Toran D MacLeod

Toran D MacLeod
California State University, Sacramento | CSUS · Department of Physical Therapy

PT, PhD

About

69
Publications
40,320
Reads
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950
Citations
Introduction
Investigating the interactions between lower extremity strength, flexibility, and neuromuscular control and their effects on subjective and objective function, with an emphasis on improving interventions.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
California State University, Sacramento
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
August 2014 - present
California State University, Sacramento
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
November 2011 - July 2014
University of California, San Francisco
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing body of evidence documenting loads applied to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) for weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing exercises. ACL loading has been quantified by inverse dynamics techniques that measure anterior shear force at the tibiofemoral joint (net force primarily restrained by the ACL), ACL strain (defined as chan...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Prospective cross-sectional study. Objectives: To compare knee muscle morphology and voluntary neuromuscular control in individuals who sustained an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and were identified as being capable of avoiding surgery (potential copers) and those who were recommended for surgery (noncopers), within 6 mon...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to investigate whether adding mass to subjects' feet affects the preferred transition speed (PTS), and to ascertain whether selected swing phase variables (maximum ankle dorsiflexion angular velocity, angular acceleration, joint moment, and joint power) are determinants of the PTS, based upon four previously established cri...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to develop a biomechanical model to estimate anterior tibial translation (ATT), anterior shear forces, and ligament loading in the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee joint during gait. This model used electromyography (EMG), joint position, and force plate data as inputs to calculate ligament l...
Article
The objective was to assess how patellofemoral loads (joint force and stress) change while lunging with step length and step height variations. Sixteen participants performed a forward lunge using short and long steps at ground level and up to a 10-cm platform. Electromyography, ground reaction force, and 3D motion were captured, and patellofemoral...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The optimal surgical technique for unstable acromioclavicular (AC) and coracoclavicular (CC) joint injuries has not yet been established. The biomechanical and radiographic effect of the LockDown device, a synthetic ligament for AC joint reconstruction, was evaluated to assess the optimal surgical technique for unstable AC and CC joint in...
Article
Full-text available
Mechanical loading to the knee joint results in a differential response based on the local capacity of the tissues (ligament, tendon, meniscus, cartilage, and bone) and how those tissues subsequently adapt to that load at the molecular and cellular level. Participation in cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports predisposes the knee to the risk of inj...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Forward and side lunge exercises strengthen hip and thigh musculature, enhance patellofemoral joint stability, and are commonly used during patellofemoral rehabilitation and training for sport. Hypothesis/purpose: The purpose was to quantify, via calculated estimates, patellofemoral force and stress between two lunge type variations...
Article
Introduction: Curricular guidelines do not exist currently for content related to amputation rehabilitation and prosthetics in entry-level physical therapy education programs. Documents exist to provide context, but before guidelines can be written, the current content of entry-level physical therapist professional education programs must be known...
Article
It is important for individuals who have suffered a stroke to be able to experience a weight-bearing aerobic workout, if able. For individuals post-stroke who experience genu recurvatum during gait, care should be taken to minimize abnormal forces on the posterior and internal structures of the involved knee. The purpose of this case study was to a...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the associations between patellofemoral cartilage T1ρ and T2 relaxation times and knee flexion moment (KFM) and KFM impulse during gait. Method: Knee magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained from 99 subjects with and without patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA), using fast spin-echo, T1ρ and T2...
Article
Objective To establish a novel method of quantifying meniscal deformation using loaded MRI. More specifically, the goals were to evaluate the (1) accuracy, (2) inter-rater reliability, (3) intra-rater reliability, and (4) scan-rescan reliability. The secondary purpose of this experiment was to evaluate group differences in meniscal deformation in...
Article
Full-text available
Study Design Controlled laboratory study, longitudinal design. Objective To examine whether baseline knee flexion moment or impulse during walking is associated with magnetic resonance (MR) progression of patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) at 1 year. Background Patellofemoral joint OA is highly prevalent and a major source of pain and d...
Article
Full-text available
Women are at a greater risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA), but reasons for this greater risk in women are not well understood. It may be possible that differences in cartilage composition and walking mechanics are related to greater OA risk in women. (1) Do women have higher knee cartilage and meniscus T1ρ than men in young healthy, middle-aged non-...
Article
Full-text available
A relatively high number of active professional baseball pitchers have a history of ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLr) on their throwing elbow. Controversy exists in the literature about whether professional baseball pitchers regain optimal performance after return from UCLr. It has been suggested that pitchers may have different biome...
Conference Paper
Reduction in quadriceps strength was found to result in increased first and second peaks of knee adduction moment during walking and fast walking and thus, may be a risk factor of the presence or progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.
Conference Paper
Purpose: The objective was to evaluate the associations of sagittal (flexion) and frontal (adduction) impulse during walking with articular and meniscal cartilage MR relaxation times in young healthy, middle-aged healthy, and osteoarthritic populations.
Article
To compare thigh muscle intramuscular fat (intraMF) fractions and area between people with and without knee radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA); and to evaluate the relationships of quadriceps adiposity and area with strength, function and knee MRI lesions. Ninety six subjects (ROA: KL >1; n = 30, control: KL = 0,1; n = 66) underwent 3-Tesla MRI of t...
Article
Full-text available
The semitendinosus-gracilis tendon autograft is often used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. Tendon regeneration appears to occur for most individuals in the short term, but little is known about the long-term effects of graft harvest. The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of semitendinosis-gracilis tendon graft harvest...
Article
Full-text available
Cruciate ligament injuries are common and may lead to dysfunction if not rehabilitated. Understanding how to progress anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament loading, early after injury or reconstruction, helps clinicians prescribe rehabilitation exercises in a safe manner to enhance recovery. Commonly prescribed therapeutic exer...
Article
Full-text available
Hyperlipidemia, also known as high blood cholesterol, is a cardiovascular health risk that affects more than one third of adults in the United States. Statins are commonly prescribed and successful lipid-lowering medications that reduce the risks associated with cardiovascular disease. The side effects most commonly associated with statin use invol...
Conference Paper
Muscle synergies have been examined during a variety of tasks and many theories about muscle coordination have been proposed. Some studies have been have been performed while pushing against load cells and other have been performed while standing and responding to a perturbation. In this study we examined muscles during a standing posture but with...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare cruciate ligament forces between the forward lunge with a short step (forward lunge short) and the forward lunge with a long step (forward lunge long). Eighteen subjects used their 12-repetition maximum weight while performing the forward lunge short and long with and without a stride. EMG, force, and kinema...
Article
Although weight bearing lunge exercises are frequently employed during anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation, cruciate ligament tensile forces are currently unknown while performing forward and side lunge exercises with and without a stride. Eighteen subjects used their 12 repetition maximum weight while performi...
Article
To compare patellofemoral compressive force and stress during the one-leg squat and two variations of the wall squat. Eighteen subjects used their 12 repetition maximum (12 RM) weight while performing the wall squat with the feet closer to the wall (wall squat short), the wall squat with the feet farther away from the wall (wall squat long), and th...
Article
Purpose: To compare cruciate ligament forces during wall squat and one-leg squat exercises. Methods: Eighteen subjects performed the wall squat with feet closer to the wall (wall squat short), the wall squat with feet farther from the wall (wall squat long), and the one-leg squat. EMG, force, and kinematic variables were input into a biomechanical...
Article
Full-text available
Controlled laboratory biomechanics study using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. To compare patellofemoral joint force and stress between a short- and long-step forward lunge both with and without a stride. Although weight-bearing forward-lunge exercises are frequently employed during rehabilitation for individuals with patellofemoral jo...
Article
Although weight bearing lunge exercises are frequently employed during patellofemoral rehabilitation, patellofemoral compressive force and stress are currently unknown for these exercises. Eighteen subjects used their 12 repetition maximum weight while performing forward and side lunges with and without a stride. EMG, force platform, and kinematic...
Article
Full-text available
The primary purpose of this project was to examine whether lower extremity joint kinetic factors are related to the walk-run gait transition during human locomotion. Following determination of the preferred transition speed (PTS), each of the 16 subjects walked down a 25-m runway, and over a floor-mounted force platform at five speeds (70, 80, 90,...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Although the wall squat, forward lunge, side lunge, and one-leg squat are common exercises, there are limited EMG data regarding muscle recruitment patterns. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity among these exercises and between technique variations (short and long foot positions). METHODS: Nineteen healthy males (29±7...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Several researchers [1,2,3,4] have hypothesized that the gait transitions of quadrupeds are triggered by kinetic factors, such as musculoskeletal stresses, particularly at joints. Utilizing invasive techniques, it has been shown [1,2,4] that small horses, dogs, and goats reduced bone and joint strain when changing gait from a trot to a...
Article
An inexpensive, break-resistant IR gas cell has been constructed using a PVC compression tee. The cell allows for multiple experiments to be performed in freshman chemistry and advanced lab courses. The PVC cell can be assembled by the students and then dismantled and cleaned after their experiments are completed. This cell has been successfully us...
Article
A solid-state catalyst that effectively converts a CO/air mixture to CO2 at room temperature is readily prepared. The catalyst, which is composed of metallic gold on iron(III) oxide, is loaded into a simple flow cell to test its catalytic activity. Mixtures of CO and air are run through the catalyst and subsequently analyzed by gas-phase infrared s...

Questions

Questions (6)
Question
As a new (assistant) professor in the fields of biomechanics and physical therapy, I am finding that I am getting quite a few requests to review manuscripts. I review for clinical biomechanics, physical therapy, journal of osteoarthritis and sports physical therapy, journal of applied biomechanics, journal of biomechanics, seminars in arthritis and rheumatism, journal of electromyography and kinesiology and others. For each, I review one to five a year. As I fill in to my shoes as a faculty member, should I expect this to grow in number of reviews, or shrink? Am I doing too many? Should I start saying no to a few of these reviews, rather than accepting the vast majority?
I really find the process rewarding, but I am trying to get a sense for what others are doing at the same (or other) level to gauge if I am doing too much or too little. Ultimately I would like to become an editorial member of my favorite journal, so keep that in mind when answering please.
Question
Tommy John surgery is a common event among pitchers, and represents a serious problem. Ulnar collateral ligament.
Question
What differentiates those that are able to cope with an ACL injury from those that aren't is unclear. Potential copers may be able to return to sports/ADLs following ACL injury, while non-copers may not always be capable. What do you think differentiates these two groups?
Question
'Gunnar Kaati and his team at the University of Umeå collected health histories of 300 Swedes born between 1890 and 1920. Crop records showed how much they were eating just before puberty.
Grandchildren of well-fed grandfathers were four times as likely to die from diabetes, they found. Kids of men who suffered famine were less likely to die from heart disease.
"It's a big leap" to say that such effects are passed on to future generations, says Eugene Albrecht, who studies fetal growth at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. "But I have a gut feeling [Kaati's] right."'
Question
Background:
Increased physical activity has been linked to numerous health benefits including improved cardiovascular and respiratory health, insulin sensitivity, bone and muscle strength, and cognitive function. In addition to these improvements, physical activity is associated with reductions in coronary heart disease, stroke, some cancers, type 2 diabetes and depression (http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/chapter2.aspx). For most health outcomes, benefits increase as the amount of physical activity increases through higher intensity, greater frequency, or longer duration, although the magnitude of these benefits diminishes with advancing age.
For the purposes of this request, physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above basal levels.
Although researchers have demonstrated that physical activity contributes to improved health outcomes (for purposes of this request, “improved health” and related phrases include reduced risk of disease), studies tend to focus on a single signaling pathway, tissue, or organ system and have not identified the molecular mechanisms by which physical activity is beneficial. Such compartmentalization limits the scope and impact of most research findings.
Information Requested:
The NIH Common Fund is exploring strategies to help the research community develop a more integrative perspective on the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which physical activity improves multiple health outcomes.
The NIH is requesting comments, to include but not limited to addressing the following:
A. The most pressing research questions related to the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of disease.
B. The types of new protocols, techniques, and tools needed to answer these research questions.
C. The likely translational applications for new knowledge about the mechanisms by which physical activity improves overall health and the long-term, overarching benefits of this knowledge.
Question
Physical Therapists ought to be aware of the potentially dangerous combination between heavy eccentric exercise and the most commonly prescribed drug in America (statins). So should the public, especially those interested in crossfit.

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