Torbjörn. Bergman

Torbjörn. Bergman
Umeå University | UMU · Department of Political Science

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59
Publications
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1,972
Citations
Citations since 2017
7 Research Items
785 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (59)
Chapter
This chapter argues that the debate about the proper relationship between member states and EU institutions usually pits those who favour emphasising intergovernmental principles against those who think that the Union must have an increased element of supranationalism. One result of a stalemate between these two positions is that the EU has develop...
Chapter
This volume analyses the coalition life-cycle in ten countries in Central Eastern Europe, from pre-electoral alliances to government formation and portfolio distribution, to governing in coalitions, the events that eventually lead to a government termination, and electoral performance of coalition parties. This final chapter summarizes the main pat...
Article
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein footprinting, a valuable structural tool in mapping protein-ligand interaction, has been extensively applied to protein-protein complexes, showing success in mapping large interfaces. Here, we utilized an integrated footprinting strategy incorporating both hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) and hydroxyl radical f...
Article
Mass spectrometry (MS)–based protein footprinting, a valuable structural tool in mapping protein-ligand interaction, has been extensively applied to protein-protein complexes, showing success in mapping large interfaces. Here, we utilized an integrated footprinting strategy incorporating both hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) and hydroxyl radical f...
Article
Full-text available
Protein structures are dynamic and can explore a large conformational landscape. Only some of these structural substates are important for protein function (such as ligand binding, catalysis and regulation). How evolution shapes the structural ensemble to optimize a specific function is poorly understood. One of the constraints on the evolution of...
Article
Government instability (cabinet duration) is an important feature of parliamentary democracy. Over time, the research on cabinet duration has improved in technical and theoretical sophistication. However, we note that little attention has been paid to the relationship between governments and the state itself. Our main hypothesis is that state capac...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the role of political parties in the government formation process. Swedish governments have had a clear-cut bloc political character, with the 'socialist' parties in one camp and the 'non-socialist' parties in the other. Other features of the historical record also stand out. One example is that many postwar governments have...
Article
In this article, we use a new data set describing governments, political parties and institutions to make an explicit comparison between Western Europe (WE) and Central Eastern Europe (CEE) in the investigation of three different topical issues found in the coalition literature, namely, coalition formation (that is, which factors affect who forms t...
Article
Party competition is a constitutive component of modern democracies. While indispensable, the division of parliament into competing political parties at the same time creates challenges for these parties. Specifically, the challenges are providing stable government, arriving at government decisions, and making these decisions part and parcel of a c...
Book
Political parties are essential for the functioning of parliamentary democracy but how have parties adapted to the challenges created by the growth of a new layer of political decision-making at the supranational level, i.e. the EU? This comparative survey focuses on parties in four Nordic countries, including Norway, which remains outside the EU....
Chapter
For all the changes in European governance in recent decades, which some suggest have left the old ‘boundaries’ of the state out of sync with each other (Bartolini 2005), national democratic systems remain the centrepiece of politics. Moreover, despite their frequently alleged decline (see Daalder 1992), parties remain absolutely central to politic...
Chapter
As we saw in the previous, introductory chapter, delegation of political power is at the heart of representative democracy. As in many other parts of life, we select other people to act on our behalf when we lack the capacity (often in the form of time) or competence (such as specialist, expert knowledge or talent) to get the job done ourselves, or...
Chapter
This final empirical chapter brings us to Sweden, the third EU member among the Nordic states. Sweden joined the Union at the start of 1995. Accession followed a referendum in October the previous year, in which the electorate approved the terms of membership by a fairly narrow margin. After that, opinion polls consistently showed Swedes to be amon...
Chapter
This chapter turns to Norway which, like Iceland, remains outside the EU. On two occasions, in the early 1970s and the mid-1990s, the country’s government felt confident that Norwegian membership of the Union had been arranged, only to see its plans dashed by the electorate in consultative referendums. Thereafter Norway assumed the status of a semi...
Chapter
At the beginning of the 1990s, the debate on EU membership developed in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The main reason was the severe economic difficulties that hit these countries. However, in the Finnish case, another argument was relevant. Throughout its history, Finland has been strongly influenced by the fact that the country is situated between...
Chapter
In this first empirical chapter, we look at Denmark, the Nordic country with the longest-standing EU membership. The Danes joined the European Community (EC) in 1973, alongside Britain and Ireland (but not Norway, which, as we will see later in the book, declined to take up the terms of its accession). Denmark’s involvement in European integration...
Chapter
In the previous chapters of this book, we have looked at the way political parties are organised and take decisions in Nordic countries — Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Our interest in the topic has been fired particularly by the debate about the effects of the European Union on the systems of democracy in its member states — and, indeed, in...
Article
On the surface, there seems to be little reason to worry about the fate of parliamentary democracy in Northern Europe or indeed anywhere else. Parliamentary government is the most common of all democratic regime types, at least in the sense that more people live under this form than under any other. Since World War II, parliamentary democracies hav...
Chapter
Swedish democracy is changing once again. The parliamentary democracy originated with a separation-of-powers system that was far from democratic, but the "working constitution" (in Swedish, "den levande författningen"; see, e.g., Mattson and Petersson 2008) gradually became quite similar to the parliamentary democracy ideal type and the Westminster...
Article
Few readers will be surprised at our treatment of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden as one region. There is in fact widespread agreement among students of politics, social life, history, and culture that these countries share many commonalities, and that it is for a variety of purposes meaningful and interesting to study them jointly. W...
Article
There is increasing concern across the advanced industrial democracies about the health of two essential democratic institutions: legislatures and political parties.1 As Russell Dalton argues, citizens "have grown distrustful of politicians, skeptical about democratic institutions, and disillusioned about how the democratic process functions" (2004...
Book
This book is unique in its comparative scope and the wealth of information on the state of parliamentary democracy in the Nordic countries. It is particularly useful for the comparativists who do not come from these countries, because the original literature which it covers in detail is often not accessible for the English-speaking audience. -Hansp...
Article
Much of the literature on political corruption is based on indices such as the ones presented by Transparency International, but the reliability and validity of these indices are questionable. The main alternative approach – qualitative case studies – often lacks a theoretical framework allowing for systematic empirical analysis. To remedy this sho...
Article
In the early 1970s the Swedish parties designed new rules for government formation. In this study it is shown that the choice of a new voting rule stemmed from a combination of goaloriented behaviour and a process of socialization. In a cross national comparison, it is also shown that there exists an empirical correlation between the Swedish type o...
Article
Recent years have seen the institutionalization of minority governance in Sweden and New Zealand. Large, historic social democratic labour parties enjoy comparative security of tenure thanks to smaller, newer parties with whom they have signed long-term, detailed support agreements covering both policy and process. This trend toward ‘contract parli...
Article
This research note focuses on the importance of rules for coalition formation in parliamentary democracies. Traditionally, coalition theorists have assumed that only majority coalitions can be winning. The more recent literature has shown that coalitions can be winning even if they do not control more than half of all legislators. However, the lite...
Article
Some parties support rather than join the executive, thereby operating in a grey area between opposition and office - in governance but not in government. Previous research on the New Zealand Greens' experience as a support party has shown that this liminal position may prove a blessing or a curse - or, more likely, a mixture of both. This article...
Book
Full-text available
Delegation is an ubiquitous social phenomenon linked to the growing differentiation of modern societies. Delegation is one of several different modes of organisation that exist to make collective action successful, but has been overlooked and under-researched. Using a rational choice institutional analysis and principal agent models, this book bri...
Article
The Comparative Parliamentary Democracy project examines West European parliamentary politics from a principal–agent perspective. The project involves thirty-five scholars from Western Europe and the Americas. It has made both conceptual and empirical contributions in the fields of comparative politics, parliamentary democracy in general and coalit...
Chapter
The Greek process of delegation is highly institutionalized and exhaustively regulated by the Constitution. The Constitution gives the cabinet strong stability and leverage over the parliament, creating one of the most powerful governments in Western Europe. Clientelistic networks are important in Greece and complicate the delegation chain.
Article
Representative democracy means delegation, and delegation implies the risk of agency problems. Parliamentary democracy is a particular delegation regime, a way to structure the democratic policy process, and an attempt to solve agency problems. This chapter finds that there are persistent and essential cross-national differences between European pa...
Book
Parliamentary democracy is the most common way of organizing delegation and accountability in contemporary democracies. Yet knowledge of this type of regime has been incomplete and often unsystematic. Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies offers new conceptual clarity on the topic. Taking principal-agent theory as its framework...
Article
Early in the twentieth century, parliamentary democracy developed within an 1809 constitution based on separation of powers. By the mid-1970s, the last remnants of this constitution had disappeared. After that, measures such as more openness in candidate nominations, positive preference voting and more scrutiny by parliamentarians were introduced t...
Article
European politics is still dominated by representative and parliamentary national systems of policy making. These systems can be seen as chains of political delegation from citizens through parliamentarians and executive office holders to civil servants. In these chains, a major trend for the past thirty years, and more strongly during the second h...
Chapter
Reviews the patterns of delegation and accountability in 17 Western European parliamentary democracies, over the post-war period. It provides information about the links between voters and MPs, between MPs and the cabinet, within the cabinet, and between ministers and civil servants, discussing potentials for agency loss. It places political partie...
Chapter
In this chapter, we take a closer look at democratic accountability outcomes. The evidence strongly and broadly suggests that cohesive and competitive political parties and governments help reduce the risks of democratic delegation. Specifically, executive cohesion strongly and significantly reduces the risks of corruption and fiscal indiscipline....
Chapter
While far from perfect, for much of the post-war period the Swedish chain of democratic delegation and accountability has not been affected by serious agency problems. Fierce electoral competition between two clearly defined blocs and two alternative visions of society allowed voters to be reasonably sure that elections would impact on the directio...
Chapter
Parliamentary government is the most common way to organize delegation and accountability in contemporary democracies. Parliamentary government is a system of government in which the prime minister and his or her cabinet are accountable to any majority of the members of parliament and can be voted out of office by the latter. Parliamentary democrac...
Article
Full-text available
El artículo aborda el estudio de las estrategias desarrolladas por los partidos políticos españoles frente a los procesos de formación de gobierno en el ámbito estatal. A partir de la discusión de los objetivos perseguidos por los partidos, se analizan las estrategias dirigidas a reducir los costes y aumentar los beneficios en dichos procesos. Así,...
Article
Full-text available
One of the biggest challenges parties in multiparty governments face is making policies together and overcoming the risk of a policy stalemate. Scholars have devoted much attention to the study of how various institutions in cabinet and parliament help coalition parties with conflicting policy preferences to be efficient in the policy-making proces...
Article
The Principal–Agent approach guides a comparison of the scrutiny and implementation records of the EU member states. The main argument is that there is systematic co–variation. Cross–nationally, an influential scrutiny process is associated with a strong implementation record. But because both of these variables also co–vary with the North–South di...
Chapter
Leaders of political parties often have to choose between conflicting objectives, such as influence on policy, control of the government, and support among the voters. This book examines the behaviour of political parties in situations where they experience conflict between two or more important objectives. The volume contains a theoretical introdu...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the link between fifteen national parliaments and decision-making in the EU Council of Ministers. The main purpose is to provide a comparative account of EU Affairs Committees and the national advisory processes of scrutiny and co-ordination that occur before a national government takes an official policy position in the Counc...
Chapter
Five parties and two ‘blocs’ have dominated Swedish politics in the post-war era. The two blocs (socialist and bourgeois) are defined by party positions on a popularly perceived left-right dimension, and in this respect the Swedish party system follows a general Scandinavian pattern. Berglund et al. (1981) have argued that this Scandinavian model f...
Article
Full-text available
[From the introduction]. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Icelandic intra-party politics through the lens of principal-agent relationships. In particular, I examine the divergence between power relationships in “domestic” politics and EU politics. The main finding is that this discrepancy is large. After explaining why this is so, in the...
Article
Full-text available
El artículo aborda el estudio de las estrategias desarrolladas por los partidos políticos españoles frente a los procesos de formación de gobierno en el ámbito estatal. A partir de la discusión de los objetivos perseguidos por los partidos, se analizan las estrategias dirigidas a reducir los costes y aumentar los beneficios en dichos procesos. Así,...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Party Government in Europe Database (PAGED) is a research infrastructure project, funded by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, that aims to build a state-of-the-art database for comparative coalition research on political institutions, political parties, parliaments and governments. This infrastructure project builds on three major international and comparative projects on European parliamentary democracy that concern key issues of today s representative democracy namely delegation, accountability, government formation, governance and government dissolution. Existing databases including information about parties, governments, party systems and political institutions of European countries will be updated, partially redone, and expanded. This will enable new comparative studies of representative democracy, its challenges and possible room for reforms. The update and expansion of these datasets will be made by the project participants, as well as using "country experts".