Ton Baars

Ton Baars
Utrecht University | UU · Division of Pharmacology, UIPS

Prof Dr

About

113
Publications
31,912
Reads
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Introduction
As a senior-researcher, Ton Baars works part-time at Utrecht University, Department of Immunopharmacology. Current projects are on aspect of raw and raw fermented milk, which will be tested in mice models for milk allergy. Main points of attention will be raw fermented kefir, temperature effects and origin of raw milk.
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Senior Researcher
March 2011 - June 2019
Forschungsinstitut für biologischen Landbau
Position
  • Senior Researcher
March 2005 - March 2011
Universität Kassel
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
January 1997 - June 2002
Wageningen University & Research
Field of study
  • Grassland ecology and research approach in organic animal husbandry
January 1980 - January 1985
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Landcape ecology and Nature conservation
September 1974 - December 1979
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Ecology

Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
The article “Dietary Prevention of Atopic March in Pediatric Subjects with Cow's Milk Allergy” in Frontiers of Pediatrics, 11 August 2020, reviews potential solutions to the current worldwide increase in cow's milk allergies. The authors state that “In the last years, diet is emerging as a relevant strategy to prevent allergic diseases through the...
Article
The allergy-protective capacity of raw cow's milk was demonstrated to be abolished after heat treatment. The heat-sensitive whey protein fraction of raw milk is often implied to be the source of this allergy-protective effect, but a direct link between these proteins and the protection against allergic diseases is missing. This study therefore aime...
Article
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Raw milk producers with high levels of hygiene and safety – CORRIGENDUM - Volume 148 - A. C. Berge, T. Baars
Article
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There is world-wide increasing interest in the consumption of unprocessed, natural food commodities including fresh (unpasteurised) milk and milk products. Consumers are actively seeking out raw milk, partly due to health reasons, but also for taste, freshness, closeness to the producer and to support local agriculture. The need for high levels of...
Article
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The self-assessment of perceived immune status is important, as this subjective observation leads individuals to decide whether or not to seek medical help or adapt their lifestyle. In addition, it can be used in clinical settings and research. The aim of this series of studies was to develop and validate a short questionnaire to assess perceived i...
Article
Introduction Raw milk consumption is controversially discussed, and people are looking for raw milk due to expected positive health impacts. The purpose of this consumer survey was to evaluate health conditions prior to and after consuming of raw milk (RM). Methods An on-line survey was distributed in Spring 2018 among existing consumers of raw mi...
Article
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Biologisch-dynamische Milch zeigt die stärkste Differenzierung der Milchfettqualität durch Sommer- bzw. Winterfütterung. Innerhalb der drei Hauptregionen Nordwesteuropas bestimmen die Höhenlage der Betriebe, die Niederschlagsmenge und die Sommertemperatur eine weitere Differenzierung der Milchfettqualität. Hohe Sommertemperaturen und geringere Nied...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper was to evaluate health conditions prior to and at least two months after the start of consuming raw fermented milk (RFM) products. Design/methodology/approach One-Item health score, 1-item immunity score, immune status (ISQ), mood, bowel and skin conditions were rated for the period prior and post switching to RFM...
Article
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Een onderzoek gebaseerd op zelf gerapporteerde gezondheid en klachten onder consumenten van rauwmelkse gefermenteerde zuivelproducten maakt duidelijk dat, zij die aangeven ‘chronische gezondheidsklachten’ te hebben de sterkste positieve veranderingen in hun gezondheid merken. Vrouwen geven vooraf aan grotere problemen met hun gezondheid te hebben,...
Article
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Background Several studies demonstrated the adverse effect of milk processing on the allergy‐protective capacity of raw cow's milk. Whether milk processing also affects the allergenicity of raw milk is hardly investigated. Objective To assess the allergenicity of raw (unprocessed) and processed cow's milk in a murine model for food allergy as well...
Article
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Background: Biodynamic dairy production is based on a land-related animal production without the additional input of N-fertilizers. The concentrate level per cow is low. This affects the yield level of animals and product quality outcomes. Methods: We examined the milk fatty acid (FA) composition of European biodynamic farms in relation to the e...
Article
Horns are living tissue and cows can use their horns for thermoregulatory purposes. We investigated the effect of the presence of horns on the metabolome of milk serum and lipidome of milk fat, to assess the physiological effect of dehorning. Milk sampling took place at low ambient temperatures of −6 to 2°C. Horned and dehorned cows were kept in a...
Chapter
Due to the fear for zoonotic bacteria in some raw milk, the main consumption milk bulk is pasteurised or sterilised nowadays. In several areas of the world a new practice of the sale of safe, unprocessed fresh milk has been built up, some already consciously since the 1930s. To deal with raw milk issues it is necessary to discriminate between raw m...
Article
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Epidemiological studies show an inverse relation between raw cow’s milk consumption and the development of asthma. This protective effect seems to be abolished by milk processing. Evidence for a causal relationship is however lacking and direct comparisons between raw and heat treated milk are hardly studied. This study therefore investigated the p...
Chapter
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Im Rahmen der Professur für biologisch-dynamischen Landbau an der Universität Kassel (2005-2011) wurden mehrere Studien zur Milchqualität durchgeführt. So wurden multiple allergische Kinder mit Vorzugsmilch getestet (Roos et al. 2011) und zur Differenzierung der Milchqualität wurden unterschiedliche Analysemethoden nebeneinander verwendet (Wohlers,...
Poster
In this study the sensitizing capacity of raw and processed cow’s milk was compared in a murine sensitization model for food allergy. Conclusion: In contrast to processed milk, raw milk is hardly able to induce sensitization. Allergic symptoms and IgE levels were reduced and this coincided with reduced Th2 cytokine responses. What it is in raw milk...
Article
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Article
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In: Isart J. and Llerena J. (eds) Resource use in organic farming, 3 rd ENOF-workshop, Ancona, Italy. pp. 175 -188 In this paper the relation between management practices and the level of BMSCC on organic dairy farms is described. Because Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen that is most frequently cultured, at first this pathogen has been charac...
Data
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• A large proportion of salt-affected soils are found in arid and semi-arid areas of developing countries • On-farm salinity management should involve locally-available resources at a low-cost. • Biodynamic preparation 500 (P500) was rarely tested on stressed soils. • This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the effects of P500 on the e...
Conference Paper
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Large areas of salt-affected soils are found in tropics, especially in Africa, South America and the Middle East. While soil salinity might lead to food insecurity in those regions and affect farmers who are most vulnerable to environmental stress, however, little is known how the abiotic stress can be managed with locally available resources witho...
Research
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In German language an review on the relationship of milk and health in relation to raw milk, milk from grazed cows and milk produced without antibiotics
Research
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In German language results from Swiss on-farm research about experiences from farmers who work without antibiotics in dairy cattle
Research
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In German language a description of the research work among native people, their food habits, their dental health
Article
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Obwohl in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten Milch und Milchprodukten stark diskutiert wurden, erleben sie eine Art Revival. Fermentierte Milch-produkte sind schon sehr lange Teil unsere westliche Nahrungskultur. Bietet Kefir über seinen Geschmack und Gesundheitsförderung hinaus mehr?
Conference Paper
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At the biodynamic farm Juchowo, 7 pairs of dairy cows from 2 breeds (Holstein (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)) were milk sampled in summer and in winter. Cows grazed in summer and were fed hay in winter. Differences in the milk fatty acid distribution (FA) were evaluated for effects of month (fodder), breed and individual cows. The most important way to...
Article
BACKGROUND Intensification of organic dairy production leads to the question of whether the implementation of intensive feeding incorporating maize silage and concentrates is altering milk quality. Therefore the fatty acid (FA) and antioxidant (AO) profiles of milk on 24 farms divided into four system groups in three replications (n=71) during the...
Article
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The aims of this work were to elucidate the potential of using milk fatty acid (FA) concentration to predict cow diet composition and altitude of bulk milk collected in 10 different European countries and to authenticate cow-feeding systems and altitude of the production area using a data set of 1,248 bulk cow milk samples and associated farm recor...
Article
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Mit einem Forschungsprojekt wollen Bio Suisse und der Verein für biodynamische Landwirtschaft aufzeigen, wie sich die biologische Milchproduktion vom Antibiotika-Einsatz befreien kann. Der erste Teil des Projekts, der die Tierhaltungen und das Management von bereits erfolgreich ohne Antibiotika produzierenden Betrieben untersuchte, ist nun abgeschl...
Conference Paper
The aim of this work was to predict cow diet composition from the fatty acid (FA) concentrations of bulk milk collected in ten different EU countries. A dataset comprising 1248 bulk cow-milk samples and corresponding information related to diet composition assessed by rapid interviews with farmers was used. The predictions based on FA for cow diet...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Intensification of organic dairy production leads to the question of whether the implementation of intensive feeding incorporating maize silage and concentrates is altering milk quality. Therefore the fatty acid (FA) and antioxidant (AO) profiles of milk on 24 farms divided into four system groups in three replications ( n = 71) during...
Conference Paper
This study aimed to predict the cow milk fatty acid (FA) composition using farming practices des - cribed through on-farm surveys. The FA composition of 1248 bulk milk samples and the related farming prac- tices came from 20 experiments conducted in 10 different European countries. Samples derived from farms located between 44°N to 60°N altitude, a...
Book
This study aimed to predict the cow milk fatty acid (FA) composition using farming practices des - cribed through on-farm surveys. The FA composition of 1248 bulk milk samples and the related farming prac- tices came from 20 experiments conducted in 10 different European countries. Samples derived from farms located between 44°N to 60°N altitude, a...
Article
Full-text available
Authentication of organic milk by suitable markers is currently attracting more and more interests in food control. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficiency of the markers stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C value) with the SRR/RRR phytanic acid diastereomer ratio (SRR/RRR) of milk fat for distinguishing different feeding systems. For stable...
Article
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Die amerikanische Forscherin Katie Hinde bezeichnete die Muttermilch als eine »personalisierte« Milch. Beim Stillen kommuniziert die Mutter mit ihrem Kind und reagiert auf dessen Gesundheitszustand mit der unbewussten Freigabe bestimmter Inhaltstoffe. Fast scheint es überflüssig darauf hinzuweisen, dass Muttermilch unbehandelt und unübertrefflich f...
Article
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In the last decade, consumption of raw milk, milk in general and milk fats suffers from an adverse nutritional and health image and therefore mixed messages are present among consumers. Milk products contain a range of bio-active contents related to health regulation. Heating destroys not only unwanted and beneficial bacteria in milk, but also chan...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of bulk milk using data describing farming practices collected via on-farm surveys. The FA composition of 1,248 bulk cow milk samples and the related farming practices were collected from 20 experiments led in 10 different European countries at 44°N to 60°N latitude and sea level...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers buy organic food because they believe in the high quality of the product. Furthermore, the EU legal regulatory framework for organic food and farming defines high quality of the products as an important goal of production. A major challenge is the need to define food quality concepts and methods for determination. A background is describe...
Article
Organic milk is seen as more healthy in terms of its fatty acid (FA) profile. In three on-farm crossover trials with 10-12 cows in each group, different forages were compared for their potential to improve the FA composition. Different hay qualities (hay of pasture vs. hay of leys), additional energy sources (fodder beets vs. wheat) and roughage qu...
Article
Purpose: To comprehensively review the data on the relationship between the consumption of dairy fat and high-fat dairy foods, obesity, and cardiometabolic disease. Methods: We have conducted a systematic literature review of observational studies on the relationship between dairy fat and high-fat dairy foods, obesity, and cardiometabolic diseas...
Poster
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Risk of transfer of zoonotic diseases is low from Grade-A milk, because hygiene standards during milking and processing are high. Consumers prefer this milk due to taste and natural quality.
Article
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Milk quality has an important role in organic farming due to the obligation to a maximum use of pasturage for herbivores. Markers should be identified to confirm the authenticity of organic milk production. The concentration and SRR/RRR diastereomer ratio of phytanic acid were investigated as potential markers to discriminate different feeding stra...
Poster
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Take home messages of conference speakers at the first raw milk conference, Prague, 2011
Article
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Article
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For further development of organic agriculture, it will become increasingly essential to integrate experienced innovative practitioners in research projects. The characteristics of this process of co-learning have been transformed into a research approach, theoretically conceptualized as "experiential science" (Baars 2007, Baars and Baars 2007). Th...
Conference Paper
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Milk quality at different biodynamic and conventional dairy farms was evaluated in two seasons. Bulk milk samples were taken bimonthly on 6 occasions on 24 farms. The farms were grouped in four system groups, each of six farms: biodynamic low-(BLI) and high-input (BHI) and conventional low-(CLI) and high-input (CHI). Current feeding, pasture and pe...
Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
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Before the background of consumer assumptions of a higher quality and a better health value of organic food the status quo of organic milk quality was assessed. In a system comparison, milk of contrasting biodynamic and conventional dairy farms was evaluated in summer and winter to understand relevant system characteristics affecting milk quality....
Conference Paper
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Children (n=12) who were diagnosed for milk allergy were tested in their reaction to milk of two different origins. Blood samples were taken for IgE, and a ick and a patch test was carried through, followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge (DBPCFC). In the testing, the standard-milk was a retail milk from conventional origin...
Article
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Conference Paper
Milk quality at biodynamic and conventional dairy farms was evaluated. Bulk milk samples were taken bimonthly on 24 farms in Southern Germany. Four groups, each of six farms, were representing characteristic farming systems: biodynamic high-input (BHI), biodynamic low-input (BLI), conventional high-input (CHI) and conventional low-input (CLI). Curr...
Poster
Full-text available
Im Rahmen einer Studie zur Auswirkung von Haltung und Fütterung auf die Milchqualität wurden verschiedene Strategien zum Nachweis shigatoxinbildener Escherichia coli (STEC) aus dem Kot von Milchkühen sowie aus Rohmilch verglichen.
Article
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Organic farming principles give rise to multifunctionality: different activities are combined at farm level to create ecological and economic synergies. These principles do however allow for different operationalisations and different farm development strategies, for example with regard to the use of external inputs or the decision whether or not t...
Conference Paper
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Supposedly beneficial nutritional compositions were found in organic milk. Studies report that the consumption of organic milk products affects health eg. prevention of eczema in children. Single cases describe a better digestibility of organic milk for consumers suffering from diverse atopic disorders and food allergies. To clarify whether this is...
Conference Paper
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The maintenance of udder health is one of the biggest problems in organic dairy farming. Therefore, it was the aim to explore the experience of successful farming experts to evaluate their individual complex solutions for mastitis ans somatic cell count problems. 7 organic dairy farmers in Baden-Württemberg/Germany were selec-ted, who achieved an a...
Article
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Organic production methods have in the past been shown to have benefits for the environment, biodiversity, soil quality, animal welfare and reduced pesticide residues. In addition to these qualities they may also contribute directly to human health. In an exploratory study, raw (bulk) cow's milk from five organic and five neighbouring conventional...
Article
The concept of naturalness can be used to characterize organic agriculture and to distinguish it from conventional agriculture, provided naturalness not only refers to the non-use of synthesized chemicals, but also to the ecological and systemic principles, and to a respect for the integrity of living organisms. Examples of the implicit use of the...
Article
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Producers, traders and consumers of organic food regularly use the concept of the natural to characterize organic agriculture or organic food. Critics sometimes argue that such use lacks any rational (scientific) basis and only refers to sentiment. We carried out research to (1) better understand the content and the use of the concepts of nature an...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of naturalness can be used to characterize organic agriculture and to distinguish it from conventional agriculture, provided naturalness not only refers to the non-use of synthesized chemicals, but also to the ecological and systemic principles, and to a respect for the integrity of living organisms. Examples of the implicit use of the...
Conference Paper
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Milk as one of the most important nutritional sources has also become one of the major food allergens. What are the reasons for differences of milk from organic and conventional origin? The ongoing research shows a high impact of management practices on milk quality and composition. Which quality characteristic marks consistently organic milk qu...
Article
Producers, traders and consumers of organic food regularly use the concept of the natural to characterize organic agriculture or organic food. Critics sometimes argue that such use lacks any rational (scientific) basis and only refers to sentiment. We carried out research to (1) better understand the content and the use of the concepts of nature an...
Article
Full-text available
The spontaneous degradation of milk at 20 o C was investigated within a Goetheanistic approach to determine the milk quality. Two opposite degradation processes were found. One extreme were milk samples that got sour within 1 1/2 day and showed no further changes. The pH was stable at about 4.0. Only a grey mould deck covered the cream at the top....
Article
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The process of spontaneous degradation of milk at 20 o C was compared with other analytical quality parameters in milk. Biodynamic milk showed a higher oxidation of the milk fat and a longer renneting time. Conventional milk often tasted better. There is a correlation between several hygienic parameters in milk (germ count, etc) and the quality of...
Article
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Various recent studies have indicated positive interactions between organic animal produc- tion and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, particularly CLA and omega-3. In this paper, we present the monitor- ing results of 15 organic farms concerning the rela- tionship between feeding practices and fatty acid pattern. The results indicate a strong negative...
Article
This paper aims to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming for milk production and fertility of first parity Holstein cows. Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of conventional farms. The percentage Holstein blood...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate whether immunological parameters in milk and the impedance at 6 acupuncture points (APs) were related to herd health: good versus poor. The study used a purposively selected sample of 10 herds and in each herd 15 to 18 animals were observed. Statistical models at animal level included a random herd effect, with age and...
Conference Paper
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Due to regulations organic farming is sub- jected to a different regime then conventional farm- ing. This results in different environments for ani- mals. The question is whether one overall breeding goal is sufficient to cover all different demands of organic farmers. A survey among 132 Dutch organic dairy farmers revealed that 55% of the farmers...
Article
Several recent studies on the results of organic dairy farmers (ODF) show that this system is not always better than conventional (Brinkman and Winkler, 2006). Sundrum (2006) asks, if there are no differences in the quality between organic and conventional products, why should consumers pay a higher price for these products? There are several possi...
Conference Paper
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The Partner Farm concept, mixed farming at a distance, is aiming at the utilization of several advantages of mixed farming while retaining the farmer's autonomy and specialized farm structure. While farming in the Netherlands is highly specialized, increased intersectoral cooperation is essential in organic agriculture as legislation concerning the...
Article
Door verschillende veehouders, binnen en buiten het project Bioveem, en door studenten van agrarische hogescholen is onderzoek gedaan naar het gebruik van homeopathische middelen bij de preventie en de behandeling van kalverdiarree. Het rapport geeft een verslag van de ervaringen die de veehouders hebben opgedaan met het gebruik van homeopathische...
Article
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Het doel van dit onderzoek is om, d.m.v. interviews, ervaringen van veehouders over hun gebruik van homeopathie bij rundvee te verzamelen en te evalueren vanuit een ‘ervaringswetenschappelijke’ invalshoek. Hierdoor kan een verkennend overzicht verkregen worden van veelbelovende homeopathische middelen (hoofdstuk 3) waarmee intensiever toetsend en e...
Article
Currently, most organic dairy farmers in the Netherlands use conventional breeding methods and production stock. In view of the organic objective of closed chains, organic dairy farmers discussed in workshops the desirability and practical merits of different possible scenarios for realizing breeding programmes that are more in line with organic fa...
Article
In het project Bioveem worden een aantal nieuwe meetlatten ontwikkeld, die raken aan de intenties van de biologische landbouw. Met deze meetlatten kunnen de deelnemende bedrijven onderling vergeleken worden op andere vlakken danbedrijfseconomische cijfers en technische kengetallen. De eerste meetlat die is ontwikkeld en getoetst, is die van de exte...
Article
Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van wat de Bioveem-aanpak is en hoe deze tot stand is gekomen. De Bioveem-aanpak is ontwikkeld in het project Bioveem en gefundeerd in de ervaringswetenschap. Bij de start van Bioveem is bewust gekozen voor het werken met ervaringskennis, omdat deze werkwijze goed aansluit bij de biologische landbouw die zeer divers...
Chapter
This book was conceived as an activity of the Network on Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Agriculture, an EU funded network of researchers from 13 countries, and most of the authors were drawn from the network. A problem identified by the authors is the diversity that occurs inevitablyin organic agriculture, as it must adapt to the local condit...