Tracey J Woodruff

Tracey J Woodruff
University of California, San Francisco | UCSF

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296
Publications
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Publications

Publications (296)
Article
Fossil fuels contribute to climate change and petrochemicals, both of which increase maternal and child disease. Reducing fossil fuels can reap a double benefit for climate change and improved health.
Article
Background Lower socioeconomic status (SES) and elevated psychosocial stress are known contributors to adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, biological mechanisms linking these factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes are not well-characterized. Oxidative stress may be an important, yet understudied mechanistic pathway. We used a pooled study design to...
Article
Full-text available
Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Most prior studies have conceptualized neighborhoods using census boundaries and few have examined the role of neighborhood perceptions, which may better capture the neighborhood environment. In the present study, we examined associations between extrinsic and p...
Article
Background Exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy adversely affects maternal and infant health, and identifying socio-demographic differences in exposures can inform contributions to health inequities. Methods We recruited 294 demographically diverse pregnant participants in San Francisco from the Mission Bay/Moffit Long (MB/ML) hosp...
Article
Background Melamine, melamine derivatives, and aromatic amines are nitrogen-containing compounds with known toxicity and widespread commercial uses. Nevertheless, biomonitoring of these chemicals is lacking, particularly during pregnancy, a period of increased susceptibility to adverse health effects. Objectives We aimed to measure melamine, melam...
Article
Limited studies examine how prenatal environmental and social exposures jointly impact perinatal health. Here we investigated relationships between a neighborhood-level combined exposure (CE) index assessed during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, including birthweight, gestational age, and preterm birth. Across all participants, higher CE index sc...
Article
While important advances have been made in high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and its applications in non-targeted analysis (NTA), the number of identified compounds in biological and environmental samples often does not exceed 5% of the detected chemical features. Our aim was to develop a computational pipeline that leverages data from HRMS...
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Background Differential risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes may be influenced by prenatal chemical exposures, but current exposure methods may not fully capture data to identify harms and differences. Methods We collected maternal and cord sera from pregnant people in Fresno and San Francisco, and screened for over 2420 chemicals using LC-QTOF/MS...
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Background Widespread environmental contamination can directly interact with human immune system functions. Environmental effects on the immune system may influence human susceptibility to respiratory infections as well as the severity of infectious diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, the...
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Background Prenatal exposure to individual per‑ and poly‑fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and psychosocial stressors have been associated with reductions in fetal growth. Studies suggest cumulative or joint effects of chemical and non-chemical stressors on fetal growth. However, few studies have examined PFAS and non-chemical stressors together as a m...
Preprint
Background Non-targeted Analysis (NTA) methods can identify novel exposures in a variety of biological matrices, however, few have been assessed for relationships with pregnancy complications. Objectives This study characterizes levels of nine exogenous and endogenous chemicals including linear and branched isomers perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)...
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Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) have produced the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates). For these, systematic reviews of studies estimating the prevalence of exposure to selected occupational risk factors have been conducted...
Article
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This letter responds to the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program letter by Radke et al. (2021) that was published in response to the application of the IRIS risk of bias tool in our recent study “Assessing risk of bias in human environmental epidemiology studies using three tools: different conclusi...
Article
Participants in biomonitoring studies who receive personal exposure reports seek information to reduce exposures. Many chemical exposures are driven by systems-level policies rather than individual actions; therefore, change requires engagement in collective action. Participants’ perceptions of collective action and use of report-back to support en...
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Background: Endocrine disrupting chemicals have harmful effects on reproductive, perinatal, and obstetric outcomes OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evidence on nutritional interventions to reduce the negative effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive, perinatal, and obstetric outcomes. Search strategy: A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Allied Health...
Preprint
Background Environmental chemical exposures are likely making important contributions to current levels of infertility and its increasing incidence. Yet the US produces high volumes of industrial chemicals for which there is limited data on their potential human reproduction toxicity. Current assays typically used in policy and regulatory settings...
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Background Prenatal exposure to per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and psychosocial stressors has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth. Previous studies have suggested that joint exposure to environmental chemical and social stressors may be contributing to disparities observed in preterm birth. Elevated...
Article
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Background Evidence-to-decision (EtD) frameworks provide a structured and transparent approach for groups of experts to use when formulating recommendations or making decisions. While extensively used for clinical and public health recommendations, EtD frameworks are not in widespread use in environmental health. This review sought to identify, com...
Article
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Climate change is one of the major global health threats to the world's population. It is brought on by global warming due in large part to increasing levels of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity, including burning fossil fuels (carbon dioxide), animal husbandry (methane from manure), industry emissions (ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur d...
Article
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Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are commonly detected in a variety of foods and food packaging materials. However, few studies have examined diet as a potential source of PFAS exposure during pregnancy. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined prenatal PFAS levels in relation to self-reported consumption of meats, dairy product...
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Introduction: Systematic reviews are routinely used to synthesize current science and evaluate the evidential strength and quality of resulting recommendations. For specific events, such as rare acute poisonings or preliminary reports of new drugs, we posit that case reports/studies and case series (human subjects research with no control group) ma...
Article
Non-targeted analysis (NTA), including both suspect screening analysis (SSA) and unknown compound analysis, has gained increasing popularity in various fields for its capability in identifying new compounds of interests. Current major challenges for NTA SSA are that (1) tremendous effort and resources are needed for large-scale identification and c...
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Recent technological advances in mass spectrometry have enabled us to screen biological samples for a very broad spectrum of chemical compounds allowing us to more comprehensively characterize the human exposome in critical periods of development. The goal of this study was three-fold: (1) to analyze 590 matched maternal and cord blood samples (tot...
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Background Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are endocrine disrupting chemicals with widespread exposures across the U.S. given their abundance in consumer products. PFAS and PBDEs are associated with reproductive toxicity and adverse health outcomes, including certain cancers. PFAS and PBDEs may...
Article
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Background World Health Organization (WHO) and International Labour Organization (ILO) systematic reviews reported sufficient evidence for higher risks of ischemic heart disease and stroke amongst people working long hours (≥55 hours/week), compared with people working standard hours (35–40 hours/week). This article presents WHO/ILO Joint Estimates...
Article
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Environmental pollutants have been associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy including gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia, though few have focused on drinking water contamination. Water pollution can be an important source of exposures that may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We linked water quality...
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Background Every major federal regulation in the United States requires an economic analysis estimating its benefits and costs. Benefit-cost analyses related to regulations on formaldehyde exposure have not included asthma in part due to lack of clarity in the strength of the evidence. Objectives 1) To conduct a systematic review of evidence regar...
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Background Synthesizing environmental health science is crucial to taking action to protect public health. Procedures for evidence evaluation and integration are transitioning from “expert-based narrative” to “systematic” review methods. However, little is known about the methodology being utilized for either type of review. Objectives To appraise...
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Our proof-of-concept study develops a suspect screening workflow to identify and prioritize potentially ubiquitous chemical exposures in matched maternal/cord blood samples, a critical period of development for future health risks. We applied liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS) to perform suspect sc...
Article
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are chemicals that may contribute to placenta-mediated complications and adverse maternal-fetal health risks. Few studies have investigated these chemicals in relation to biomarkers of effect during pregnancy. We measured 12 PFASs and four urinary OPF...
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Background: Infants whose mothers experience greater psychosocial stress and environmental chemical exposures during pregnancy may face greater rates of preterm birth, lower birth weight, and impaired neurodevelopment. Methods: ECHO.CA.IL is composed of two cohorts, Chemicals in Our Bodies (CIOB; n = 822 pregnant women and n = 286 infants) and I...
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Background Telomere length in early life predicts later length, and shortened telomere length among adults and children has been linked to increased risk of chronic disease and mortality. Maternal stress during pregnancy may impact telomere length of the newborn. Methods In a diverse cohort of 355 pregnant women receiving prenatal and delivery car...
Article
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Background Systematic reviews are increasingly prevalent in environmental health due to their ability to synthesize evidence while reducing bias. Different systematic review methods have been developed by the US National Toxicology Program’s Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Integrate...
Preprint
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The exposome has been recognized as an important dimension in understanding human disease and complementing the genome but remains largely uncharacterized. We analyzed 295 matched maternal and cord blood samples using non-targeted high-resolution mass spectrometry and characterized exposome features. We compared the chemical enrichment of the mater...
Article
Background: Women can be exposed to a multitude of hardships prior to and during pregnancy that may affect fetal growth, but previous approaches have not analyzed them jointly as social exposure mixtures. Methods: We evaluated the independent, mutually adjusted, and pairwise joint associations between self-reported hardships and birthweight for...
Article
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Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products for their water repellent and flame retardant properties, respectively. However, there is widespread prenatal exposure and concern about their potential harm to the developing fetus. Here, we utilized data from a demographically di...
Article
Introduction Human cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzyme expression and activity is lower in the fetus as compared to the adult; however, limited quantitative data exists regarding the specific differences in magnitude or the degree of inducibility due to environmental factors. Methods We utilized a combination of in silico- and molecular-based approaches...
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Abstract Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures are a public health concern due to their persistence and potential for reproductive and developmental harm. However, we have little information about the extent of fetal exposures during critical developmental periods and the variation in exposures for groups that may be more highly e...
Poster
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While the mechanisms and periods of sensitivity remain undefined, in utero exposures to environmental chemicals (ECs) are associated with placenta-mediated fetal and maternal health complications. To investigate the relationship between EC exposures and human placental development during mid-gestation, we performed a two-part analysis: 1) an evalua...
Article
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Pregnant women who experience psychosocial stressors, such as stressful life events, poor neighborhood quality, and financial hardship, are at an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined associations between multiple stressors from different sources, which may be helpful to better inform causal pathways leading...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A hypothesized mechanism is via alterations in placental development and function. However, we lack biomarkers that can be used as early indicators of maternal/fetal response to PBDE exposures and/or perturbations in placental developme...
Article
Full-text available
Non-targeted analysis techniques provide a comprehensive approach to analyze environmental and biological samples for nearly all chemicals present in a given sample. One of the main shortcomings of current analytical methods is that they are unable to provide quantitative information about the chemicals in a given sample constituting an important o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A hypothesized mechanism is via alterations in placental development and function. However, we lack biomarkers that can be used as early indicators of maternal/fetal response to PBDE exposures and/or perturbations in placental development...