Toni Zhong

Toni Zhong
University Health Network | UHN · Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

About

110
Publications
7,005
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,107
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
1531 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Objective: Rates of bilateral mastectomy are increasing in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We aim to characterize the trajectory of psychosocial outcomes after surgery in women with DCIS. Methods: We have been prospectively collecting psychosocial data on women receiving surgery for stage 0-III breast cancer at University Health Network...
Article
568 Background: In breast cancer, clinicians aim to improve survival while patients value quality of life. We aim to delineate the impact of patient, tumour and treatment factors on psychosocial outcomes after treatment. Methods: A prospective cohort of women with unilateral stage I-III breast cancer were recruited at University Health Network in T...
Article
IntroductionRates of bilateral mastectomy are rising in women with unilateral, nonhereditary breast cancer. We aim to characterize how psychosocial outcomes evolve after breast cancer surgery.Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of women with unilateral, sporadic stage 0–III breast cancer at University Health Network in Toro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Whether to undergo postmastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) is a challenging, preference-sensitive decision. It is therefore paramount to optimize decision quality through ensuring patients' knowledge and aligning treatments with their personal preferences. This study assessed the effects of a preconsultation educational group inter...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite the recent surge in rates of immediate breast reconstruction, there is a paucity of large multicenter studies to compare differences in morbidity after immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction. This study used the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to study the association between timing of breast recon...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives In comparison to quantitative research, the impact of qualitative articles in the medical literature has been questioned by the BMJ; to explore this, we compared the impact of quantitative and qualitative articles published in BMJ. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Articles published in the BMJ between 2007 and 2017. Main outcome...
Article
Purpose An increasing number of women with unilateral breast cancer are seeking bilateral mastectomies and reconstruction. At our centre, many women who have undergone previous unilateral therapeutic mastectomy request contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) at the time of delayed reconstruction. These mixed timing reconstructions are particula...
Article
Background: Unplanned surgeries following postmastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) may be required to treat complications or to revise the reconstructed breast. The primary objective of this study was to examine factors that influenced unplanned reoperations after PMBR. Methods: A retrospective cohort study using provincial databases in Ontar...
Article
570 Background: Rates of bilateral mastectomy continue to rise in average-risk women with unilateral breast cancer. We aim to characterize psychosocial predictors of surgical procedure and how psychosocial outcomes change over time after surgery for breast cancer. Methods: A prospective cohort of women with unilateral, nonhereditary breast cancer w...
Article
Background: Despite the benefits of breast reconstruction (BR), health care professionals do not consistently integrate it as an option in the treatment of breast cancer patients. Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) amongst professionals may facilitate the elaboration of comprehensive oncological treatment plans. As the application of IPC in the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Distress among newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer is common and may have an impact on their surgical decision-making. The revised Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS-r) is a validated instrument that provides an estimate of patients' total distress, and no previous study has related preoperative scores to the choice to ha...
Article
Learning objectives: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the fundamental concepts of multimodal analgesia techniques and how they target pain pathophysiology. 2. Effectively educate patients on postoperative pain and safe opioid use. 3. Develop and implement a multimodal postoperative analgesia regimen. Summ...
Article
Background: Immediate breast reconstruction has many advantages but is associated with higher complication rates than delayed reconstruction. Complications can delay the delivery of adjuvant cancer treatments. This study aimed to develop and validate a risk stratification model for the prediction of perioperative complications in immediate microva...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives There has been limited research on the acceptability of breast reconstruction (BR) to breast cancer patients. We performed interviews to explore breast cancer patients’ acceptability of BR. Design Qualitative study. Setting Recruitment from six Ontario hospitals across the province (Toronto, Ottawa, Hamilton, London, Thunder Bay and Wi...
Article
Background: The rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) are increasing in women with breast cancer. Previous retrospective research has examined clinical and demographic predictors of the uptake of CPM. However, to the authors' knowledge, there has been very little prospective research to date that has examined psychosocial functionin...
Article
Introduction: Accelerated recovery protocols have proved effective in many surgical procedures but are infrequently applied in breast reconstruction. In this study, we evaluate the impact of a structured pathway for accelerated postoperative recovery in patients undergoing microvascular breast reconstruction at a high-volume center. Methods: We...
Article
Purpose To compare psychosocial function outcomes in early breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS), mastectomy alone (MA), and mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) at 1 year after surgery. Methods Early-stage (stage 0–2) breast cancer patients treated with BCS, MA, and IBR at the University Health Netwo...
Article
Background: Obesity is often considered a relative contra-indication for microvascular autologous breast reconstruction. We hypothesize that although obesity is associated with increased post-operative complications, abdominally based microvascular post mastectomy breast reconstruction can still be achieved with high rates of success. This study a...
Article
Background: The Breast Reconstruction Assessment (BRA)-score is a disease-specific risk calculator that estimates the likelihood of postoperative complications in an individual patient. The tool has not been previously externally validated in microvascular breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the calcula...
Article
Background: Microvascular breast reconstruction is a complex procedure that can be associated with high complication rates. Although a number of individual predictors of perioperative complications have been identified, few studies have explored interaction between risk factors. Understanding the synergistic effects of multiple risk factors is cen...
Article
Background and Objectives The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap may be associated with less long‐term donor‐site morbidity compared with free muscle‐sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (MS‐TRAM) flap. However, DIEP flaps may have longer operative time and higher rates of acute postoperative complications. We performe...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative inquiry reports on the embodied experience of women with breast cancer considering post-mastectomy delayed breast reconstruction (DBR). In a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating an educational workshop on decision-making about DBR, a purposeful sample of eight women participated in telephone semi-structured interviews. The...
Article
Background: The decision to have post-mastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) is highly complex and many women feel ill equipped to make this decision. Decision aids have been advocated to promote patient involvement in decision-making by streamlining and standardizing communication between the patient and the health care professional. In this stu...
Article
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare disease that has been diagnosed in an extremely small proportion of women with breast implants. The pathogenesis of this disease is currently poorly understood, but it appears to be related to textured implants. Recent high-profile media coverage of this rare clinical ent...
Article
Background: Complications following immediate breast reconstruction can have significant consequences for the delivery of postoperative chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Identifying patients at higher risk of complications would ensure that immediate breast reconstruction does not compromise oncologic treatment. The American College of Surgeons...
Article
Background: A major shortcoming associated with abdominal tissue breast reconstruction is the long-term abdominal wall morbidity. Although abdominal core muscle size on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) has been correlated with morbidity following many abdominal surgeries, it has not been studied for abdominal breast reconstruction. Therefore, w...
Article
Background: Delayed breast reconstruction is an option for women who have undergone mastectomy; however, uptake is low. The purpose of this study was to identify premastectomy and postmastectomy demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of uptake of delayed breast reconstruction in the long-term survivorship period. Methods: This was a...
Article
Background: Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a debilitating and costly condition. Risk factors for CPSP after autologous breast reconstruction have not been clearly established. Previously, we demonstrated that transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters delivering intermittent local anesthetic reduced postoperative morphine consumption. This p...
Article
The publisher regrets that the name of the author Stefan Hofer was not represented in its full form in the original version of this article. This author should be referred to as Stefan O.P. Hofer. The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons
Article
Background: This is the first study to use generic distress, cancer-specific, and procedure-specific measures to prospectively evaluate psychological responses, body image, sexuality, and health-related quality of life in immediate compared with delayed breast reconstruction. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing autologous immediate and dela...
Article
Introduction: The ACS-NSQIP surgical risk calculator is an open-access on-line tool that estimates the risk of adverse post-operative outcomes for a wide range of surgical procedures. Wide surgical resection of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) often requires complex reconstructive procedures that can be associated with relatively high rates of complicati...
Article
Introduction: Microvascular complications can have devastating consequences in breast reconstruction. Because of the relatively low rate of complications, it can be difficult to identify significant predictors of failure. This study explores the importance of intraoperative microvascular problems in the development of postoperative complications a...
Article
Aim: To examine trends of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) rates at a Canadian academic breast cancer center. Methods: A single-institution retrospective cohort study was completed. Women of any age who underwent at least a unilateral mastectomy (UM) for primary unilateral breast carcinoma between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2010...
Article
Introduction: The American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Surgical Risk Calculator is an open access online tool that estimates the risk of adverse post-operative events for a wide range of surgical procedures. This study evaluates the predictive value of the ACS NSQIP calculator in patients undergoing...
Article
Introduction: With increasing appreciation of the possible adverse effects of peri-operative blood transfusion, restrictive policies regarding use of blood products have been adopted in many surgical specialties. Although microvascular breast reconstruction has become a routine procedure, high peri-operative transfusion rates continue to be report...
Article
Background and aim: Although the internal mammary vessels are, for many surgeons, the recipient vessels of choice in microvascular breast reconstruction, there continues to be some debate regarding their use. The reliability of these vessels, particularly the vein, has been called into question, with high rates of conversion to alternative vessels...
Article
Background: Autologous breast reconstruction has been shown to have fewer complications and superior outcomes. In the elderly patient population, a paucity of literature on the subject may render the surgeon reluctant to recommend or perform such a procedure. The objective of this study was to compare complications and satisfaction after abdominal...
Article
Background: Approximately 20 percent of women select autologous tissue for postmastectomy breast reconstruction, and most commonly choose the abdomen as the donor site. An increasing proportion of women are seeking muscle-sparing procedures, but the benefit remains controversial. It is therefore important to determine whether better outcomes are as...
Article
Full-text available
Nipple-sparing prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is an option for women at high-risk for breast cancer, and may offer better cosmetic results than a skin-sparing PM where the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) is removed. However, there may be residual breast cancer risk due to the maintained NAC. It is unclear if sparing the NAC with PM impacts on psychosoci...
Article
Postmastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) aims to surgically restore a breast mound following mastectomy. However, additional surgical procedures after PMBR can lead to increased postsurgical morbidity and healthcare utilization. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the overall population-based reoperation rates following PMBR in Ont...
Article
Full-text available
Utilization of breast reconstruction (BR) is low in many jurisdictions. We studied the geographical and surgical workforce factors that contribute to access and use of BR using a small area analysis approach with a geographical unit of analysis. We linked administrative data from Ontario Canada to calculate the age-standardized rates for immediate...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving an aesthetic outcome following postmastectomy breast reconstruction is both an important goal for the patient and plastic surgeon. However, there is currently an absence of a widely accepted, standardized, and validated professional aesthetic assessment scale following postmastectomy breast reconstruction. A systematic review was performe...
Article
IntroductionFor women who have mastectomy, breast reconstruction is an option which may improve psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in psychosocial functioning over a long follow-up period after mastectomy, specifically examining the differences between those with mastectomy alone and those who underwent post...
Article
Background: The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Breast cancer survivors who make preference-sensitive decisions about postmastectomy breast reconstruction often have large gaps in knowledge and undergo procedures that are misaligned with their treatment goals. We evaluated the feasibility and effect of a pre-consultation educational group intervention on the decision-making process for b...
Article
Purpose: To describe the population-based rates of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) for all women undergoing mastectomy for treatment or prophylaxis of breast cancer in the past decade, and to evaluate geographic, institutional, and patient factors that influence use in the publically funded Canadian health care system. Methods: This popula...
Article
The bipedicle deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap allows reliable transfer of the entire lower abdominal flap in patients who have a small pannus or require a large volume breast reconstruction. Selection of recipient vessels for the second pedicle can however, be challenging. We describe our experience with a consecutive series...
Article
Infections following implant-based breast reconstruction can lead to devastating consequences. There is currently no consensus on the need for post-operative antibiotics in preventing immediate infection. This study compared two different methods of infection prevention in this group of patients. A retrospective matched cohort study was performed o...
Article
Previous studies comparing muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) versus deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) free flaps have not considered procedure selection bias. Propensity score analysis provides a statistical approach to consider preoperative factors in flap selection, and was used to compare major compli...
Article
To determine the effect of flap reconstruction on perineal complications in locally advanced rectal cancers (LARC) and locally recurrent rectal cancers (LRRC). Prior studies have suggested that flap reconstruction may decrease wound complications after ablative surgery for rectal cancer but are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneity of pathol...
Article
Full-text available
Breast reconstruction using the free muscle-sparing transversus abdominus myocutaneous or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps are common methods for restoring mastectomy defects for breast cancer patients. Despite its increasing popularity and safety, the abdominal donor site remains a major source of postoperative pain. Conventional postoper...
Article
It is not known if optimism influences regret following major reconstructive breast surgery. We examined the relationship between dispositional optimism, major complications and decision regret in patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. A consecutive series of 290 patients were surveyed. Independent variables were: (1) dispositiona...
Article
After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Differentiate among the various techniques available to reconstructive breast surgeons. 2. Perform a comprehensive assessment of the breast reconstruction candidate. 3. Gain knowledge about the indications and contraindications for different breast reconstructive procedures. 4. Unde...
Article
The relationship between satisfaction with information and decision regret has not been previously studied in breast reconstruction patients. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess this relationship and the factors that may influence satisfaction with preoperative information, including self-efficacy (confidence with seeking medical...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The two-stage tissue expander/implant (TE/I) reconstruction is currently the gold standard method of implant-based immediate breast reconstruction in North America. Recently, however, there have been numerous case series describing the use of one-stage direct to implant reconstruction with the aid of acellular dermal matrix (ADM). In o...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Breast cancer survivors who make preference-sensitive decisions about postmastectomy breast reconstruction often have large gaps in knowledge and undergo procedures that are misaligned with their treatment goals. We evaluated the feasibility and effect of a pre-consultation educational group intervention on the decision-making process for...
Article
Background: Multiple preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative decisions can influence the outcome of microsurgical breast reconstruction. We have simplified the decision-making process by incorporating a number of algorithms into our microsurgical breast reconstruction practice and critically review our results in this study. Methods: Pros...
Article
This article provides an overview of the current and future directions for outcomes research in plastic surgery. Important components of outcomes research are discussed, including the need for randomized controlled trials, new methods in observational study design, the development of validated and specific patient-reported outcome tools, the benefi...
Article
Background: Upper limb preservation after soft tissue sarcoma resection often requires flap reconstruction. The aim of this study was to compare pre- and post-operative upper limb function following shoulder, elbow or wrist/hand sarcoma resection and soft tissue reconstruction with a pedicled or free flap. Patients: Between 1989 and 2008, 113 pa...
Article
Introduction: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a peripheral nerve block of T6-L1 intercostal nerves of the abdominal wall. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of intermittent TAP blockade for the first two postoperative days following free muscle sparing-transverse rectus abdominis muscle (MS-TRAM) or deep inferi...
Article
Background: Reconstruction of the anterior abdominal wall is a complex procedure that can be complicated by contamination, loss of domain, previous scarring or radiotherapy, and reduced availability of local tissues. With the introduction of acellular dermal matrices to clinical use, it was hoped that many of the problems associated with previous...
Article
We previously demonstrated that hypoxic preconditioning (HPreC) or postconditioning (HPostC) protected ex vivo human skeletal muscle from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Here, we investigated if combined HPreC and HPostC could convey additive protection. Human rectus abdominis muscle strips were cultured in normoxic Krebs buffer for 5 hours (control)...
Article
In reconstructive surgery, skeletal muscle may endure protracted ischemia before reperfusion, which can lead to significant ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemic postconditioning induced by brief cycles of reperfusion/reocclusion at the end of ischemia has been shown to salvage skeletal muscle from ischemia/reperfusion injury in several animal mode...