Tony King

Tony King
Centre for Cold Ocean Resources Engineering (C-CORE) · Ice Engineering

M.Eng.

About

51
Publications
4,159
Reads
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164
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
78 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023051015

Publications

Publications (51)
Conference Paper
There is an incentive to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases associated with offshore hydrocarbon production off the east coast of Canada. One of the proposed solutions is the electrification of the production facilities using floating offshore wind farms. The design and operation of floating offshore wind turbines in regions with icebergs and sea...
Conference Paper
The move to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the offshore hydrocarbons production industry has resulted in a growing interest in the possibility of using offshore wind to reduce on-platform power generation. While some offshore areas are progressing towards, or planning for, the use of offshore wind to electrify hydrocarbon producing platforms, t...
Conference Paper
The move to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the offshore hydrocarbons production industry has resulted in a growing interest in the possibility of using offshore wind to reduce on-platform power generation. While some offshore areas are progressing towards or planning for the use of offshore wind to electrify hydrocarbon producing platforms, the...
Conference Paper
The Iceberg Loads Software (ILS) was developed initially to determine design iceberg loads for the Hebron GBS. The ILS framework has since been adapted for assessing iceberg loads on other structures such as the West White Rose Platform, subsea protection structures, pipelines laid on the seabed and floating production structures (spars and FPSOs)....
Conference Paper
Iceberg management on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada is currently carried out without knowledge of the underwater shape of the iceberg. An iceberg profiling system is being developed to integrate the rapid generation of 3D iceberg shape data with a collection of tools that utilize the data to provide recommendations, intended to improve ic...
Article
Full-text available
Icebergs pose a hazard to shipping and to offshore oil and gas activities. To mitigate and better manage the risks, it is essential to measure, survey, and monitor them. Collecting in-situ measurements and data from icebergs is challenging. Icebergs frequently roll and/ or break-up. A vessel must maintain a safe separation distance from an iceberg....
Conference Paper
Ice management in regions of offshore development with icebergs present includes re-direction of icebergs by means of towing. The prevention of tow-rope slippage and iceberg rolling due to hydrostatic instability are essential for an effective and safe operation. The ability to simulate any particular towing operation in the field, prior to attempt...
Article
Full-text available
Iceberg management on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland is currently carried out without knowledge of the underwater shape of the iceberg. A decision support tool (SIMS – Smart Ice Management System) is being developed to integrate the rapid generation of 3D iceberg shape data with tools that utilize the data to improve iceberg management success rat...
Article
Full-text available
In designing a floating offshore production system to operate in a region with risk of impacts from icebergs, the effectiveness of management and avoidance of detected icebergs may be considered when determining design ice loads. Management can include deflection of encroaching icebergs through towing or use of water cannon. Avoidance would typical...
Conference Paper
For oil and gas projects offshore Newfoundland, Canada, subsea structures are generally placed in excavated drill centres which lower the equipment below the natural mudline, protecting the equipment from damage due to iceberg impact. This paper introduces a concept of protecting this equipment by utilizing a concrete structure affixed to the seabe...
Conference Paper
Currently, iceberg risk mitigation at production facilities in shallower waters (80 to 120 m) on the Grand Banks off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador is accomplished using iceberg surveillance, towing, water cannons and, in the case of floating facilities, disconnection. Future developments in deeper waters such as the Flemish Pass or the Orp...
Conference Paper
During July 2018, an expedition was carried out offshore northern Newfoundland to central Labrador to profile, track, and forecast the drift of icebergs. One of the central goals of the drift modelling work was to test potential improvements in iceberg drift forecast accuracy up to 24 hours when measured iceberg profiles are used as opposed to esti...
Article
Full-text available
The Labrador Shelf and upper continental slope are commonly referred to as ‘Iceberg Alley’, a reference to the 2500–3000 icebergs transported southeastwards past Makkovik Bank every year in the Labrador Current from outlet glaciers in Greenland and eastern Arctic Canada. The larger icebergs are known to contact the seabed from shipbased and satelli...
Conference Paper
Iceberg areal density is one of the most important and challenging parameters to define accurately for offshore petroleum exploration. The two data sources for iceberg areal density considered here are aerial reconnaissance data collected by the International Ice Patrol and iceberg charts which merge aerial reconnaissance data with other observatio...
Conference Paper
There has been considerable interest in deepwater opportunities offshore Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). The significant discovery of Mizzen, Harpoon and Bay du Nord fields by Statoil and partner Husky Energy, as well as the regional seismic data and metocean characterization projects by Nalcor, has generated industry interest in the area resulting...
Conference Paper
When icebergs touch and scour through unconsolidated seafloor sediment the keel ice may fracture and crush, creating individual ice blocks that may rotate independently of each other under confining pressure. Blocks of ice also may be forced into and embedded in the seafloor beneath the keel. Evidence for these dynamic processes is presented based...
Conference Paper
High resolution iceberg profiles are an essential element of an intelligent ice management toolkit. This paper describes field work undertaken during the spring and summer of 2015 to test our high resolution, rapid iceberg profiling system and presents some key results obtained. The profiling system uses a multibeam SONAR for the iceberg keel and a...
Conference Paper
In 2016 Nalcor Energy installed subsea cables across the Strait of Belle Isle, which comprises part of the Lower Churchill Transmission Project linking Muskrat Falls, Labrador, and Soldier's Pond, Newfoundland. The cable crossing site is southwest of a shoal which filters out deeper draft icebergs which could potentially contact and damage the cabl...
Conference Paper
The current practice for protecting wellheads and associated subsea facilities from icebergs on the Grand Banks is an Excavated Drill Centre (EDC), which is simply an excavation in the seabed in which wellheads and associated facilities are placed. Free-floating icebergs simply drift over an EDC, with the exception of those that roll as they pass o...
Conference Paper
A number of solutions have been successfully implemented for producing oil and gas off Canada’s east coast, where impacts by icebergs are a possibility. In future, as operators move further offshore to deeper water and further north where the numbers and sizes of icebergs may increase, new solutions for avoiding impacts will be required to limit ic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recently Nalcor announced the discovery of three newly defined hydrocarbon basins located primarily in deep water in the Labrador Sea, off the east coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The basins are Henley, Chidley and Holton Basins and expanded the extent of the Hawke Basin. On behalf of Nalcor Energy, C-CORE recently completed the Offshor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Arctic sea ice is declining in extent, volume and thickness. With this decline comes an increased interest in the two main Arctic shipping routes: Canada’s Northwest Passage (NWP) and Russian Northern Sea Route (NSR). The NWP is the most direct route between Asia and the East coast of North America. Some routes are up to 40% shorter than those...
Conference Paper
In 2013, Nalcor announced the mapping of three newly defined sedimentary basins off the Labrador coast (the Henley, Chidley and Holton Basins) as well as the extension of the previously defined Hawke Basin. This mapping was based on the Nalcor and TGS regional 2D seismic surveys conducted in 2011 and 2012. These newly defined sedimentary basins are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ice failure during ice-structure interactions is a complex process and the development and improvement of ice load models is challenging, in large part because of difficulties obtaining full-scale data and scaling issues when extrapolating from model test data. The ISO 19906 standard provides guidance for the calculation of design ice loads on offs...
Conference Paper
The ISO 19906 standard provides guidance for the calculation of characteristic ice loads on offshore structures in arctic and cold regions. Ice failure is a complex process and the development and improvement of ice load models can be challenging, in large part because of difficulties obtaining full-scale data and scaling issues when extrapolating...
Data
DFO's Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) collected keel draft data in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. This ULS data collected between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed and 117 ice ridge keels with drafts in excess of 20 m were identified. No data were available for 2009 due to a malfunctioning ADCP unit, and no processed keel data were available for 2010 or later. En...
Article
GIS-based software has been developed under the PIRAM (Pipeline Ice Risk Assessment and Mitigation) program for performing pipeline routing and burial analysis for protection against ice keel gouging. Results are presented for a hypothetical pipeline in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. A probabilistic pipeline burial analysis is incorporated that account...
Conference Paper
A simple, rectangular sub-surface caisson was evaluated using physical andnumerical modeling to develop a method for protecting subsea installationsagainst scouring keels of icebergs on the Grand Banks. This protection strategywas developed to assess the feasibility of the structure as an alternative tocostly excavations used to protect subsea equi...
Conference Paper
In August 2010 a 265 km2 ice island calved from the Petermann Glacier innorthern Greenland. Soon after the initial calving event the mass broke intoseveral pieces, some of which exited Baffin Bay and drifted south toward theLabrador coast. By June 2011 PII-A, a large fragment of the initial PetermannIce Island, was situated offshore Labrador and in...
Conference Paper
The Pipeline Ice Risk Assessment & Mitigation JIP (PIRAM) developed a set of engineering models and design procedures for implementation into industry best practices for risk mitigation and protection of pipeline infrastructure from ice keel loading. The models established the pipeline mechanical behaviour in response to ice keel load events, and a...
Conference Paper
Two models are being developed to assist operators quantify risks to facilities off the east coast of Canada, given initial locations and characteristics of an ice island or set of ice island fragments. The first is an ensemble model in which a specified number of possible trajectories and fates will be simulated and plotted. Different realizations...
Article
Subsea Ice Risk Assessment and Mitigation (SIRAM) and Pipeline Ice Risk Assessment and Mitigation (PIRAM) were joint industry programs led by C-CORE from 2007 to 2009. The program was funded by seven oil and gas companies, the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) and C-CORE. In addition to C-CORE, the work was conducted with a number of inst...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When there are sufficient environmental driving forces, an iceberg keel contacting the seabed can displace sediment, forming a long linear feature called a scour (or furrow). Rise-up occurs when an iceberg is driven upslope during the scouring process. An understanding of iceberg scour riseup is required to assess iceberg scour risk in areas where...
Article
Full-text available
Since a substantial portion of the world's remaining petroleum reserves are in Arctic offshore regions and other offshore ice-frequented environments, oil and gas development activities in these locations will increase to satisfy increasing energy demands. Consequently, more subsea pipelines (flowlines, subsea tiebacks, and export pipelines) will b...
Article
Marginal field developments on the Grand Banks and other regions may not be economic if conventional protection using gloryholes must be used, and new technology is required. Identification of alternative concepts to gloryholes for protection of subsea facilities against threats from ice keel interaction was the focus of recent research and develop...
Article
Full-text available
Ice gouging of the seabed is a significant consideration for offshore pipelines in the arctic. A methodology is presented for using GIS (Geographical Information System) software for analyzing pipeline burial depth requirements for protection against ice gouging. This approach allows users to perform development concept evaluations, estimate pipeli...
Conference Paper
A seabed survey was conducted in 2007 to assess iceberg scour and seabed conditions at Cape Harrison, which was identified in the 1980s as a potential landfall for a pipeline from the Bjarni/North Bjarni sites on Makkovik Bank. Analyses of the data indicate there are bedrock outcrops that may pose a challenge for pipeline routing. Sub-bottom profil...
Article
A probabilistic burial analysis for protection against iceberg scouring of the seabed is presented for a hypothetical pipeline on the Grand Banks off Canada's east coast. The analysis procedure combines a probabilistic characterization of the iceberg scour regime with a deterministic analysis of pipeline stress/strain response for a range of iceber...
Article
Subsea facilities and pipelines offshore Labrador will require protection from damage from keeldragging icebergs, however, protection requirements remain uncertain, in large part because the impact frequency is poorly constrained. New Labrador shelf iceberg scour frequency estimates are presented based on repetitive seabed mapping surveys over 18 t...
Article
In previous papers, a method was developed for the statistical characterization of iceberg shape based on available data for the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. Key aspects included a measure of overall size and the representation of shape using spatial correlations in a spherical coordinate system. The present paper focuses on the use of these repres...
Conference Paper
A probabilistic burial analysis for protection against iceberg scouring of the seabed is presented for a hypothetical pipeline on the Grand Banks off Canada’s east coast. The analysis procedure combines a probabilistic characterization of the iceberg scour regime with a deterministic analysis of pipeline stress/strain response for a range of iceber...
Article
Full-text available
In cold environments, marine pipelines may be at risk from ice keels that gouge the seabed. Large quantities of material are displaced and soil deformations beneath a gouge may be substantial. To meet safety criteria, excessive strains are avoided by burying pipelines to a sufficient depth. In this paper a probabilistic approach for the analysis an...
Conference Paper
For offshore pipelines located in ice environments, the mitigation of ice gouge hazards presents a significant technical challenge. A traditional strategy is to establish minimum burial depth requirements that meet technical and economic criteria. A probabilistic based approach to optimize burial depth requirements based on equivalent stress and co...

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