Tor A Strand

Tor A Strand
Innlandet Hospital Trust

Dr Med (PhD), MD

About

258
Publications
50,076
Reads
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8,585
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - September 2019
Innlandet University College of Applied Sciences
Position
  • Professor
August 1996 - May 2020
University of Bergen
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health (CISMAC): www.cismac.org

Publications

Publications (258)
Article
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Background Biomass fuels are still in use for cooking by many households in resource poor countries such as Nepal and is a major source of household air pollution (HAP). Chronic exposure to HAP has been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length in adults. Objectives To measure the association between exposure related to household biomass...
Article
Folate and vitamin B12 are essential for growth. Our objective was to estimate their long-term effects on linear growth in North Indian children. This is a follow-up study of a factorial designed, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in 1,000 young children. Starting at 6-30 months of age, we gave folic acid (∼2 RDAs), vitamin B12 (∼2...
Article
Background: The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development is widely used worldwide. The objective of the current study was to measure the stability of the Bayley Scales during early childhood and its relationship with intellectual abilities at four years in young Nepalese children. Methods: In a prospective cohort we used the Bayley 3rd ed...
Article
Objectives Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate in childhood are associated with cardiovascular risk in later life. The main objective of this analysis is to measure the effect of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid supplementation in children between 6 to 30 months of age on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk at school age. Methods This is a...
Article
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Adequate iodine nutrition during infancy is required for normal thyroid function and, subsequently, brain development. However, data on infant iodine status in the first year of life are scarce. This study aimed to describe infant iodine status and further explore its associations with maternal iodine nutrition, breastfeeding status and thyroid fun...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of daily life worldwide, but the impact may be higher for impoverished populations. The main aim of this study is to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on different aspects of daily life in mothers in Nepal. We included 493 mothers of children aged 54–71 months participating in a randomized...
Article
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Introduction Existing risk assessment tools to identify children at risk of hospitalised pneumonia-related mortality have shown suboptimal discriminatory value during external validation. Our objective was to derive and validate a novel risk assessment tool to identify children aged 2–59 months at risk of hospitalised pneumonia-related mortality ac...
Article
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Background Biomass fuel use for cooking is widespread in low to middle income countries. Studies on the association between biomass fuel use and cognitive abilities in children are limited. Objective To examine the association between biomass fuel use for cooking and cognitive abilities in Nepalese children at 4 years of age. Methods In a cohort...
Article
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Background Adolescents are recommended to get 8–10 h of sleep at night, yet more than 80% fail to obtain this goal. Energy drink (ED) consumption has been linked to later bedtime in adolescents. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential association between ED consumption and sleep duration, and shuteye latency among adolescents in Norway. M...
Article
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Background There are still many people in the world who prepare their meals on open fires or stoves using solid fuels from biomass, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Although biomass cooking fuels have been associated with adverse health impacts and diseases, the association with child linear growth remains unclear. Objectives In a co...
Article
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Objective: Thyroid disease during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and suboptimal fetal development. During the last decades, guidelines for diagnosing thyroid disease during pregnancy have changed considerably, and there has been increased awareness. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of thyroid disease treatment o...
Article
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The most critical period for brain development is before a child’s 2 nd birthday. Standardized tests measuring neurodevelopment are more reliable when administered after this period. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency affects brain development and function. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 600 Nepalese infants (6-11 months at e...
Article
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Information about essential trace elements among children in many African countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is limited. We aimed to measure the distribution and determinants of serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) concentrations in a representative sample of children under five years old. We conducted a communi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Children with low birth weight (LBW) are at risk of linear growth faltering and developmental deficits. Evidence suggests that early child stimulation and care reflected as responsive caregiving and opportunities for learning can promote development. The current analysis aimed to measure the extent to which linear growth and early child...
Article
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Background Poor growth in early childhood has been considered irreversible after 2–3 years of age and has been associated with morbidity and mortality over the short-term and with poor economic and cognitive outcomes over the long-term. The MAL-ED cohort study was performed in eight low-income settings with the goal of evaluating relationships betw...
Article
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Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is common worldwide and has been associated with poor sleep. The effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on sleep in infants is not known. Aims To measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 for one year on sleep in infants at risk of deficiency. Methods This was an individually randomized double-bli...
Article
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Sepsis, an important and preventable cause of death in the newborn, is associated with high out of pocket hospitalization costs for the parents/guardians. The government of Nepal’s Free Newborn Care (FNC) service that covers hospitalization costs has set a maximum limit of Nepalese rupees (NPR) 8000 i.e. USD 73.5, the basis of which is unclear. We...
Article
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Respiratory viruses are an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children but are underrecognized as a cause of pneumonia hospitalization in low-income settings. Previously, we detected at least one of seven respiratory viruses by PCR in 30% of young Nepalese children hospitalized with severe pneumonia over a period of 36 months.
Article
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Background Existing scores to identify children at risk of hospitalized pneumonia-related mortality lack broad external validation. Our objective was to externally validate three such risk scores. Methods We applied the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC) for HIV-negative children, the RISC-Malawi, and the Pneumonia Etiology Research...
Article
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Objective: The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence and genetic diversity of Rotavirus (RV) infection among children up to 3 years of age in a community in Nepal. Methods: We investigated community-acquired cases of asymptomatic and symptomatic RV infections in children from birth to 36 months of age in a community-based birth co...
Article
Background The first 6 months of life are critical for subsequent risk of undernutrition and mortality. The predictive abilities of attained weight at the end of each month and monthly weight velocity for undernutrition and mortality need to be compared. Objective This study aimed to examine the predictive abilities of different weight metrics dur...
Article
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The demand for cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate is increased during pregnancy, and deficiency during pregnancy may lead to complications and adverse outcomes. Yet, the status of these micronutrients is unknown in many populations. We assessed the concentration of cobalamin, folate and their functional biomarkers, total homocysteine (tHcy) and met...
Article
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Objectives To describe the social determinants and development in energy drink consumption among Norwegian adolescents in 2017, 2018 and 2019. Design Cross-sectional, online, annual, nationwide surveys (Ungdata). Setting Responses collected online from January 2017 to December 2019. Participants Lower and upper secondary school students (n=297 1...
Article
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Background Whereas the adverse effects of severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy are well documented, the effects of mild-to-moderate deficiency are not well established. Objectives We aimed to explore whether iodine nutrition and timing of iodine supplement initiation are associated with thyroid function in pregnant and postpartum women. Meth...
Article
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Considering the importance of iodine to support optimal growth and neurological development of the brain and central nervous system, this study aimed to assess and evaluate iodine status in Norwegian infants. We collected data on dietary intake of iodine, iodine knowledge in mothers, and assessed iodine concentration in mother’s breast milk and in...
Article
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Background Children born with low birth weight (LBW) tend to have lower neurodevelopmental scores compared to term normal birth weight children. It is important to determine factors that influence neurodevelopment in these low birth weight children especially in the first 2–3 years of life that represents a period of substantial brain development....
Article
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Background Biomarkers such as omega-3 (n–3) PUFAs, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), 1-methylhistidine (1-MH), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) have been associated with fish intake in observational studies, but data from children in randomized controlled trials are limited. Objectives The objective of this exploratory analysis was to investiga...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate the association between gestational age (GA), birthweight, and birthweight adjusted for GA, with domains of neurocognitive development and behavioral problems in adolescents in Tanzania. Study design: Data from a long-term follow-up of adolescents aged 11 to 15 years born to women previously enrolled in a randomized co...
Article
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Background: Lifestyle therapy with resistance training is a potent measure to counteract age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. Unfortunately, many individuals fail to respond in the expected manner. This phenomenon is particularly common among older adults and those with chronic diseases (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) an...
Article
Full-text available
Iron deficiency (ID), the leading cause of anemia and the most common nutritional deficiency globally, is not well reported among children in malaria-endemic settings, and little is known about its contribution to anemia in these settings. We aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia, the role of ID using multiple parameters, and the factors associa...
Article
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Objective: This study describes the types of Human astroviruses detected in stool samples collected from a birth cohort of children in Nepal. Methods: Using a commercial kit (ProSpecT), a total of 5,224 diarrheal and non-diarrheal stool samples were screened for Human astrovirus by ELISA. RT-PCR was performed on ELISA positive samples (2.8%) for fu...
Article
Background One-carbon metabolism (OCM) refers to the transfer of methyl groups central to DNA methylation and histone modification. Insufficient access to methyl donors and B-vitamin cofactors affects epigenetic maintenance and stability, and when occurring in early life may impact future health and neurodevelopment. Objective The objective of thi...
Article
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Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is common and affects cell division and differentiation, erythropoiesis, and the central nervous system. Several observational studies have demonstrated associations between biomarkers of vitamin B12 status with growth, neurodevelopment, and anemia. The objective of this study was to measure the effects of daily su...
Article
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Background: The Ages and Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3) is becoming a widely used developmental assessment tool. The ASQ-3 can be completed by the caregivers (referred to as “mail out”), or by trained personnel under direct observation of the children (referred to as “home procedure”). Aim: The study was carried out to compare result...
Article
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Background Human metapneumovirus is a common virus associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) in children. No global burden estimates are available for ALRIs associated with human metapneumovirus in children, and no licensed vaccines or drugs exist for human metapneumovirus infections. We aimed to estimate the age-stratified human m...
Article
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High-quality protein has been associated with child growth; however, the role of the amino acid cysteine remains unclear. The aim was to measure the extent to which plasma total cysteine (tCys) concentration is associated with anthropometric status in children aged 6–30 months living in New Delhi, India. The study was a prospective cohort study inc...
Article
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The aim of this study was to explore the association between adolescent subjective social status (SSS) and body mass index (BMI) at two different time points and to determine whether this association was mediated by health-related behaviors. In 2002 (n = 1596) and 2017 (n = 1534), tenth-grade students (15-16 years old) in schools in the District of...
Article
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Introduction: There is an increase in the double burden of malnutrition globally, with a particular rise documented in Asia. In Nepal, undernutrition has been prevalent for decades. Today, however, the incidence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) in the country has increased substantially. There is a need to conduct local studies reporting on the co...
Article
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Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid that has been positively associated with growth in children. However, transgenerational effects remain unclear. The aim of this analysis was to assess whether maternal plasma total cysteine (tCys) concentration is associated with various growth indicators in infants living in peri-urban settings in Bhaktapur,...
Article
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Background: There is a suggested coexistence between obesity and mental health discomfort in adolescence. The objective of this study was to explore if mental health indices covaried with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence and if there were gender-related disparities. Methods: Data were collected in two cross-sectional surveys of 10th-grade stude...
Article
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Objectives: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) conveys a serious threat globally to health and economy because of a lack of vaccines and specific treatments. A common factor for conditions that predispose for serious progress is a low-grade inflammation, e.g., as seen in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and heart failure, to which micronutrie...
Article
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provi...
Article
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provi...
Article
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provi...
Article
"Other substances" are described in the food supplement directive 2002/46/EC as substances other than vitamins or minerals that have a nutritional and/or physiological effect, and may be added to food supplements or e.g. energy drinks. In the series of risk assessments of "other substances" the VKM has not evaluated any claimed beneficial effects f...
Article
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provi...
Article
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by the NFSA. These risk assessments will p...
Article
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provi...
Article
Full-text available
The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM) has, at the request of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet; NFSA), assessed the risk of "other substances" in food supplements and energy drinks sold in Norway. VKM has assessed the risk of doses given by NFSA. These risk assessments will provi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Healthcare providers in resource-limited settings rely on the presence of tachypnoea and chest indrawing to establish a diagnosis of pneumonia in children. We aimed to determine the test characteristics of commonly assessed signs and symptoms for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children 0–59 months of age. Methods We conduc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sustained social withdrawal in infancy may have organic and nonorganic causes and could hinder normal development. The Alarm Distress Baby (ADBB) scale is a widely validated screening tool of social withdrawal in children 2-24 months. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the full and modified ADBB in Nepalese infants in a commu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sustained social withdrawal in infancy may be a first warning sign of infant distress with both internal and external causes. The Alarm Distress Baby (ADBB) scale is a widely validated screening tool for the assessment of social withdrawal in children 2-24 months. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of the full...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Lifestyle therapy with resistance training is a potent measure to counteract age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. Unfortunately, many individuals fail to respond in the expected manner. This phenomenon is particularly common among older adults and those chronically diseased (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD), an...
Article
Full-text available
Aim/Background Short stature is a common extra‐intestinal manifestation of celiac disease (CeD). We conducted a systematic review and meta‐analysis to assess the global prevalence of CeD in patients presenting with short stature. Methods We searched Medline and EMBASE databases for the keywords ‘celiac disease, coeliac disease, anti‐gliadin, tissu...
Article
Background: Deficiency of vitamin B-12 is common in pregnant Indian women. Assessment of neurophysiological measures using event-related potentials (ERPs) may yield additional information on the effects of maternal B-12 supplementation on child brain function. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin B-12 sup...
Article
Objectives To assess the extent to which linear growth beyond the early years of life determines later cognitive development. Study design We revisited children from New Delhi, India who had participated in a randomized controlled trial six years before and assessed neurodevelopment using standardized and validated psychometric tools (Wechsler Int...
Article
Full-text available
Recommendations for sufficient vitamin D intake in children were recently revised in Norway. However, optimal levels of vitamin D are still debated and knowledge on supplementation and vitamin D levels in healthy children in Norway is scarce. Therefore, we measured the plasma-concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in children and adolescent...