x day interaction effects for serum IGF-1 (P < 0.01) and SUN (P < 0.05) and a suggestive parity x day interaction effect for serum NEFA (P < 0.10) were observed, but no differences were detected between first-calf heifers and mature cows within sampling day. Early weaning tended to decrease (P < 0.10) SUN when compared with NW status. These results suggest that EW can increase BW and BC in first-calf heifers and decrease SUN concentrations in both first-calf heifers and mature cows. However, no other differences in performance or serum chemistry were detected between first-calf heifers and mature cows with either weaning regimen applied, in open rangeland conditions of the arid southwest during drought conditions.