Toni Pikkarainen

Toni Pikkarainen
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland | vtt · Combustion processes

Master of Science

About

29
Publications
6,203
Reads
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281
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2006 - present
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Position
  • Senior Scientist, Team Manager

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Chemical looping combustion of wood pellets (WP), wood char (WC), and straw pellets (SP) was conducted in a 60 kW CLC pilot with ilmenite and braunite oxygen carriers (OCs). Alkali emissions were investigated with impactor-based and surface ionization detector (SID) measurements. Particle size distributions for WP and WC fuels were dominated by coa...
Article
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of biomass is a promising technology for power generation with integrated carbon capture. In CLC, alkali content of biomass poses potential issues of bed agglomeration, as well as heat exchanger fouling and corrosion. The fate of biomass alkalis was investigated in a dual-interconnected circulating fluidized bed CL...
Article
Full-text available
Defluidisation as a result of reactor bed agglomeration is a global challenge associated with the gasification of lignocellulosic biomass waste, specifically its high inorganic content. The use of conventional water leaching has been scrutanised for the removal of inorganic constituents from barley straw, a highly abundant waste feedstock with a hi...
Article
The combustion of dry sewage sludge particles in a bubbling fluidized bed was studied in detail, analyzing the composition of the exhaust gases by means of a FTIR equipment. The operating conditions of the fluidized bed, i.e., the bed temperature and mass flow rate of fluidizing air, were varied to quantify their effect on the exhaust gas compositi...
Article
Full-text available
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213138818306520 (open access). Additional investments to negative emission technologies, such as reforestation or bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), are required to achieve Paris Agreement targets. Chemical-looping combustion of biomass (Bio-CLC) is an under-the-development combu...
Poster
Full-text available
How feasible would it be to integrate chemical-looping combustion (CLC) technology to a combined heat and power plant? And what to do with the carbon emissions: just leave them be, capture and store (CCS), or capture, store and utilize (CCU&S)? Would adding the utilization option reduce the need to subsidize negative emissions? More interesting r...
Article
Full-text available
In large and complex processes use of simulators will take place more and more in the future to avoid and learn about transients and unexpected situations. There are plenty of dynamic simulation tools in the markets but most of them have been developed and used for quite specific and limited application areas. At the moment there are just few simul...
Article
The urgency for significant reductions in global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions highlights the importance of carbon sinks, i.e. solutions that can remove CO2 from the atmosphere, and the possibility for offsetting historical emissions. The later the global GHG emissions turn to decline, the greater is the need for sinks or so called “negative emiss...
Article
Limestone is used widely in fluidized bed energy applications for sulphur capture. The conditions of the novel fluidized bed energy processes can differ from the conditions (i.e., temperature and gas concentrations) in conventional fluidized bed applications for energy production. The influence of H2O(g) on calcination and indirect sulphation was e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Concentrated solar power (CSP) is a renewable energy technology, which is able to provide dispatchable power according to demand. Dispatchability is typically achieved by decoupling solar thermal collection and power production with a thermal energy storage system. However, storage solutions for direct steam generating CSP technologies are still in...
Conference Paper
In large and complex processes use of simulators will take place more and more in the future to avoid and learn about transients and unexpected situations. There are plenty of dynamic simulation tools in the markets but most of them have been developed and used for quite specific and limited application areas. At the moment there are just few simul...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A new 10-50 kWth scale dual fluidized bed (DFB) chemical looping combustion (CLC) process development unit (PDU) applicable for biomass was constructed during 2015-16, located in VTT’s new piloting center Bioruukki in Finland. The DFB-CLC test rig consists of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) air reactor interconnected with a bubbling fluidized bed...
Conference Paper
In chemical looping combustion CLC solid metal oxides are used to burn organic fuels. Typically the metal oxide serving as oxygen carrier is oxidized in separate air reactor and reduced in separate fuel reactor. The oxygen carrier suffers repeated oxidation and reduction cycles, and the chemical cycling affects the oxygen carrier’s physical and che...
Article
Full-text available
The 1st generation oxyfuel CFB (Circulating Fluidised Bed) technology has been demonstrated up to 30MWth scale and the commercial concept for 300 MWe air/oxy flexible CFB power plant is available. Currently, the development of 2nd generation oxyfuel CFB technology is ongoing aiming to reduce significantly – around 50% – the overall efficiency penal...
Article
In this study, the influence of CO2 on sulfur capture efficiency was studied during fluidized-bed desulfurization by experiments and modeling. During calcination–sulfation and direct sulfation, the effect was examined with one limestone type. A time-dependent multilayer particle model was used for analyzing the experimental results. The model deter...
Article
The influence of different conditions on the sulfur-capture efficiency during fluidized-bed desulfurization was studied using both experimental and modeling methods. The effects of the temperature (1120 or 1200 K) and gas atmosphere (90% N2 or 90% CO2) were studied using one limestone type. The CO2 atmosphere increased the degree of conversion comp...
Article
Carbon capture and storage is a concept to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of energy production from fossil fuels. In oxy-fuel combustion, the fuel is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas. This generates CO2-rich flue gas from which the CO2 is easily separated and compressed. Foster Wheeler Power Group is developing the existing desi...
Article
Full-text available
Fuel flexibility is one of the most important benefits of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, but it sets challenges for boiler design to reach high efficiency, low emissions and excellent controllability with different kinds of fuels and their blends. Oxygen-firing in CFB conditions requires additionally a substantial number of process and...
Article
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is internationally considered as one of the most significant future measures for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. The method is based on capture of carbon dioxde from power plants or industrial facilities, after which carbon dioxde is purified, compressed and transported by pipelines or tanker ships for long-term...
Technical Report
Full-text available
VTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes 2503 Hiilidioksidin talteenottoa ja varastointia (carbon capture and storage, CCS) pidetään kansainvälisesti yhtenä merkittävimmistä tulevaisuuden hiilidioksidipäästöjen vähentämiskeinoista. Menetelmä perustuu hiilidioksidin talteen ottamiseen voimalaitoksissa tai teollisuuslaitoksissa, minkä jälkeen hiilidioksidi p...
Article
Fragmentation of limestone due to thermal shock and calcination in a fluidised bed was studied through experiments and modelling. The time for heating was estimated by model calculations and the time for calcination by measurements. Fragmentation due to thermal shock was carried out by experiments in a CO2 atmosphere in order to prevent the effect...
Article
The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources are important national and international targets. Oxyfuel (oxygen combustion technology) is one of the most promising technologies enabling carbon capture and storage from flue gases. The aim of oxyfuel concept development is to study different oxy...
Article
Steady state population balance modelling has widely been used to simulate the particle size distribution (PSD) of different material (fuel, ash, sand or limestone particles) in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC). The steady state approach cannot be used to study the effect of rapid changes in dynamic con...
Article
BioEnergia Nr.3, 24-25 Hiilidioksidin talteenottoa ja varastointia (eng. Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS) pidetään yhtenä lupaavimmista menetelmistä, jolla voidaan vähentää hiilidioksidipäästöjä uusiutuvan energian, ydinvoiman, energiasäästön ja energiatehokkuuden parantamisen ohessa. Toisin kuin muut edellä mainitut menetelmät, CCS-teknologia ei o...
Article
Full-text available
Les Rencontres Scientifiques de l'IFP - 1st International Conference on Chemical Looping - Proceedings. Lyon, 17 - 19 March 2010 Characteristics of various new oxygen carriers for CLC - Various materials specially prepared for the use of chemical looping combustion (CLC) were characterized thermogravimetrically (TG). The materials tested were three...
Article
VTT Working Papers 161 Julkaisu on katsaus hiilidioksidin talteenottoon ja varastointiin (Carbon capture and storage, CCS) liittyvään teknologiaan. Raportti sisältää myös kirjallisuuskatsauksen CCS:n kustannuksista ja varastoinnin lainsäädännöstä. Voimalaitoksille on kehitetty muutamia hiilidioksidin talteenottoratkaisuja. Voimalaitosten lisäksi CC...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
This research project will develop Chemical-Looping Combustion of biomass (Bio-CLC). This is a new, competitive and ground-breaking CO2-negative biomass combustion technology suitable for the future Nordic energy system and Nordic technology providers. The project aims at making the technology ready for the construction of a demonstration unit, i.e. the last step in the development chain before commercial units.