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## Publications

Publications (66)

Bilayer graphene is an attractive material that hosts a high-quality two-dimensional electron gas with a controllable band gap. By utilizing the band gap, electrical gate tuning of the carrier is possible and formation of nanostructures such as quantum dots has been reported. To probe the dynamics of the electronic states and realize applications f...

Semiconductor quantum dots are useful for controlling and observing quantum states and can also be used as sensors for reading out quantum bits and exploring local electronic states in nanostructures. However, challenges remain for the sensor applications, such as the trade-off between sensitivity and dynamic range and the issue of instability due...

Quantum dots can be formed in simple GaN/AlGaN field-effect-transistors (FETs) by disordered potential induced by impurities and defects. Here, we investigate the channel length dependence of the formation of quantum dots. We observe decrease of the number of formed quantum dots with decrease of the FET channel length. A few quantum dots are formed...

Quantum dots can be formed in simple GaN/AlGaN field-effect-transistors (FETs) by disordered potential induced by impurities and defects. Here, we investigate the channel length dependence of the formation of quantum dots. We observe decrease of the number of formed quantum dots with decrease of the FET channel length. A few quantum dots are formed...

Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) exhibit spin-dependent conductance that governs their performance in various applications. While the transport characteristics are known to show nonlinearity, their behavior and underlying mechanism have not yet understood well. Here we investigate nonlinear conductance at a low bias regime in nanoscale MTJs with a p...

Large-scale integration of quantum-dot devices is essential for realizing various quantum devices. Graphene-based quantum dots provide a promising platform for spin qubits because of their low nuclear spin density and weak spin-orbit interaction. However, the integration of graphene-based quantum dots remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate the s...

Bilayer graphene is an attractive material that realizes high-quality two-dimensional electron gas with a controllable bandgap. By utilizing the bandgap, electrical gate tuning of the carrier is possible and formation of nanostructures such as quantum dots have been reported. To probe the dynamics of the electronics states and realize applications...

Charge state recognition in quantum dot devices is important in preparation of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Towards auto-tuning of larger-scale quantum devices, automatic charge state recognition by machine learning has been demonstrated. In this work, we propose a simpler method using machine learning and pre-processing. We dem...

Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots have been intensively studied for implementing quantum computation and high-fidelity single- and two-qubit operations have recently been achieved. Quantum teleportation is a three-qubit protocol exploiting quantum entanglement and it serves as an essential primitive for more sophisticated quantum algorit...

We investigate gate voltage dependence of electrical readout noise in high-speed rf reflectometry using gallium arsenide quantum dots. The fast Fourier transform spectrum from the real time measurement reflects build-in device noise and circuit noise including the resonator and the amplifier. We separate their noise spectral components by model ana...

We investigate electrical readout noise in high-speed rf reflectometry using gallium arsenide quantum dots. The fast Fourier transform spectrum from the real time measurement reflects a build-in device noise and a circuit noise including the resonator and the amplifier. We separate their noise spectral components by model analysis. A flicker noise...

Electron spin s in semiconductor quantum dot s have been intensively studied for implementing quantum computation and high fidelity single and two qubit operation s have recently been achieved . Quantum teleportation is a three qubit protocol exploiting quantum entanglement and it serv es as a n essential primitive for more sophisticated quantum al...

We experimentally and theoretically investigate the spin orbit (SO) field in a physically defined, p type metal oxide semiconductor double quantum dot in silicon. We measure the magnetic field dependence of the leakage current through the double dot in the Pauli spin blockade. A finite magnetic field lifts the blockade, with the lifting least effec...

The coherence of electron spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots suffers mostly from low-frequency noise. During the past decade, efforts have been devoted to mitigate such noise by material engineering, leading to substantial enhancement of the spin dephasing time for an idling qubit. However, the role of the environmental noise during spin man...

The coherence of electron spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots suffers mostly from low-frequency noise. During the last decade, efforts have been devoted to mitigate such noise by material engineering, leading to substantial enhancement of the spin dephasing time for an idling qubit. However, the role of the environmental noise during spin man...

Measurements of quantum systems inevitably involve disturbance in various forms. Within the limits imposed by quantum mechanics, there exists an ideal projective measurement that does not introduce a back action on the measured observable, known as a quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement1,2. Here we demonstrate an all-electrical QND measurement...

Holes in silicon exhibit an enhanced spin-orbit interaction compared to electrons, which can be used for electrical spin manipulation, but causes spin decoherence. Here we investigate the level detuning and magnetic field dependence of the leakage current through a physically-defined, p-type MOS double quantum dot in silicon. The current peak posit...

We analyze time evolution of charge and spin states in a quantum dot coupled to an electric reservoir. Utilizing high-speed single-electron detection, we focus on dynamics induced by the first-order tunneling. We find that there is a difference between the spin and the charge relaxation: The former appears slower than the latter. The difference dep...

Electron spins confined in quantum dots are an attractive system to realize high-fidelity qubits owing to their long coherence time. With the prolonged spin coherence time, however, the control fidelity can be limited by systematic errors rather than decoherence, making characterization and suppression of their influence crucial for further improve...

Single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots hold promise for universal quantum computation with demonstrations of a high single-qubit gate fidelity above 99.9% and two-qubit gates in conjunction with a long coherence time. However, initialization and readout of a qubit is orders of magnitude slower than control, which is detrimental for implem...

Scaling up qubits is a necessary step to realize useful systems of quantum computation. Here, we demonstrate coherent manipulations of four individual electron spins using a micro-magnet method in each dot of a quadruple quantum dot—the largest number of dots used for the single spin control in multiple quantum dots. We observe Rabi oscillations fo...

We analyze time evolution of charge and spin states in a quantum dot coupled to an electric reservoir. Utilizing high-speed single-electron detection, we focus on dynamics induced by the first-order tunneling. We find that there is a difference between the spin and the charge relaxation: the former appears slower than the latter. The difference dep...

Scaling up qubits is a necessary step to realize useful systems of quantum computation. Here we demonstrate coherent manipulations of four individual electron spins using a micro-magnet method in a quadruple quantum dot - the largest number of dots used for the single spin control in multiple quantum dots. We observe Rabi oscillations and electron...

Single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots proposed by Loss and DiVincenzo (LD qubits) hold promise for universal quantum computation with demonstrations of a high single-qubit gate fidelity above 99.9 % and two-qubit gates in conjunction with a long coherence time. However, initialization and readout of a qubit is orders of magnitude slower...

The isolation of qubits from noise sources, such as surrounding nuclear spins and spin-electric susceptibility, has enabled extensions of quantum coherence times in recent pivotal advances towards the concrete implementation of spin-based quantum computation. In fact, the possibility of achieving enhanced quantum coherence has been substantially do...

We prepare a triple quantum dot with a separate contact lead to each dot to study Pauli spin blockade in the tunnel-coupled three dots in a row. We measure the tunneling current flowing between the center dot and either the left or right dot with the left and right leads as a common source and the center lead as a drain. In the biased stability dia...

Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply...

A two-dimensional arrangement of quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel coupling provides a promising platform for studying complicated spin correlations as well as for constructing large-scale quantum computers. Here, we fabricate a tunnel-coupled triangular triple quantum dot with a novel gate geometry in which three dots are defined by positi...

We demonstrate a new method for projective single-shot measurement of two electron spin states (singlet versus triplet) in an array of gate-defined lateral quantum dots in GaAs. The measurement has very high fidelity and is robust with respect to electric and magnetic fluctuations in the environment. It exploits a long-lived metastable charge state...

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) offer a platform to explore the physics of quantum electronics including spins. Electron spins in QDs are considered good candidates for quantum bits in quantum information processing, and spin control and readout have been established down to a single electron level. We use these techniques to explore spin dynamics...

A semiconductor quintuple quantum dot with two charge sensors and an additional contact to the center dot from an electron reservoir is fabricated to demonstrate the concept of scalable architecture. This design enables formation of the five dots as confirmed by measurements of the charge states of the three nearest dots to the respective charge se...

Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining el...

Entanglement is at the heart of quantum mechanics and an essential ingredient of spin correlations in superconductivity and the Kondo effect and quantum non-locality of non-interacting particles. Non-local entanglement is also key to quantum computation outperforming classical computers and has now begun to be applied to various atom and photon-bas...

Fault-tolerant quantum operation is a key requirement for the development of quantum computing. This has been realized in various solid-state systems including isotopically purified silicon which provides a nuclear spin free environment for the qubits, but not in industry standard natural (unpurified) silicon. Here we demonstrate an addressable fau...

We extract the phase coherence of a qubit defined by singlet and triplet
electronic states in a gated GaAs triple quantum dot, measuring on timescales
much shorter than the decorrelation time of the environmental noise. In this
non-ergodic regime, we observe that the coherence is boosted and several
dephasing times emerge, depending on how the phas...

Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum
bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have
been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins,
two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to
demonstrate scalability of this architecture by...

Transport measurements are powerful tools to probe electronic properties of solid-state materials. To access properties of local electronic states in nanostructures, such as local density of states, electronic distribution and so on, micro-probes utilizing artificial nanostructures have been invented to perform measurements in addition to those wit...

Tailoring spin coupling to electric fields is central to spintronics and
spin-based quantum information processing. We present an optimal micromagnet
design that produces appropriate stray magnetic fields to mediate fast
electrical spin manipulations in nanodevices. We quantify the practical
requirements for spatial field inhomogeneity and toleranc...

The manipulation of single spins in double quantum dots by making use of the exchange interaction and a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field was discussed in Coish and Loss [Phys. Rev. B 75, 161302 (2007)]. However, such large inhomogeneity is difficult to achieve through the slanting field of a micromagnet in current designs of lateral double dots....

We demonstrate fast universal electrical spin manipulation with inhomogeneous
magnetic fields. With fast Rabi frequency up to 127 MHz, we leave the
conventional regime of strong nuclear-spin influence and observe a spin-flip
fidelity > 96%, a distinct chevron Rabi pattern in the spectral-time domain,
and spin resonance linewidth limited by the Rabi...

The manipulation of single spins in double quantum dots by making use of the
exchange interaction and a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field was discussed in
[W. A. Coish and D. Loss, Phys. Rev. B 75, 161302 (2007)]. However, such large
inhomogeneity is difficult to achieve through the slanting field of a
micromagnet in current designs of lateral do...

We report the realization of an array of four tunnel coupled quantum dots in
the single electron regime, which is the first required step toward a scalable
solid state spin qubit architecture. We achieve an efficient tunability of the
system but also find out that the conditions to realize spin blockade readout
are not as straightforwardly obtained...

We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability
of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The
measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is
governed by gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots we study
gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. Par...

We demonstrated a method to probe local electronic states and energy
relaxation in quantum Hall edge states utilizing quantum point contacts. We
evaluated relaxation lengths in the cases with electron tunneling and only with
energy exchange between edge states. They were consistent with the results of
previous experiments, and we have checked the v...

We propose and demonstrate a new method to probe local spin polarization in
semiconductor micro devices at low and zero magnetic fields. By connecting a
single-lead quantum dot to a semiconductor micro device and monitoring electron
tunneling into singlet and triplet states in the dot, we can detect the local
spin polarization formed in the target...

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can work as an electronic level
spectrometer with very high energy resolution. However the series
resistance of QDs is strongly affected by the coupling and the states in
``detector'' dot, which is inadequate for the spectroscopy of a QD under
coherent phenomena such as the quantum interference, the Kondo effect,
et...

We investigate the gating properties of Si/SiGe two-dimensional electron gas systems with various gate materials and fabricate a lateral Si/SiGe quantum dot by gating through an Al2O3 film. In comparison to the conventional surface Schottky gates, gating through a thin Al2O3 layer provides a strong suppression of leakage current. The fabricated qua...

We demonstrate detection of spin polarization in a quantum wire utilizing a side coupled quantum dot. By applying in-plane magnetic fields, spin split conducting channels are formed and produce spin polarization in the wire. The magnetic fields also create Zeeman split spin levels in the dot and these states are used as a spin polarization detector...

We demonstrate a new method for locally probing the edge states in the
quantum Hall regime utilizing a side coupled quantum dot positioned at an edge
of a Hall bar. By measuring the tunneling of electrons from the edge states
into the dot, we acquire information on the local electrochemical potential and
electron temperature of the edge states. Fur...

We propose realistic methods to detect local spin polarization, which utilize
a quantum dot side coupled to the target system. By choosing appropriate states
in the dot, we can put spin selectivity to the dot and detect spins in the
target with small disturbance. We also present an experiment which realizes one
of the proposed spin detection scheme...

We report excited-state spectroscopy on a quantum dot side-coupled to a quantum wire with accurate energy estimation. Our method utilizes periodic voltage pulses on the dot, and the energy calibration is performed with reference to the bias voltage across the wire. We demonstrate the observation of the orbital excited state and the Zeeman splitting...

We report the control of the orbital occupation by using the intra-orbital Coulomb interaction in quantum dots Tcoupled to quantum wires. With the change of the confinement potential, intra-orbital Coulomb interaction exceeds orbital level spacing and influences the orbital occupation. We realize such potential modification by changing either the g...

We present experiments on electronic states in few-electron lateral quantum dots side-coupled to quantum wires. The side-coupled structure enabled us to prepare the dots with various spatial sizes. The Coulomb energy and the quantum confinement energy depend on the dot size in different ways and thus the change in the size causes the change in the...

We have studied the Fano effect in a few-electron quantum dot side-coupled to a quantum wire. The conductance of the wire, which shows an ordinal staircase-like quantization without the dot, is modified through the interference (the Fano effect) and the charging effects. These effects are utilized to verify the exhaustion of electrons in the dot. T...

Two-terminal devices generally work as ``leaky resonators'' in coherent transport, which mixes up the quantum phase information from all parts of the devices, e.g., quantum dots (QDs) embedded in them. With the aid of appropriate theoretical modeling, however, we can extract important information on the phase from the total conductance. As typical...

Although the conductance of a closed Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, with a quantum dot on one branch, obeys the Onsager symmetry under magnetic field reversal, it needs not be a periodic function of this field: the conductance maxima move with both the field and the gate voltage on the dot, in an apparent breakdown of `phase rigidity'. These experim...