Torsten Brezesinski

Torsten Brezesinski
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | KIT · Institute of Nanotechnology

PhD

About

228
Publications
55,422
Reads
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13,619
Citations
Introduction
Torsten Brezesinski received his PhD in physical chemistry in 2005. After postdoctoral years spent at the University of California, Los Angeles, he joined the faculty of the Department of Biology and Chemistry at the Justus-Liebig-University Giessen in 2008. Since 2012, he is laboratory manager of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)/BASF SE joint laboratory for batteries and electrochemistry (BELLA) and group leader at the Institute of Nanotechnology (INT).
Additional affiliations
May 2012 - April 2021
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • Laboratory Manager of the KIT/BASF SE joint laboratory for batteries and electrochemistry (BELLA)
June 2008 - April 2012
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • Liebig Fellow
May 2006 - May 2008
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (228)
Article
Oxide semiconductors are becoming the materials of choice for modern‐day display industries. The performance of solution‐processed oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) has also improved dramatically over the last few years. However, while oxygen deficient n‐type semiconductors can demonstrate excellent electronic transport, the performance of p‐type...
Article
LiNiO 2 has been long considered as a promising cathode material owing to its high practical energy density. However, structural and surface instabilities, coupled with complexities in the LiNiO 2 synthesis, have thus far prevented its commercialisation. To address issues with the material’s stability during synthesis and cycling, the use of an amm...
Article
Energy coverage In cover article ntls.20210105, Michael Bojdys et al. introduce a semi‐conducting porous organic polymer network, replacing all conventional additives in Si‐Li anodes and enabling the one‐pot production of moreperformant, flexible and thermally stable electrodes.
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Solid‐state batteries (SSBs) currently attract great attention as a potentially safe electrochemical high‐energy storage concept. However, several issues still prevent SSBs from outperforming today's lithium‐ion batteries based on liquid electrolytes. One major challenge is related to the design of cathode active materials (CAMs) that are compatibl...
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Improving the interfacial stability between cathode active material (CAM) and solid electrolyte (SE) is a vital step toward the development of high‐performance solid‐state batteries (SSBs). One of the challenges plaguing this field is an economical and scalable approach to fabricate high‐quality protective coatings on the CAM particles. A new wet‐c...
Article
Nanoparticle Protective Coatings In article number 2111829, Yuan Ma, Jürgen Janek, Torsten Brezesinski, and co‐workers propose a new coating strategy for layered Ni‐rich oxide cathode materials employing preformed (non‐agglomerated) nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid solvent. This approach leads to much improved cycling performance and stability a...
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The operation of combined mass spectrometry and electrochemistry setups has recently become a powerful approach for the in situ analysis of gas evolution in batteries. It allows for real-time insights and mechanistic understanding into different processes, including battery formation, operation, degradation, and behavior under stress conditions. Im...
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Mn‐based hexacyanoferrate (Mn‐HCF) cathodes for Na‐ion batteries usually suffer from poor reversibility and capacity decay resulting from unfavorable phase transitions and structural degradation during cycling. To address this issue, the high‐entropy concept is here applied to Mn‐HCF materials, significantly improving the sodium storage capabilitie...
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Abstract Silicon‐based anodes with lithium ions as charge carriers have the highest predicted theoretical specific capacity of 3579 mA h g−1 (for Li15Si4). Contemporary electrodes do not achieve this theoretical value largely because conventional production paradigms rely on the mixing of weakly coordinated components. In this paper, a semiconducti...
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High-entropy materials with tailorable properties are receiving increasing interest for energy applications. Among them, (disordered) rock-salt oxyfluorides hold promise as next-generation cathodes for use in secondary batteries. Here, we study the degradation behavior of a high-entropy oxyfluoride cathode material in lithium cells in situ via acou...
Article
LiNiO 2 (LNO) is a high energy density cathode material, yet it has been plagued by poor cycling performance and thermal instability. Adding dopants, such as Mg ²⁺ , is a common strategy to balance cycling performance and energy density. So far, the influence of Mg ²⁺ on the crystal structure remained ambiguous, especially when small industrially r...
Article
Inorganic solid‐state batteries are attracting significant interest as a contender to conventional liquid electrolyte‐based lithium‐ion batteries but still suffer from several limitations. The search for advanced coatings for protecting cathode materials in solid‐state batteries to achieve interfacial stability is a continuing challenge. In the pre...
Article
Modification of LiNiO 2 with small amounts of W in a simple one-step synthesis process leads to changes in the crystal structure and electrochemical behavior, but it is also consequential for physical features such as the materials' morphology and thermal stability.
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In recent years, high-entropy oxides are receiving increasing attention for electrochemical energy-storage applications. Among them, the rocksalt (Co 0.2 Cu 0.2 Mg 0.2 Ni 0.2 Zn 0.2 )O (HEO) has been shown to be a promising high-capacity anode material. Because high-entropy oxides constitute a new class of electrode materials, systematic understand...
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The energy density of layered oxide cathode materials increases with their Ni content, while the stability decreases and degradation becomes more severe. A common strategy to mitigate or prevent degradation is the application of protective coatings on the particle surfaces. In this article, a room‐temperature, liquid‐phase reaction of trimethylalum...
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The recent achievements following the application of single-crystalline (SC) cathode material in solid-state batteries are discussed in this mini-review. The characteristics of SC and poly-crystalline (PC) cathode materials are explored, with emphasis on the kinetic and mechanical properties. The critical factors influencing their performance in li...
Article
Layered Li(Ni1−x−yCoxMny)O2 (NCM, with Ni ≥ 0.8) cathode materials are essential in achieving high energy densities in the next generation of lithium-ion batteries. To extend the materials' lifetime, it is necessary to understand the role played by crystal defects in the degradation during electrochemical cycling. In this study, NCM851005 (85% Ni)...
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In this study, the preparation of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals via a facile non-aqueous sol–gel route and their characterization are reported. The 3–4 nm particles are readily dispersable in aqueous media and show excellent photoreactivity in terms of rhodamine B degradation. The catalytic performance can be further increased considerably by doping wi...
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Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are reported to be efficient sodium storage materials because of the unique advantages of their metal–organic framework structure. However, the issues of low specific capacity and poor reversibility, caused by phase transitions during charge/discharge cycling, have thus far limited the applicability of these materials...
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Cathode Materials In article number 2101342, Yuan Ma, Ben Breitung, Torsten Brezesinski and co-workers report the introduction of high (configurational) entropy into Prussian blue analogues to achieve a stable cathode host material for reversible sodium storage. Especially, Nax(FeMnNiCuCo)[Fe(CN)6] is shown to exhibit much improved cycling performa...
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Superionic solid electrolytes are key to the development of advanced solid-state Li batteries. In recent years, various materials have been discovered, with ionic conductivities approaching or even exceeding those of carbonate-based liquid electrolytes used in high-performance Li-ion batteries. Among the different classes of inorganic solid electro...
Article
Achieving compatibility between cell components is one of the major challenges for the widespread adoption of bulk-type solid-state batteries. In particular, superionic lithium thiophosphate solid electrolytes suffer from oxidation at high voltages when interfaced with state-of-the-art cathode materials. Here, we report on atomic layer deposition (...
Article
Laboratory research into bulk-type solid-state batteries (SSBs) has been focused predominantly on powder-based, pelletized cells and has been sufficient to evaluate fundamental limitations and tailor the constituents to some degree. However, to improve experimental reliability and for commercial implementation of this technology, competitive slurry...
Article
Ordered mesoporous metal oxides with a high specific surface area, tailored porosity and engineered interfaces are promising materials for electrochemical applications. In particular, the method of evaporation-induced self-assembly allows the formation of nanocrystalline films of controlled thickness on polar substrates. In general, mesoporous mate...
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While still premature as an energy storage technology, bulk solid-state batteries are attracting much attention in the academic and industrial communities lately. In particular, layered lithium metal oxides and lithium thiophosphates hold promise as cathode materials and superionic solid electrolytes, respectively. However, interfacial side reactio...
Article
Large-scale industrial application of all-solid-state-batteries (ASSBs) is currently hindered by numerous problems. Regarding thiophosphate-based ASSBs, interfacial reactions with the solid electrolyte are considered a major reason for capacity fading. On the positive electrode side, cathode active material coating addresses these issues and improv...
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Lithium‐ion batteries, which utilise a liquid electrolyte, have established prominence among energy storage devices by offering unparalleled energy and power densities coupled with reliable electrochemical behaviour. The development of solid‐state batteries, utilising a solid electrolyte layer for ionic conduction between the electrodes, could pote...
Article
The essential demand for functional materials enabling the realization of new energy technologies has triggered tremendous efforts in scientific and industrial research in recent years. Recently, high-entropy materials, with their...
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Metal molybdates constitute a promising class of materials with a wide application range. Here, we report, to our knowledge for the first time, on the preparation and characterization of medium-entropy and high-entropy metal molybdates, synthesized by an oxalate-based coprecipitation approach. The high-entropy molybdate crystallizes in a triclinic...
Article
All-inorganic solid-state batteries (SSBs) currently attract much attention as next-generation high-density energy-storage technology. However, to make SSBs competitive with conventional Li-ion batteries, several obstacles and challenges must be overcome, many of which are related to interface stability issues. Protective coatings can be applied to...
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The thermal stability of cathode active materials (CAMs) is of major importance for the safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). A thorough understanding of how commercially viable layered oxide CAMs behave at the atomic length scale upon heating is indispensable for the further development of LIBs. Here, structural changes of Li(Ni0.85Co0.15Mn0.05)...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this work, we have been able to access the phase transformed region in between the layered and the rock-salt structure by collecting four-dimensional datasets (4D STEM). This has enabled us to atomically track Ni as well as the light elements, especially lithium and oxygen. The analysis of the layered-to-rock salt phase transition region suggest...
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Layered Delafossite-type Li x (M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 …M n )O 2 materials, a new class of high-entropy oxides, were synthesized by nebulized spray pyrolysis and subsequent high-temperature annealing. Various metal species (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti, Zr, Cu) could be incorporated into this structure type, and in most cases, single-phase oxides...
Article
The Li-Ni-O phase diagram contains a variety of compounds, most of which are electrochemically active in Li-ion batteries. Other than the well-known LiNiO2, here we report a facile solid-state method to prepare Li2NiO3 and other Li-rich Ni oxides of composition Li1+xNi1-xO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33). We characterize their crystal and electronic structure, exh...
Article
The Front Cover shows the effect of prolonged electrochemical cycling on the integrity of an ensemble and single secondary particles of Ni‐rich cathode active materials without and with modified surfaces. In search of higher capacities, Ni‐rich layered lithium metal oxides are in the spotlight for applications in advanced lithium‐ion batteries. Yet...
Article
Invited for this month's cover picture is the group of Jürgen Janek at KIT. The cover picture shows that acoustic emission is a promising technique that allows degradation of battery materials such as particle fracture to be probed in a non‐destructive manner. Read the full text of the Article at 10.1002/batt.202000099. “Operando acoustic emission...
Article
The Front Cover shows that acoustic emission is a promising technique that allows degradation of battery materials such as particle fracture to be probed in a non‐destructive manner. More information can be found in the Article by T. Brezesinski, J. Janek and co‐workers.
Article
In recent years, investigations into improving the performance of bulk-type solid-state batteries (SSBs) are attracting much attention. This is due, in part, to the fact that they offer the opportunity to outperform todays Li-ion battery technology regarding energy density. Ni-rich Li1+x(Ni1–y–zCoyMnz)1–xO2 (NCM) and lithium-thiophosphate-based sol...
Article
In recent years, the search for glassy and ceramic Li+ superionic conductors has received significant attention, mainly due to the renaissance of interest in all-solid-state batteries. Here, we report the mechanochemical synthesis of metastable Li7GeS5Br, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first compound of the Li2S-GeS2-LiBr system. Apply...
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Ni‐rich layered lithium metal oxides are the cathode active materials of choice for high‐energy‐density Li‐ion batteries. While the high content of Ni is responsible for the excellent capacity, it is also the source of interfacial instability, limiting the material's lifetime due to a variety of correlated in‐ and extrinsic factors. Hence, reconcil...
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Elemental substitution in lithium nickel oxide (LiNiO2, LNO) is among the most common strategies employed in search of a commercially viable cathode active material (CAM) with the highest possible energy density at reasonable cost (as offered by Ni-rich CAMs). Here, we revisit Ga substitution in LNO, for which promising electrochemical performance...
Article
The development of advanced Li‐ion batteries relies on the implementation of high‐capacity Ni‐rich layered oxide cathode materials, such as NCM and NCA, among others. However, fast performance decay because of intrinsic chemical and structural instabilities hampers their practical application. Hence, thoroughly understanding degradation processes i...
Article
Full-text available
The layered oxide LiNiO2 (LNO) has been extensively investigated as a cathode active material for lithium‐ion batteries. Despite LNO's high gravimetric capacity, instability issues hinder its commercialization. It suffers from capacity loss during electrochemical cycling and is difficult to synthesize without defects. This is related to poor struct...
Article
Porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to investigate the influence of specific surface area on the electrical and protonic transport properties. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out as a function of temperature, oxygen activity and humidity of the surrounding atmosphere....
Article
Gas evolution in conventional lithium-ion batteries using Ni-rich layered oxide cathode materials presents a serious issue, responsible for performance decay and safety concerns, among others. Recent findings revealed gas evolution occurring also in bulk-type solid-state batteries. To further clarify the effect that the electrolyte has on gassing,...
Article
Lithium-excess disordered rock-salt oxides have opened up a new vista in search of high-capacity cathodes, resulting in a variety of new materials with versatile elemental compositions. This work introduces W⁶⁺ as a possible charge-compensator and explores the solid-solution series Li1+x/100Ni1/2−x/120Ti1/2−x/120Wx/150O2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20), whi...
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High entropy oxides (HEOs) constitute a promising class of materials with possibly new and largely unexplored properties. The virtually infinite variety of compositions (multi-element approach) for a single-phase structure allows the tailoring of their physical properties and enables unprecedented materials design. Nevertheless, this level of versa...
Article
Layered lithium transition-metal oxides of the general formula Li1+x(Ni1−y−zCoyMnz)1−xO2 (NCM or NMC) represent a promising class of cathode active materials for Li-ion battery applications. However, especially Ni-rich NCMs, enabling high capacity and energy density, tend to undergo more severe degradation during cycling than low and medium Ni mate...
Preprint
p>Layered Li <sub>x</sub> MO<sub>2</sub> materials, a new class of high-entropy oxides, have been synthesized by nebulized spray pyrolysis. Specifically, the lattice structure of Li(Ni<sub>1/3</sub>Mn<sub>1/3</sub>Co<sub>1/3</sub>)O<sub>2</sub> (NCM111) cathode material has been replicated successfully while increasing the number of cations in equi...
Article
The electrification trend in the automotive industry is fueling research on positive electrode materials with high specific capacities. The nickel content in such layered oxide systems is continuously increasing, and so is the importance of LiNiO2 (LNO). Despite decades of research, LNO still exhibits properties, closely related to its instability,...
Article
Multicomponent materials may exhibit favorable Li‐storage properties because of entropy stabilization. While the first examples of high‐entropy oxides and oxyfluorides show good cycling performance, they suffer from various problems. Here, we report on side reactions leading to gas evolution in Li‐ion cells using rock‐salt (Co0.2Cu0.2Mg0.2Ni0.2Zn0....
Article
Full-text available
All-solid-state batteries (SSBs) are attracting widespread attention as next-generation energy storage devices, potentially offering increased power and energy densities and better safety than liquid electrolyte-based Li-ion batteries. Significant research efforts are currently underway to develop stable and high-performance bulk-type SSB cells by...