Toshio Yamagishi

Toshio Yamagishi
Hitotsubashi University · Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy

Ph. D in sociology

About

218
Publications
77,687
Reads
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13,642
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - May 2016
The University of Tokyo
Position
  • Project Professor
April 2012 - March 2013
Tamagawa University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 1985 - March 1989
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (218)
Article
Full-text available
Cooperation within and across borders is of paramount importance for the provision of public goods. Parochialism – the tendency to cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members – limits contributions to global public goods. National parochialism (i.e., greater cooperation among members of the same nation) could vary across nations and has been...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that genetic variations in rs53576, a common variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), are associated with attitudinal trust in men. However, the pathway from gene to behaviour has not been elucidated. We conducted the present study to determine whether amygdala volume mediates the association between OXTR rs53576 ge...
Article
Full-text available
The accumulation of findings that most responders in the ultimatum game reject unfair offers provides evidence that humans are driven by social preferences such as preferences for fairness and prosociality. On the other hand, if and how the proposer’s behavior is affected by social preferences remains unelucidated. We addressed this question for th...
Data
Analysis results with three indices of the CRT. The choice of index does not make much difference in the conclusion. (DOCX)
Data
Non-parametric analysis results for the analyses reported in the main text. (DOCX)
Data
English translation of instructions for the four games used in the study. (PDF)
Data
Data used for the analysis reported in the article. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Endogenous testosterone promotes behaviours intended to enhance social dominance. However, recent research suggests that testosterone enhances strategic social behaviour rather than dominance seeking behaviour. This possibility has not been tested in a population whose members are known to vary in social status. Here, we explored the relationship b...
Article
Full-text available
International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trus...
Article
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Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a co...
Article
Full-text available
Altruistic punishment following social norm violations promotes human cooperation. However, experimental evidence indicates that some forms of punishment are spiteful rather than altruistic. Using two types of punishment games and seven non-strategic games, we identified strong behavioural differences between altruistic and spiteful punishers. Altr...
Article
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Behavioral and neuroscientific studies explore two pathways through which internalized social norms promote prosocial behavior. One pathway involves internal control of impulsive selfishness, and the other involves emotion-based prosocial preferences that are translated into behavior when they evade cognitive control for pursuing self-interest. We...
Article
Across five studies using samples from both Japan and United States (N = 2345), we take a multi-method approach to test the prediction from life history theory that a slow, compared to fast, life history strategy promotes investment in cooperative relationships. Studies 1 and 2 examined how different measures as proxies for life history strategy (i...
Article
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Using a recently created preemptive strike game (PSG) with 176 participants, we investigated if the motivations of spite and/or fear promotes aggression that requires a small cost to the aggressor and imposes a larger cost on the opponent, and confirmed the earlier finding that fear does but spite does not promote intergroup aggression when the gro...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new framework for understanding cultural differences in self-construal by noting the duality of this construct. Based on the analysis of the adaptive roles of self-construal, we predicted that a US–Japan difference in self-construal exists in the contrast between self-expression and rejection avoidance. We confirmed these predictions u...
Article
Full-text available
Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20–59) and sex....
Data
Dataset including all variables used for analysis. (XLSX)
Data
Supplementary methods and tables. (PDF)
Data
Correlations between all variables used for analysis. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Despite the repeatedly raised criticism that findings in economic games are specific to situations involving trivial incentives, most studies that have examined the stake-size effect have failed to find a strong effect. Using three prisoner’s dilemma experiments, involving 479 non-student residents of suburban Tokyo and 162 students, we show here t...
Article
Full-text available
Human prosociality has been traditionally explained in the social sciences in terms of internalized social norms. Recent neuroscientific studies extended this traditional view of human prosociality by providing evidence that prosocial choices in economic games require cognitive control of the impulsive pursuit of self-interest. However, this view i...
Article
Full-text available
Social value orientations (SVOs) are economic preferences for the distribution of resources - prosocial individuals are more cooperative and egalitarian than are proselfs. Despite the social and economic implications of SVOs, no systematic studies have examined their neural correlates. We investigated the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
Article
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We tested the reputation maintenance hypothesis of ingroup favoritism. Ninety-two non-student participants played one-shot prisoner's dilemma games with an ingroup and an outgroup partner with minimal groups, and showed ingroup favoritism only when the participant and his/her partner knew each other's group membership (common knowledge condition)....
Article
Full-text available
A relationship between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and behavioral and attitudinal trust has been suggested, but the nature of this relationship has not yet been established. We obtained behavioral trust data from 470 Japanese participants (242 women) aged 20-59 years, together with their levels of general trust and personality traits (NEO-FFI...
Article
Full-text available
General trust constitutes a critical aspect of social capital that facilitates democratic governance and economic prosperity of a society. Despite its theoretical importance, attitudinal measures of general trust often fail to predict actual trusting behavior in laboratory testing. We suspected that the failure of currently available measures of tr...
Article
Humans are niche constructors who create physical and social environments to which they adapt. The social niche construction approach to human behavior analyzes behavior as a strategy to further long-term self-interest given a specific institution - that is, a set of stable and predictable responses from others to one's own behavior. We illustrate...
Article
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We predicted and supported the prediction that a ‘preference-expectation reversal’ would occur among Japanese but not among Americans. American and Japanese participants evaluated ideal-typical independent and interdependent persons on the negative–positive dimension, and estimated how others would evaluate these persons. They also indicated their...
Article
Full-text available
We successfully replicated Dana, Cain, and Dawes' study (2006) using a dictator game with an exit option with a Japanese sample. The exit option allowed the dictator to leave the recipient with nothing by paying a small fee while ensuring that the recipient never noticed that the dictator game was being played. If the dictator was motivated by fair...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a simple resource allocation game known as the ultimatum game (UG) with preschoolers to examine the role of cognitive and emotional perspective-taking ability on allocation and rejection behavior. A total of 146 preschoolers played the UG and completed a false belief task and an emotional perspective-taking test. Results showed that co...
Article
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Homo economicus, a model for humans in neoclassical economics, is a rational maximizer of self-interest. However, many social scientists regard such a person as a mere imaginary creature. We found that 31 of 446 residents of relatively wealthy Tokyo suburbs met the behavioral definition of Homo economicus. In several rounds of economic games, parti...
Article
The modulating role of age on the relationship between physical attractiveness and cooperativeness in a prisoner’s dilemma game (PDG) was investigated. Previous studies have shown that physical attractiveness is negatively related to cooperative choices among young men but not young women. Following the argument that the negative relationship betwe...
Article
The strong reciprocity model of human cooperation (SRM) argues that strong reciprocators, who cooperate with others and punish non-cooperators, sustain within-group cooperation. However, the assumption that altruism and punishment are products of the same psychological mechanism of strong reciprocity has not been fully verified. Second-party punish...
Article
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Schwartz (2013) uses the measurement model of latent aptitudes to explain why the large variance in individuals' values does not pose a problem for the use of the country mean as a proxy of the societal culture as a macro property. I propose that the multi-level causal model provides a more appropriate view of societal culture as a macro property,...
Chapter
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General solutions to social dilemmas may easily come to mind: When one wants to encourage cooperation, make it more attractive. When one wants to discourage noncooperation, make it less attractive, or more unattractive. Both truisms already seem to underline the relevance of reward and punishment, respectively. While these interventions seem straig...
Article
Full-text available
The mere presence of a potential threat of attack was found to be sufficient to lead a significant proportion of participants to engage in preemptive attacks toward potential threats; this response occurred even without an incentive for either party to attack the other. We developed a new experimental game—the preemptive strike game (PSG)—to demons...
Article
We argue that the current concept of interdependent self-construal as ‘harmony seeking’ has overlooked a strategic aspect of interdependence, which we term ‘rejection avoidance’. Using newly constructed scales of interdependent self-construal, one for harmony seeking and one for rejection avoidance, we find that Japanese respondents showed lower in...
Article
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The letter by Egloff, Richter, and Schmukle (1) regarding our article (2) provides excellent evidence for the implication in our study that positive and negative forms of reciprocity are independent of one another. Although we restrained our claim to a more limited conclusion that the rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (rUG) may not b...
Article
In addition to the cost of punishment, the fear that others would evaluate punishers negatively can be a major obstacle for resolving the second-order social dilemma or failure of providing sanctions useful for solving a social dilemma problem. In an experiment with 81 participants, we tested whether providing information that other participants we...
Article
Full-text available
The strong reciprocity model of the evolution of human cooperation has gained some acceptance, partly on the basis of support from experimental findings. The observation that unfair offers in the ultimatum game are frequently rejected constitutes an important piece of the experimental evidence for strong reciprocity. In the present study, we have c...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese participants in Study 1 exhibited a self‐effacing tendency when no reason for their self‐evaluation was provided. However, they exhibited a self‐enhancing tendency when they were offered a monetary reward for the correct evaluation. In Study 2, Americans, especially American men, exhibited a self‐enhancing tendency whereas Japanese exhibit...
Article
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The role that shared group membership plays in decisions to trust others is now well established within social psychology. A close reading of this literature, however, shows that this process is often moderated by other variables. Currently, we examined one potential moderator of this process. In particular, we evaluated the role that common knowle...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the "city air" hypothesis, which posits that the social constraints prevalent in rural life are weaker in metropolitan areas, freeing metropolitan residents from pressure to suppress their pursuit of individual goals. To do so, we replicated Yamagishi et al.'s vignette study of pen choice. In the first study using a web-based surv...
Article
Using a dyadic game theory paradigm, three experiments on the social dilemma of trust were conducted over the Internet in real time, involving real money. It was predicted and found that in‐group favouritism in trusting behaviour was contingent on historical relationships between societies. In the China–Japan experiment, mainland Chinese but not Ja...
Article
Since the Japanese edition of this volume was published in 1998, many significant social, political, economic and other events have occurred. These changes which have taken place in Japan and other parts of the world have significantly implicated the levels of general trust. According to the World Values Survey, the overall levels of general trust...
Article
I am going to present in this chapter the outlines of major theoretical approaches for analyzing trust, and then present the original approach I have developed in this book – the Emancipation Theory of Trust, which differs greatly from previous approaches. My approach differs greatly from the previous ones in that it emphasizes the relationship–ext...
Article
As I wrote at the beginning, this book is written around the central message that collectivist societies produce assurance of security and destroy trust. In addition to this explicit message, this book has another, implicit message. The implicit ­message of this book is that we cannot think about human minds without considering their relationships...
Article
In Chap. 4, I presented the argument that trust toward others in general emancipates people from the confines of stable relationships and, thus, having a high level of general trust may serve one’s self-interest when the level of opportunity costs is high. The argument was summarized as the emancipation theory of trust. In this chapter, I present r...
Article
This book is written around the central message that collectivist societies produce security, but destroy trust. In collectivist societies, people are connected through networks of strong personal ties where the behavior of all agents is constantly monitored and controlled. As a result, individuals in collectivist networks are assured that others w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Humans think, communicate, and behave to adapt to a particular social ecology, and by doing so they collectively create, maintain, and change the very ecology (i.e., social niche) they adapt to. The niche construction approach to culture analyzes how people induce each other to think and behave in particular ways by behaving in particular ways them...