Tracy L. Tylka

Tracy L. Tylka
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D. (Counseling Psychology)

About

127
Publications
211,836
Reads
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8,835
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2007 - present
Nationwide Children's Hospital
Position
  • Research Team Member
October 2001 - present
The Ohio State University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1995 - July 2000
University of Akron
Position
  • Graduate Teaching Assistant

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Despite growing interest in the possible link between positive body image and eating disorder (ED) symptoms, little is known about what role this adaptive construct plays in ED treatment. This study investigated whether: (1) interventions principally designed to target ED psychopathology also lead to improvements in positive body image indices (i.e...
Article
Evidence suggests that body appreciation may be a protective factor for eating pathology. However, potential explanatory mechanisms for this association are unclear, as longitudinal studies testing mediational pathways are missing. This longitudinal study tested whether intuitive eating mediates the association between body appreciation and eating...
Article
Full-text available
Existing measures of women’s breasted experiences have focused on negative experiences, which de-centres women’s meaning-making and relationships with their breasts. To rectify this, we developed a novel measure of women’s positive breasted experiences, the Breast Appreciation Scale (BrAS), and examined the psychometric properties of this novel mea...
Article
The current study aimed to translate the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) into Mandarin Chinese and explore its psychometric properties with college students from the Chinese mainland. In Study 1 (N = 840, 415 women, 425 men), an exploratory factor analysis upheld the unidimensional factor structure of the Mandarin Chinese BAS-2, and McDonald’s om...
Article
Body appreciation, defined as accepting, holding favourable attitudes towards, and respecting the body, is the most widely studied facet of positive body image. Despite more than 15 years of research investigating associations between body appreciation and psychological wellbeing constructs, a synthesis of this literature has yet to be performed. W...
Article
Body image is a critical component of an individual’s sexual experiences. This makes it critical to identify demographic and sociocultural correlates of sexuality-related body image: the subjective feelings, cognitions, and evaluations related to one’s body in the context of sexual experience. We examined how sexuality-related body image differed b...
Article
According to the tripartite influence model, body dissatisfaction is shaped by internalizing cultural appearance ideals stemming from appearance-related family, peer, and media pressures. This model was developed for women, but emerging evidence points to its relevance for men’s body image. This study advanced this budding research by (a) integrati...
Article
Racial minority men and women face a wide variety of appearance-related pressures, including ones connected to their cultural backgrounds and phenotypic features associated with their identity. These body image concerns exist within a larger context, wherein racial minorities face pressures from multiple cultures or subcultures simultaneously to ac...
Article
Objectification theory and the tripartite influence model provide useful frameworks for understanding the body image experiences of men and women. However, there is little systematic investigation of how sexual orientation moderates the links between these constructs and body image satisfaction. It has been hypothesized, for example, that the assoc...
Article
Objectification theory proposes that widespread sexualization causes women to engage in surveillance of their appearance. We integrated this concept into a model with constructs from the tripartite influence model, which proposes that body dissatisfaction is a result of internalizing cultural notions of thin ideal beauty that stem from family, peer...
Article
The relationship between social media usage and body image has been well-established in the literature; however, social media companies’ use of algorithms may intensify this association, as algorithms provide viewers with personalized content that is often more extreme, less monitored, and designed to keep users engaged for longer periods of time....
Article
The 10-item Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015) is a widely used contemporary measure of positive body image that assesses one’s love for, acceptance and appreciation of, and respect for their body. Given the need for abbreviated measures to reduce participant burden and study cost, we aimed to generate a short form of th...
Article
Body positive content aims to disrupt the monopoly of idealized appearance-focused media and encourage individuals to adopt a positive stance towards their body by increasing diversity and inclusiveness and rejecting harmful appearance ideals. This paper provides an historical context for the body positivity movement, discusses the presence and cha...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeAdolescence has been stated as a period in which body image and eating difficulties’ have its greatest expression, especially in females. Nonetheless, protective factors, such as body appreciation and compassion, are not thoroughly studied in this developmental stage. The current study hypothesized that competences for self-compassion and re...
Article
During adolescence, body image plays an increasingly central role in girls’ well-being and overall functioning. One dimension that has been associated with girls’ body image is social relationships, specifically those established with close others and peers. Cross-sectional findings on the association between both early positive relational memories...
Article
We examined how gender, body mass, race, age, and sexual orientation were linked to appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, and body image-related quality of life among 11,620 adults recruited via Mechanical Turk. Men were less likely than women to report low appearance evaluation, high overweight preoccupation, negative effects of body im...
Article
We examined how demographic factors (gender, sexual orientation, racial group, age, body mass) were. linked to measures of sociocultural appearance concerns derived from objectification theory and the tripartite influence model (McKinley & Hyde, 1996; Schaefer et al., 2015) among 11,620 adults. Men were less likely than women to report high body su...
Article
Full-text available
The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2 (BAOS-2) is a 13-item instrument measuring generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. Here, we first demonstrate that a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the BAOS-2 is psychometrically valid in a sample of 1,049 Malaysian adults (Study 1). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we e...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we aimed to offer a conceptualization of positive body image during adolescence and psychometrically examine a new scale developed to measure this conceptualization. A literature review on positive body image and adolescence was conducted, which shaped the development of the Positive Body Image among Adolescents Scale (PBIAS). In Stu...
Article
Full-text available
In many countries, women are socialized to adopt a narrow definition of beauty. Research has revealed that, in the United States and China, the ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (perceive beauty in diverse body sizes, shapes, and appearances) is linked to women’s lower anti-fat attitudes, higher body appreciation, and higher well-being. In th...
Chapter
This chapter reviews three models of body image disturbance (the tripartite influence model, objectification theory, and gender role endorsement) with a focus on their applicability to boys’ and men’s body image concerns. Variables and pathways with empirical support among samples of boys and men were integrated into a unified conceptual model to s...
Article
Full-text available
Body functionality describes everything that the body is able to do, across diverse domains (e.g., bodily senses, creative endeavours). Nearly a decade ago, leading scholars identified research on body functionality as a priority for the body image field. The field has responded, as shown by the recent rise of body functionality research. We consid...
Article
Objective: Intuitive eating is an adaptive style of eating that has generated significant research attention. Theoretically, intuitive eating is a core construct that features prominently in the Acceptance Model of Intuitive Eating, a framework that explains how positive environmental influences can foster intuitive eating practices via body appre...
Article
Full-text available
The Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS) measures the degree to which individuals perceive body acceptance by others, but its factor structure is questionable. Here, we developed a revision of the BAOS (i.e., the BAOS-2) by designing novel items reflective of generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. In three studies, we examined the...
Article
Objectification Theory posits that everyday encounters with sexual objectification carry a diffuse nonspecific sense of threat that engenders personal safety anxiety in women. In this article, we provide direct evidence for this tenet across 5 studies and 1,665 participants using multiple methods. Study 1 (N = 207) and Study 2 (N = 161) explored an...
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Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of yoga on functionality appreciation, and the potential mechanisms that could explain the impact of yoga on additional facets of positive body image. Young adult women (N = 114; Mage = 22.19) were randomised to a 10-week Hatha yoga programme or waitlist control group. Participants completed measures of functiona...
Article
The Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a, 2015b) is a widely used measure of positive body image within many cultures and countries; yet, cross-cultural examinations are few. The present study aimed to investigate the measurement invariance of the BAS-2 across adults from five countries: Iran, Japan, Poland, Serbia, and th...
Article
Full-text available
The construct of body acceptance by others (i.e., the degree to which an individual perceives acceptance for their appearance by others) is central to conceptual models of positive body image and adaptive eating styles. It is typically measured using the 10-item Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS; Avalos & Tylka, 2006), but emerging research has...
Article
Studying the practice of yoga and its relationship to body image, embodiment, and eating disorders brings together the professional and personal aspects of our lives as yoga practitioners, researchers, and women living in bodies within a society that can be tough on body appreciation. Developing this edition on "Yoga for positive embodiment in eati...
Article
This article provides the concluding thoughts on the special issue, Yoga forPositive Embodiment in Eating Disorder Prevention and Treatment, which illustrate the progress being made on the relationship between yoga practice and the different indicators of positive embodiment that is relevant for the prevention and treatment of eating disorders. Bas...
Article
Yoga practice has been associated with various indices of positive embodiment in correlational and intervention studies. Yet, systematic, theoretically-grounded models detailing specific mechanisms by which yoga supports positive embodiment are lacking. In this article, we present a conceptual model that describes mechanisms (i.e., mediators and mo...
Article
Empirical evidence provides support for the inclusion of yoga as part of eating disorder prevention efforts through its positive impact on positive embodiment and experience of positive core affect. However, there is a need to identify the specific instructional strategies that will more consistently support positive embodiment and positive affect....
Article
Professionals working in eating disorder prevention, treatment, and public health aim to improve eating behaviors to stabilize weight, which is more adaptive for health and well-being than weight variation. However, it is unknown which eating behaviors are linked to weight stability in non-intervention samples. This study examines how intuitive eat...
Article
Objective Partner‐specific factors have been neglected in eating disorder (ED) research. The present study examined two partner‐specific variables that were hypothesized to be linked to women's ED symptoms: perceived male partner thinness‐related pressures and pornography use. Method Community women (N = 409) in relationships with men completed on...
Article
Full-text available
Sizeism permeates and shapes how scientific and professional communities—including therapists—perceive, understand, and behave toward anyone considered fat. In this article, we use scientific evidence to argue for the recognition and establishment of fat acceptance to subvert sizeism. We first critically review the Weight Normative Approach, which...
Article
Yoga is an embodying activity that promotes body awareness, body connection, body responsiveness, and appreciation of body functionality, and it therefore may be a beneficial school-based intervention for children’s body image. The present study examined the impact of a 4-week yoga intervention on pre-adolescent girls’ and boys’ body image (body ap...
Article
Studies show that women with high BMI are less likely than thinner women to seek healthcare. We aimed to determine the mechanisms linking women's weight status to their healthcare avoidance. Women (N = 313) were surveyed from a U.S. health-panel database. We tested a theory-driven model containing multiple stigma and body-related constructs linking...
Article
Full-text available
Body functionality has been identified as an important dimension of body image that has the potential to be useful in the prevention and treatment of negative body image and in the enhancement of positive body image. Specifically, cultivating appreciation of body functionality may offset appearance concerns. However, a scale assessing this construc...
Article
Positive body image among adults is related to numerous indicators of well-being. However, no research has explored body appreciation among children. To facilitate our understanding of children’s positive body image, the current study adapts and validates the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a) for use with children. Thr...
Article
This study investigated whether believing beauty is a primary currency for women operates as an antecedent force in the relation between self-objectification and gender activism. Ninety-four ethnically diverse women attending a small liberal arts college in the southeastern United States completed the study questionnaires online for course credit....
Article
Full-text available
It remains unclear whether body dissatisfaction, a widely recognized predictor of eating-related pathologies and depressive symptomatology, is consistent across cohorts and time. This question is important to investigate because dominant theories propose that sociocultural influences, which may fluctuate, play an important role in the development o...
Chapter
In all the ways it matters, fat is a feminist issue. Yet, we find this perspective is absent within the mainstream weight stigma literature. In this chapter, we apply a feminist lens to render visible the problems inherent in the mainstream weight stigma research, with particular attention given to the ways in which this scientific discourse serves...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a Dutch translation and validation of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2; Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015a), an instrument for assessing key components of positive body image. Dutch-speaking female university students (N = 310, Mage = 21.31, SD = 3.04) completed the Dutch BAS-2. To assess its construct validity, participants also...
Article
Women's ability to broadly conceptualize beauty (i.e., perceive many looks, appearances, body sizes/shapes, and inner characteristics as beautiful) has been identified as a facet of positive body image in qualitative research. A scale is needed to be able to assess this construct within quantitative research. Therefore, we developed the Broad Conce...
Article
Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health at Every Size – a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compa...
Article
Weight stigma is a significant socio-structural barrier to reducing health disparities and improving quality of life for higher weight individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of internalized weight stigma on eating behaviors after participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing the health benefits of a weight-neutral p...
Chapter
Maladaptive outcomes are eating disorder (ED) symptoms as well as ED risk factors such as negative body image, internalization of societal appearance ideals, body surveillance, body comparison, and poor interoceptive awareness. For simplicity, this chapter refers to these maladaptive outcomes as “ED-related outcomes”. Protective factors are not alw...
Article
Researchers have found that rigid dietary control is connected to higher psychological distress, including disordered and disinhibited eating. Two approaches have been touted by certain scholars and/or health organizations as healthier alternatives: intuitive eating and flexible control-yet these approaches have not been compared in terms of their...
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Full-text available
Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing...
Article
Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing...
Article
In this article, we describe an integrated theoretical approach for promoting resistance to the system of sexual objectification. Drawing from system justification and objectification theories, we propose a two-arm approach that would harness the system justification motive and adjust the lens of self-objectification in order to facilitate social c...
Article
Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and...
Article
Full-text available
USING AN ETHICAL LENS, THIS REVIEW EVALUATES TWO METHODS OF WORKING WITHIN PATIENT CARE AND PUBLIC HEALTH: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being) and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health...
Article
Full-text available
One area with strong potential to prevent or treat early childhood obesity is feeding dynamics.1 The concept of feeding dynamics includes 2 central components: caregiver feeding role (how, when, where, and what caregivers feed their children) and child eating behaviors (how much, when, what, and whether to eat of what is offered). The feeding dyna...
Article
Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has exp...
Article
Full-text available
Within objectification theory research, sexual objectification is typically operationalized as interpersonal sexual objectification—being targets of body evaluation and unwanted sexual advances. We argue that women’s male partners’ pornography use could be integrated within objectification theory as another form of sexual objectification and negati...
Article
Full-text available
Many scholars have recognized and studied the links between various sources of appearance-related pressure (e.g., media and interpersonal pressures to be mesomorphic) and men's body image and well-being. Pornography is another medium of appearance-related pressure that is very rarely considered in this research. The present study incorporated porno...
Book
School-based interventions that target obesity in children often have little positive effect and may inadvertently contribute to unhealthy behaviors in the attempt to lose weight. This book provides a conceptual model for understanding both obesity and eating disordered behaviors. Specifically, it advocates for body acceptance and intuitive eating...
Article
Considered a measure of positive body image, the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos et al., 2005) assesses acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for the body. Although the BAS was originally developed for and psychometrically examined with women, researchers are administering it to men and making gender comparisons. However, tests...
Article
Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers...
Article
Full-text available
The 21-item Intuitive Eating Scale (IES; Tylka, 2006) measures individuals' tendency to follow their physical hunger and satiety cues when determining when, what, and how much to eat. While its scores have demonstrated reliability and validity with college women, the IES-2 was developed to improve upon the original version. Specifically, we added 1...