Tracy Anne Hammond

Tracy Anne Hammond
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Computer Science and Engineering

PhD

About

229
Publications
44,238
Reads
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2,401
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - present
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Director
September 2000 - August 2006
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Position
  • Research Assistant
May 1996 - August 2000
Goldman Sachs
Position
  • Telecommunications Analyst
Description
  • Developed Telephony, CTI, VPR, and Speech Recognition applications
Education
September 2002 - June 2004
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Finance Technology Option, Sloan School of Management
September 2000 - February 2007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
September 1998 - February 2000
Columbia University
Field of study
  • Computer Science

Publications

Publications (229)
Preprint
Full-text available
Gaze input has been a promising substitute for mouse input for point and select interactions. Individuals with severe motor and speech disabilities primarily rely on gaze input for communication. Gaze input also serves as a hands-free input modality in the scenarios of situationally-induced impairments and disabilities (SIIDs). Hence, the performan...
Article
Full-text available
Different people react differently to disasters, hazards, and risks depending on how they view those risks. Various factors can influence these risk perceptions, including demographic characteristics, such as gender and previous experience. Disaster education (DE) has been identified as a method to positively influence risk perception and reduce di...
Article
Full-text available
Text entry is extremely difficult or sometimes impossible in the scenarios of situationally-induced impairments and disabilities, and for individuals with motor impairments (physical impairments and disabilities) by birth or due to an injury. As a remedy, many rely on gaze typing with dwell-based selection as it allows for hands-free text entry. Ho...
Article
italic xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">Contribution: This study identifies which entry-level computer science (CS) resume items are most important and compares the ratings of student and recruiter participants to investigate the accuracy of student beliefs. To the authors’ knowledge, this s...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the utility of gaze gestures as an input method, there is a lack of guidelines available regarding how to design gaze gestures, what algorithms to use for gaze gesture recognition, and how these algorithms compare in terms of performance. To facilitate the development of applications that leverage gaze gestures, we have evaluated the perfor...
Article
Full-text available
Children’s fine motor skills are linked not only to drawing ability but also to cognitive, social-emotional, self-regulatory, and academic development Suggate et al. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(1), 1–19 (2018), Benedetti et al. (2014), Liew et al. Early Education & Development, 22(4), 549–573 (2011), Liew (2012) and Xie et al. (2014). Curren...
Article
The implementation of temporal dynamic variables improves the accuracy of spatial accessibility measurements. However, in previous studies, the temporal dynamics were partially incorporated, and a few snapshots were subjectively selected to demonstrate temporal changes of spatial accessibility, which may not represent the entire variation. In this...
Article
Risk perceptions can influence how people prepare, react, and respond to a natural hazard. For dependent populations with increased vulnerability, such as youth, adolescents, and young adults, hazard education programs can influence their risk perceptions and increase their hazard awareness. However, most school curriculum does not include in-depth...
Article
Since 1950, tornadoes have accounted for nearly one third of disaster-related fatalities in the United States, the third high- est after floods and lightning. The largest share of fatalities occurred in the state of Texas, which also accounts for about 7 percent of the overall property damage from tornadoes. An increasing proportion of tornadoes oc...
Article
Introduction Hurricane Harvey (2017) forced the closure of hemodialysis centers across Harris County, Texas (USA) disrupting the provision of dialysis services. This study aims to estimate the percentage of hemodialysis clinics flooded after Harvey, to identify the proportion of such clinics located in high-risk flood zones, and to assess the sensi...
Article
Full-text available
Human ecology has played an essential role in the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. With standing water as a significant factor contributing to mosquito breeding, artificial containers disposed of as trash—which are capable of holding standing water—provide suitable environments for mosquito larvae to develop. The development of these larvae furth...
Article
For every 100,000 people, there are 536 individuals with speech impairments who can benefit from the use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices Creer et al. (2016). Existing AAC devices can suffer from the shortcomings of being difficult to adjust to the user’s specific needs or simply being expensive to own and maintain. We ai...
Article
Various network model creation algorithms have been introduced to demonstrate a better approximation of the actual walking pattern and to provide a better wayfinding guide. However, it is under‐investigated which algorithm creates the most appropriate indoor navigation network model in the context of wayfinding applications. Due to the lack of disc...
Article
Full-text available
Reverse geocoding, which transforms machine‐readable GPS coordinates into human‐readable location information, is widely used in a variety of location‐based services and analysis. The output quality of reverse geocoding is critical because it can greatly impact these services provided to end‐users. We argue that the output of reverse geocoding shou...
Article
Kanji script writing is a skill that is often introduced to novice Japanese foreign language students for achieving Japanese writing mastery, but often poses difficulties to students with primarily English fluency due to their its vast differences with written English. Instructors often introduce various pedagogical methods—such as visual structure...
Chapter
Although most individuals understand the importance of regular physical activity, many still lead mostly sedentary lives. The use of smartphones and fitness trackers has mitigated this trend some, as individuals are able to track their physical activity; however, these devices are still unable to reliably recognize many common exercises. To that en...
Chapter
User interfaces have classically involved WIMP (windows, icons, mouse, and pointing) paradigm. Current wireframing tools in the early stages of web interface design focus on using drag-and-drop features, that is, selecting elements from a menu and inserting them in the interface. Most designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. A sys...
Chapter
This chapter introduces a novel system that allows users to generate customized cartoon avatars through a sketching interface. The rise of social media and personalized gaming has given a need for personalized virtual appearances. Avatars, self-curated and customized images to represent oneself, have become a common means of expressing oneself in t...
Chapter
Derived from contributions to the Conference on Pen and Touch Technology in Education (CPTTE) in 2017, this edited volume highlights recent developments for pen and tablet research within the domains of computer science, education, and outreach. This book will be of great interest for researchers and educators at every level. The book includes seve...
Chapter
Sketching is an essential skill in engineering design. However, the instruction of sketching in engineering curriculum has greatly diminished in recent decades. Previous studies have shown that teaching an Industrial Design-inspired version of free hand sketching is effective in engineering courses, but engineering professors are often untrained to...
Chapter
Flowcharts serve as a great tool for new students learning programming logic in a language-independent fashion. However, current software tools for creating flowcharts on the computer have various shortcomings. UI-based solutions make creating flowcharts difficult through inefficient drag-and-drop menus. Sketching-based solutions take a more intuit...
Conference Paper
Sketching is a valuable skill to learn but requires extensive motivation and practice to improve. We present a framework for motivating practice with sketch-based gameplay that is rooted in a grounded theory study of the motivations of various individuals with different skills levels. The individuals interviewed included a range from novice and int...
Conference Paper
We present DrawMyPhoto, an interactive system that can assist a drawing novice in producing a quality drawing by automatically parsing a photograph in to a step-by-step drawing tutorial. The system utilizes image processing to produce distinct line work and shading steps from the photograph, and offers novel real-time feedback on pressure and tilt,...
Conference Paper
In this workshop, the focus will be on providing a forum for researchers in the various interdisciplinary fields to engage in and explore research outcomes and discussions on sketching interactions, specifically for interfaces that promote creativity and cognition. Attendees of the workshop will actively experience sessions related to the presentat...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction In the United States, tornadoes are the third leading cause of fatalities from natural disasters ¹ . To aid prevention and mitigation of tornado-related morbidity and mortality, improvement in standardizing tornado specific threat analysis terminology was assessed. The largest number of tornado-related fatalities has occurred in the st...
Article
Recent trends in computer-mediated communication (CMC) have not only led to expanded instant messaging through the use of images and videos but have also expanded traditional text messaging with richer content in the form of visual communication markers (VCMs) such as emoticons, emojis, and stickers. VCMs could prevent a potential loss of subtle em...
Book
This book highlights the latest research in pen and touch, its current use in STEM classrooms, sketching and haptics technologies. Computer and educational scientists from academia and industry presented their research at the Conference on Pen and Touch Technology on Education (CPTTE) 2017 on the advancement of digital ink technology and its applic...
Conference Paper
The ability to visually communicate ideas and the willingness to generate free-hand sketches are critical skills for engineers. With the advent of CAD, schools no longer teach drafting, prompting a concern over the lost art of free-hand sketching. Recent empirical data from senior design indicates they do not sketch until forced to do so and this a...
Article
Design sketching is an important skill for designers, engineers, and creative professionals, as it allows them to express their ideas and concepts in a visual medium. Being a critical and versatile skill for many different disciplines, courses on design sketching are often taught in universities. Courses today predominately rely on pen and paper; h...
Conference Paper
Gaze gesture-based interactions on a computer are promising, but the existing systems are limited by the number of supported gestures, recognition accuracy, need to remember the stroke order, lack of extensibility, and so on. We present a gaze gesture-based interaction framework where a user can design gestures and associate them to appropriate com...
Article
Full-text available
Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and severity worldwide. Associations between individual-level vulnerability to natural disasters and social stratification have been widely demonstrated in the published literature, with excess negative impacts disproportionately affecting women, ethnic and racial minorities, and the elderly. Specifical...
Article
Full-text available
A highly secure, foolproof, user authentication system is still a primary focus of research in the field of User Privacy and Security. Shoulder-surfing is an act of spying when an authorized user is logging into a system, and is promoted by a malicious intent of gaining unauthorized access. We present a gaze-assisted user authentication system as a...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advancements in eye tracking technology are driving the adoption of gaze-assisted interaction as a rich and accessible human-computer interaction paradigm. Gaze-assisted interaction serves as a contextual, non-invasive, and explicit control method for users without disabilities; for users with motor or speech impairments, text entry by gaze...
Conference Paper
Interdisciplinary research always yields an enhanced and different perspective on the problem. Solving a problem using many modalities and technologies gives us the complete picture of the problem and the best solution possible. My thesis is about solving the various problem in different domains using the Eye and Gaze Tracking. My research area cur...
Chapter
Sudoku is one of the most popular puzzles of all time: easy to understand but still very challenging, Sudoku continues to captivate players all over the world through newspapers, puzzle books, and digital devices. The application introduced in this work is a multilingual, sketch-based version of the Sudoku game. Sketch input renders more flexibilit...
Chapter
Dr. Tracy Hammond gave a keynote on morning of the second day of the conference. She spoke about how both her research and the field of Sketch Recognition evolved over the last decade. One motivation of her career was to develop algorithms that provide insights into human brain activity and also develop applications that improve human-human communi...
Chapter
At the 2016 CPTTE Conference on Pen and Touch Technology on Education, five expert researchers and educators spoke at a panel in front of the audience of CPTTE attendees where they discussed past influences and future directions. The members of the panel were, as seated from left to right, were Bill Buxton, Tracy Hammond, Andy van Dam, Kimberle Koi...
Chapter
Effectively communicating engineering concepts in high school classrooms is an important goal of many curricula in secondary education since the material can help prepare students for future study in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. However, the material can be challenging. This work describes the deployment of Mechanix to...
Chapter
Students learning geography aim to be familiar with a variety of geographic features and be able to identify them on maps. Drawing the geographic entities on a map would, ideally, be a better measure of the recall of the characteristics of such entities and comprehension of the various concepts in geography. However, for teachers trying to evaluate...
Chapter
Derived from contributions to the Conference on Pen and Touch Technology in Education (CPTTE) in 2016, this edited volume highlights recent developments for pen and tablet research within the domains of computer science, education and outreach. This book will be of great interest for researchers and educators at every level. This book covers topics...
Chapter
Digital logic is an important part of any engineering curriculum in today’s digital era, and it is often taught visually through circuit diagrams. However, for students just learning logic, this process can be non-interactive, with students typically drawing and solving diagrams that will only be evaluated by a human grader later. This paper presen...
Conference Paper
Having quality line work is a fundamental skill for designers, architects, and engineers to have when sketching concepts and ideating. Construction lines and perspective lines often form the basis of complex three-dimensional forms in a drawing, and if these lines are ambiguous or poorly drawn, the entire foundation of a drawing can be significantl...
Article
Introduction Although more than one billion people live at risk of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in areas of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the degree to which they burden countries like the U.S. is unclear. Even though many NTDs such as dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are typically not endemic to the U.S., the possibil...
Conference Paper
Flowcharts play an important role when learning to program by conveying algorithms graphically and making them easy to read and understand. Computer-based flowchart design requires the user to learn the software first, which often results in a steep learning curve. Paper-drawn flowcharts don't provide feedback. We propose a system that allows users...
Conference Paper
Design sketching is a powerful tool for expressing ideas from pen and paper effectively and becoming a more well-rounded communicator. Sketching instructors conventionally employ pen and paper in their classrooms to convey these fundamentals to students. However this traditional approach limits the bandwidth and capability of instructors to give ti...
Article
Full-text available
While more than a billion people live at risk of neglected tropical diseases in areas of Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, the degree to which such diseases burden countries like the United States is currently unclear. Even though many neglected tropical diseases such as dengue, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are not endemic to the Un...
Conference Paper
Failing to brush one's teeth regularly can have surprisingly serious health consequences, from periodontal disease to coronary heart disease to pancreatic cancer. This problem is especially worrying when caring for the elderly and/or individuals with dementia, as they often forget or are unable to perform standard health activities such as brushing...
Conference Paper
In this study, we present a novel application of sketch gesture recognition on eye-movement for biometric identification and estimating task expertise. The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic dec...
Conference Paper
Shoulder-surfing is the act of spying on an authorized user of a computer system with the malicious intent of gaining unauthorized access. Current solutions to address shoulder-surfing such as graphical passwords, gaze input, tactile interfaces, and so on are limited by low accuracy, lack of precise gaze-input, and susceptibility to video analysis...
Conference Paper
Continued improvements and rising ubiquity in touchscreen and motion-sensing technologies enable users to leverage mid-air input modalities for intelligent surface sketching into the third dimension. However, existing approaches largely either focus on constrained 3D gesture sets, require specialized hardware setups, or do not deviate beyond surfac...
Article
Searching is a necessary tool for managing and navigating the massive amounts of data available in today’s information age. While new searching methods have become increasingly popular and reliable in recent years, such as image-based searching, these methods may be more limited than text-based means in that they do not allow generic user input. Sk...
Article
Purpose: The objective of this study is to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. Methods: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breas...
Book
This inspirational book contains evidence-based research presented by educational scientists, for the advancement of stylus-based technology and its applications for college and K-12 classrooms. Writing and sketching are an important part of teaching and learning, and digital ink technologies enable us to perform these activities in a digital world...
Conference Paper
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) empower instructors to make teaching more engaging by providing a platform to tutor, deliver learning material, and to assess students' progress. Despite the advantages, existing ITS do not automatically assess how students engage in problem solving? How do they perceive various activities? and How much time they...
Conference Paper
Design sketching is an important and versatile skill for engineering students to master. Through it, students translate their design thoughts effectively onto a visual medium, whether to produce hand-drawn sketches onto paper, seamlessly interact with intelligent sketch-based modeling interfaces, or reap the advantages of educational benefits assoc...