Tor Wallin Andreassen

Tor Wallin Andreassen
NHH Norwegian School of Economics | NHH · Department of Strategy and Management

Doctor of Economics

About

84
Publications
143,180
Reads
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6,794
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
NHH Norwegian School of Economics
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Although customers are the final judges of innovations, their opinions on firms’ innovations are rarely listened to. In this article, we developed a novel model for examining the antecedents and consequences of perceived firm innovativeness. We argue that when customers cognitively register changes in the value creation introduced by a firm, they p...
Article
Service industries are increasingly unsustainable. Considering consumers as change agents, we show how service innovation may contribute to a service ecosystem that helps achieve emerging sustainability goals. To achieve sustainability the dyadic focus on value-co-creation is complemented with a broader stakeholder perspective, abandoning the share...
Article
Full-text available
While virtual reality's importance is increasingly recognized in marketing, its role in the customer journey remains nebulous. We define virtual reality through the customer journey (VRCJ) as firms' use of computer-mediated interactive environments capable of offering sensory feedback to engage consumers, strengthen consumer/brand relationships, an...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue has explored ways in which consumers engage with brands and firms within ever-evolving technological environments (Ostrom et al., 2015). The articles show how firms adopt an increasingly broad array of emerging technologies to facilitate interactions with their prospects and customers (Letheren et al., 2019; Willems et al., 2019;...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Building on the multi-divisional business model (M-model), the purpose of this paper is to develop a better understanding of triadic business models – T-models – and how they create value for their three categories of stakeholders, i.e., the suppliers, the platform firm and the buyers. The research question that guides the present study is...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a typology of institutions enabling or constraining customer centricity and value co-creation in service ecosystems; illustrate the various types of institutions with examples from healthcare; and provide case study evidence on how pharmaceutical companies react to and induce institutional change. D...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose While research on customer engagement and service innovation is rapidly emerging, limited insight exists into the interface of these topic areas. However, given the shared notion of (e.g. customer/firm) interactivity across these concepts, the purpose of this paper is to explore their theoretical interface that remains nebulous to date. D...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose While (customer) engagement has been proposed as a volitional concept, our structuration theory/S-D logic-informed analyses of actors’ (e.g. employees’) engagement in service innovation reveal engagement as a boundedly volitional theoretical entity, which arises from actors’ structural and agency-based characteristics and constraints. In l...
Article
Managers are faced with complex decisions when considering automating the front end of a service, where the firm interacts with its customers (e.g., check-in at airports). We develop an analytical model for the optimal decisions as to whether to automate the service and which price to charge. The model accounts for automation-induced customer incon...
Conference Paper
Traditionally, healthcare providers – including pharmaceutical companies – have viewed patients as passive recipients of complex healthcare services. Recently, however, the industry’s shift from product centricity to patient centricity is challenging this rationale. Viewed through a service- dominant logic/ service ecosystems lens, patients become...
Article
The service encounter – one of the foundational concepts in service research – is fundamentally changing due to rapid evolutions in technology. In this paper, we offer an updated perspective on what we label the “Service Encounter 2.0”. To this end, we develop a conceptual framework that captures the essence of the Service Encounter 2.0 and provide...
Chapter
Nothing happens until customers adopt an innovation. In the chapter the authors develop a new theory for measuring firms’ innovativeness as perceived by their customers. The approach follows the logic of a structural equation model with antecedents and consequences. Antecedents include four areas where customers can perceive changes: core service;...
Chapter
In this book, we respond to the fundamental goal for any firm: to maintain and build customer trust. The title - Innovating for Trust - reflects trust as an antecedent to adoption and commercial success, as well as trust as an outcome of adoption and commercial success. In short, managers and innovators need to build trust into all activities of in...
Book
This book adopts a multidisciplinary approach to innovation, and argues that because innovation is always risky business, trust is an essential premise and outcome of successfully designing, developing and finally launching innovations. Each part of the book encompasses a different aspect of innovating for trust. It begins with the notion of trust,...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the decision process behind whether customers complain, and to identify the effects of the situational factor credence quality in this decision process. Design/methodology/approach – A quasi-experimental design is used in which scenarios are applied in combination with a survey to test...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding service design and how service design relates to central concepts within service marketing. Design/methodology/approach – For companies, service design is growing in importance and has become a crucial capability to survive in the service-dominant economy. Service desi...
Article
Full-text available
To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to chan...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore three paradoxes of service innovation and provide a way forward for fresh thinking on the topic. Design/methodology/approach – Through a conceptual model of service innovation research, the authors challenge the “pro-change” bias and explore what can be learnt from the duality of service innovation...
Chapter
Service leadership is all about creating value for shareholders by creating value for customers. Traditionally, the service marketing literature has approached this topic through a simple mental model: Service quality has a positive impact on customer satisfaction, which has a positive impact on firms’ performance. From this, researchers and manage...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Improving the commercial success rate of innovations requires alternative approaches based on social science methodologies for identifying subtle, emerging changes in consumer needs and behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to address this call by proposing trend spotting to guide innovation researchers and service managers towards inno...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper address the issue of estimation methods in structural equation modeling. The objective is to explore how different estimation methods can impact theory development. An accepted model, based on established marketing theory, is proposed and empirically tested on a sample of 400 customers within the Norwegian newspaper industry. The finding...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, we link front line employees (FLE) to sales performance and second, develop a general model for optimizing FLE investment to maximize bottom line. In the first part, we investigate three person-environment antecedents to FLEs’ self-efficacy and its impact on objective sales performance directly and indirectly through FLE’s creativity...
Chapter
Social media is in vogue, but managers need to know their customers' social media readiness to help them overcome any resistance to adopting the new benefits that social media offers and to secure customer satisfaction with the services offered through these channels. In this chapter, the authors present findings from two studies. In the first stud...
Article
Full-text available
The fact that nine out of ten innovations flop in the market place serves as a backdrop to the fundamental research question: How can firms better align their innovations with future consumer needs? The goal is to improve the probability of commercial success. By employing trend spotting as a technique, the authors isolate eight deep consumer trend...
Chapter
Social media is in vogue, but managers need to know their customers’ social media readiness to help them overcome any resistance to adopting the new benefits that social media offers and to secure customer satisfaction with the services offered through these channels. In this chapter, the authors present findings from two studies. In the first stud...
Article
Although previous research has underscored the significance of the personality traits of frontline employees (FLEs) in employee service behaviors, knowledge about customer preferences for FLE personality traits is lacking. This study responds to this gap in the literature, empirically assessing customers’ preferences for FLE personality traits. The...
Article
Full-text available
Imagine you are a contestant on the TV quiz show, Jeopardy! The lights, the cameras and all eyes in the audience are on you. The host turns to you and says: The word is 'Bad'. Remember to phrase your answer in the form of a question! Without batting an eyelid, you respond: What is customer service? While the audience applauds your response, the hos...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Business and academia alike have become aware of the crucial role of customer‐to‐customer interactions. Facilitated by the increasing customer connectedness through online media possibilities, companies need to understand how customers influence each other and how to manage these customer interactions. The purpose of this paper is to conc...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, develop and test a conceptual model to understand customers’ intention to adopt online complaining. Second, to assess two competing perspectives regarding elaboration likelihood for the moderating impact of individual differences. Design/methodology/approach – A scenario-based survey was used...
Article
This paper introduces the Theory of Trying to complaining behaviour, and argues that complaining intentions can be explained by the model. Moreover, we model propensity to self-reference (SR) as a moderating variable, and suggest that the effects of the causes to complaining intentions depend on the SR-level held by consumers. A sample of undergrad...
Article
The current study models perceived justice with complaint handling as a formative construct and assesses its consequences in terms of both cognitive and affective outcomes (i.e. dual processes). The results of the empirical study provide an in-depth understanding how to design truly effective complaint management strategies.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. To better understand the formation of customer attitudes and intentions to use technology-based customer complaining (TBCC) and the influence of individual and situational characteristics in this process. Design / Methodology / Approach. Building on information systems research (Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)) and consumer research (El...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Service-dominant logic of marketing claims that employees' knowledge and skills are the firm's only sustainable advantage. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the importance of branding in attracting the right employees. Design/methodology/approach – This paper employs the image congruency hypothesis and social norms from consumer beh...
Article
Full-text available
Consistent with Vargo and Lusch’s (2004) premise that “the customer is always a co-producer”, understanding customer’s evaluations of the service encounter is crucial in managing the value co-creation process. Moreover, as service organizations increasingly rely on technology-mediated customer contact, there is a strong need for research that asse...
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate what discussants in internet based discussion forums talk about. Investigates electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) as a potential source of information for service innovation. The aim is to derive four core categories of unique dialogues that provide valuable information to service innovation. Desig...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate what discussants in internet based discussion forums talk about. Investigates electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) as a potential source of information for service innovation. The aim is to derive four core categories of unique dialogues that provide valuable information to service innovation. Desig...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The objective of this research is to provide insight into the management of service quality and emotions across customer relationships in the business-to-consumer market and to identify which segmentation method, i.e. conceptual versus data-driven, is more effective for this purpose. Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional custome...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The study is motivated by business' mixed response to increasing demand for customer service, leaving the question as to its impact on performance open. The study is concerned with the impact of customers' perception of customer service (bad/good) on variables that are known to drive revenue, i.e. customer satisfaction, perceived relative...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, researchers and consultants have advanced a number of customer metrics to explain the connections between customer behavior and growth. But these efforts have generated more smoke than heat. Despite claims to the contrary, the authors argue that the most popular metrics have shown only modest correlations to growth. None of them ha...
Article
Full-text available
The measurement and management of customer loyalty and its link with firm growth have long been of interest to managers and researchers. One relatively recent word-of-mouth customer loyalty metric purported that the link to growth is the Net Promoter Score (NPS), a metric based on a likelihood to recommend question asked in customer surveys. This r...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most controversial findings in Morgan and Rego (2006) was that two widely advocated loyalty metrics, “Net Promoter” and “Number of Recommendations,” have little or no value in predicting the financial outcomes of firms. We argue that neither measure was actually examined and that conclusions about the predictive value of these measures c...
Article
Full-text available
Managers commonly use customer feedback data to set goals and monitor performance on metrics such as “Top 2 Box” customer satisfaction scores and “intention-to-repurchase” loyalty scores. However, analysts have advocated a number of different customer feedback metrics including average customer satisfaction scores and the number of “net promoters”...
Article
Full-text available
Often science is no defense in the contradiction of a popular belief.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the introduction of self-service technology (SST) in health diagnosis as a means to reduce costs and improve quality in the health care sector – at the same time. Design/methodology/approach – A survey with an internet-based medical self-diagnosis application as the focal technology is conducted. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Managers have widely embraced and adopted the Net Promoter metric, which noted loyalty consultant Frederick Reichheld advocates as the single most reliable indicator of firm growth compared with other loyalty metrics, such as customer satisfaction and retention. Recently, however, there has been considerable debate about whether this metric is trul...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to examine different customer satisfaction and loyalty metrics and test their relationship to customer retention, recommendation and share of wallet using micro (customer) level data. Design/methodology/approach – The data for this study come from a two-year longitudinal Internet panel of over 8,000 US cust...
Article
Managers have widely embraced and adopted the Net Promoter metric, which noted loyalty consultant Frederick Reichheld advocates as the single most reliable indicator of firm growth compared with other loyalty metrics, such as customer satisfaction and retention. Recently, however, there has been considerable debate about whether this metric is trul...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to examine call center satisfaction in an escalated call center context where callers are organization members of the primary/leveraged brand and have purchased additional co-branded services as part of their membership. It also aims to examine the relationship between call center satisfaction and actual retention of both...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between parent satisfaction and child retention at a childcare provider. Design/methodology/approach – The survey data used in the analyses involves a sample size of 1,003 respondents, all clients of a regional childcare provider in the USA. Logistic regression was used to test...
Article
This paper discusses consequences of violating the normal distribution assumption imbedded in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Based on real data from a large sample customer satisfaction survey we follow the procedures as suggested in leading textbooks. We document consequences of this practice and discuss its impact on decision making in marke...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors investigate whether the fit between consumers’ image and the image of an innovation, commonly referred to as image congruence, has an impact on customers’ attitudes toward innovative services as well as the intention to use these new services. Moreover, situational influences (i.e., private vs. public, and friends vs. c...
Article
Full-text available
Building on theory from consumer behavior this paper investigates the impact customer service may have on customer satisfaction, relative attractiveness, and commitment (affective and calculative). The findings indicate that independent of level of customer service its impact on all constructs is significant. Interestingly, customers who report a l...
Article
This paper investigates the effect satisfaction with service recovery may have on complaining customers' future intent, and perception of and attitude toward the faltering service provider. The main findings indicate that service recovery has a positive impact on both dimensions. Somewhat surprisingly companies' current recovery efforts do not brin...
Article
A number of both national and international customer satisfaction barometers or indices have been introduced in the last decade. For the most part, these satisfaction indices are embedded within a system of cause and effect relationships or satisfaction model. Yet there has been little in the way of model development. Of critical importance to the...
Data
A number of both national and international customer satisfaction barometers or indices have been introduced in the last decade. For the most part, these satisfaction indices are embedded within a system of cause and e€ect relationships or satisfaction model. Yet there has been little in the way of model development. Of critical importance to the v...
Data
Full-text available
A number of both national and international customer satisfaction barometers or indices have been introduced in the last decade. For the most part, these satisfaction indices are embedded within a system of cause and e€ect relationships or satisfaction model. Yet there has been little in the way of model development. Of critical importance to the v...
Data
A number of both national and international customer satisfaction barometers or indices have been introduced in the last decade. For the most part, these satisfaction indices are embedded within a system of cause and e€ect relationships or satisfaction model. Yet there has been little in the way of model development. Of critical importance to the v...
Data
Full-text available
A number of both national and international customer satisfaction barometers or indices have been introduced in the last decade. For the most part, these satisfaction indices are embedded within a system of cause and e€ect relationships or satisfaction model. Yet there has been little in the way of model development. Of critical importance to the v...
Article
Full-text available
Building on disconfirmation theory, equity theory and affect-balance theory, considers antecedents to satisfaction with service recovery. A theoretical model is proposed and tested empirically based on a cross-sectional national sample of 201 dissatisfied customers complaining of services. The results suggest that perceived performance of service r...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Research pertaining to return on quality is primarily based,on the disconfirmation of expectation paradigm,usingpast experience,as the key predictor of future intent. This paper uses perceived relative attractiveness today and tomorrow,as predictors of intent. Based on the theoretical model and data sampled we report three findings. First,...
Article
Full-text available
Even though customer satisfaction and loyalty have been studied at length, few if any studies have focused on antecedents to customer loyalty for dissatisfied complaining customers. In this article, a theoretical model focusing on negative affect, satisfaction with complaint resolution, and corporate image as antecedents to customer loyalty is prop...
Article
Full-text available
Based on theory from consumer behavior; cognitive psychology, and social cognitive psychology, this article explores the effect of corporate image in the formation of customer loyalty. Findings from the goods and service sector indicate that corporate image has a significant but indirect impact on customer loyalty. In conclusion, the authors claim...
Article
Full-text available
Based on theory from consumer behavior and cognitive psychology, the purpose of this paper is to discuss and test corporate image and customer satisfaction as two routes to customer loyalty. Based on data from 600 individual customers categorized as having high or low service expertise of three companies within the package tour industry, a conceptu...
Article
A large number of service corporations are configured with headquarters that determine the major principles of operation (services, pricing, marketing and advertising) and regional salesforces that are responsible for acquiring new customers and catering to the needs of existing customers. This separation of work within the corporation opens up a p...
Article
Public services are offered to the public based on the principle of equality. Private services on the other hand are based on differentiation. These differences raise the question of whether customer preferences for public services are homogeneous while preferences for private services are heterogeneous. Builds on an empirical study of 1,000 custom...
Article
The strategy literature focuses on the firm or industry as the unit of analysis. In the game of “jockeying for positions” through “a process of creative destruction”, companies create imperfections (dominating suppliers and customers create entrance barriers) to achieve results above average. Very seldom is government, as an entity with its own str...
Article
With public services operating as monopolies, dissatisfied users cannot exit from the relation without changing patronage. Apart from exit from the region, voicing their dissatisfaction in order to influence the service offer becomes the only alternative. Industries and companies may be classified as customer oriented if they market differentiated...
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this research is to examine different customer satisfaction and loyalty metrics and test their relationship to customer retention, recommendation and share of wallet using micro (customer) level data. Design/methodology/approach - The data for this study come from a two-year longitudinal Internet panel of over 8,000 US cust...
Article
Full-text available
An emerging perspective in marketing considers customers as actively involved in the production, delivery and consumption of services. While different terms exist for this involvement - co-production, co-creation, prosumption - the underlying assumption is that customers are able and willing to be involved in the creation of value. In this paper, w...

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