Tomasz Napierala

Tomasz Napierala
University of Lodz · Faculty of Geography

PhD

About

65
Publications
73,329
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
295
Citations
Introduction
I am working at the Faculty of Geographical Sciences, University of Lodz (Poland). In my research I am focused on spatial aspects of competition in the hotel industry, mainly spatial volatility of hotel prices and its impact on hotel competitiveness. Cooperating with researchers representing other disciplines (spatial econometrics and ICT), I've started investigation of competitiveness and attractiveness of tourism destinations. Moreover, I'm studying social, political and economic effectiveness of municipal investment expenditures.
Additional affiliations
October 2003 - present
University of Lodz
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (65)
Chapter
An individual combination of characteristics, relating to a particular location, has an important role in determining the price of accommodation such as hotel rooms. These have been the subject of much research which typically investigates other factors such as product, demand, competition, costs and legal regulations. Hedonic price function is the...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to discuss spatial aspects of internetization of selling hotel rooms in metropolitan area of Łódź in Central Poland. However, only direct distribution channels were considered. Investigated hotels were divided into three groups referring to their ability to use Internet in direct selling activities. First group was establish...
Article
Full-text available
This article indicates optimal local, social, economic and geographical relationships contributing to the effective implementation of hotel investment as a part of rural area revitalisation. This will be undertaken through the case studies of four hotels functioning in revitalized historical buildings in the rural areas of Pomerania Province. A 'mu...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper is to understand evolutionary changes of hotel intra-urban location policy during the period of the economic transition. Thus, the theoretical model of polycentric intra-urban development of hotel facilities is introduced in this research. Polycentric development is defined as the result of two ongoing and contrary tendencies:...
Chapter
The main focus of the chapter is to discuss geographical context of smart tourism planning through the analysis of relations between spatial planning, tourism development, and technology. The main question addressed in this enquiry is whether development of technology and tourism respects sustainable spatial planning. Thus, geographical influence o...
Article
Full-text available
The focus of this study is electoral accounting practices employed by mayors in municipalities in a selected, exemplary region in a post-socialist country – the Lodz region in Central Poland. The goal is to identify characteristics of pork-barrel mayors responsible for municipal investment expenditures: their terms of office, partisan affiliation,...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
As a SPOT project team, together with our partner institutions: Faculty of Geographical Sciences at University of Lodz (Poland) and CiTUR Centre for Tourism Research, Development and Innovation (Portugal), we are glad to announce a call for sessions for the International Tourism Congress ITC2022 which will be held in Łódź (Poland) between 17th and...
Chapter
Full-text available
Najważniejsze wyzwanie analizy usług hotelowych wynika z samej definicji hotelu, jako że hotel w każdym z krajów Grupy Wyszehradzkiej definiowany jest zupełnie inaczej. Co więcej, w każdym kraju w inny sposób gromadzone są ofi cjalne statystyki na temat działalności hoteli. W związku z tym, na potrzeby analizy działalności tych obiektów w kilku kra...
Chapter
Full-text available
Turystyka to niezwykłe zjawisko o wielu kontekstach. Według Światowej Organizacji Turystyki (UNWTO), turystyka to społeczne, kulturowe i gospodarcze zjawisko obejmujące ogół dobrowolnych, trwających krócej niż 1 rok, przemieszczeń ludzi do krajów bądź miejsc poza przestrzenią ich codzienności powodowanych celami osobistymi bądź zawodowymi z wyłącze...
Chapter
Full-text available
Wyobrażenie przestrzeni jest punktem wyjścia w procesie podejmowania różnorodnych decyzji, w tym dotyczących wyboru docelowego miejsca wyjazdu turystycznego. Wyobrażenia takie mogą być współcześnie kształtowane przez wiedzę dostępną w źródłach internetowych, np. serwisach społecznościowych. Analiza publikowanych w Internecie zdjęć lub wpisów o usta...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of the paper is to identify the perception of technology by managers of five-star hotels located in Antalya region (Turkey). The managerial perception in the following contexts is discussed in detail: the enterprise, the employees, the managers and the competitiveness of hotel entities. The selection of such research area was determin...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the social, demographic, and economic factors determining differences between forest identification based on remote sensing techniques and land registry. The Database of Topographic Objects and Sentinel-2 satellite imagery data from 2018 were used to train a forest detection supervised machine learning model. Results aggrega...
Article
Full-text available
Głównym celem artykułu jest dyskusja na temat tego, czy możliwość implementacji konkursu jako narzędzia edukacyjnego do rozwijania kreatywności uczestników jest ograniczona, kiedy główną motywację uczestniczących w nim studentów stanowi wygrana. Na potrzeby niniejszego artykułu jako studium przypadku wykorzystano konkurs 24HOURS. Do oceny efektywno...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of the article is to describe the short-term impacts of reported new cases and deaths of the COVID-19 disease on hotels’ performances in the nine major Polish urban hotel markets: Kraków, Warszawa, Poznań, Wrocław, Gdańsk, Lublin, Łódź, Katowice, and Sopot. Time range of the analysis covers the period from January 5, 2020 (the beginni...
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of the research is to address the real, operational context of participatory budgeting. It is argued that this method of budgeting might be a useful tool for developing various ideas at a local level, including so-cial/spatial justice, civil society, human capital, information society, or sustainable development. However, the imple...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of the paper is to discuss whether a contest, as an educational tool, can develop the creativity of participants when the main goal of the students may be to win. A 24HOURS contest was implemented as a case study. Three methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the 24HOURS contest: a written questionnaire, individual in-depth...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. The aim of this enquiry is to determine the impact of various geographical factors on the rating and popularity of hotels in selected social media. Method. Research was conducted for all 193 star-ranked hotels operating in July 2017, in central Poland. However, analysis covered only those establishments which used all considered online rev...
Article
Full-text available
Celem artykułu jest zidentyfikowanie kierunków rozwoju wiejskiego zagospodarowania hotelowego w Polsce w latach 2012–2017. Przedmiotem badań są skategoryzowane hotele. Cel zrealizowano na podstawie analizy zmian wielkości i struktury bazy hotelowej, a w szczególności na podstawie analizy kartograficznej syntetycznego wskaźnika opartego na zmodyfiko...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Dear Colleagues, Feel invited to submit your papers to the special issue of European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation. Announced special issue covers the topic of "Competition in Hotel Industry: Theory, Evidences, and Business Practice". The goal of this special issue is to discuss theoretical concepts, research empirical evidence, a...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of the paper is to verify the impact of the absorption of European Union (EU) grants on land cover changes in Polish municipalities in the years 2012-2018. The selection of the research area was justified by the fact that Poland is the largest and significantly spatially differentiated transition economy in Central-Eastern Europe, rec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main goal of the paper is to identify technology acceptance by employees of 5- star hotels located in Antalya region (Turkey), and to investigate its impact on hotel competitiveness. Selection of research area was determined by the fact that Antalya is one of the top Turkish tourist destinations, with international profile of the visitors, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since 1980s tourism related academia, institutions and organizations (including United Nations), and business practice have focused on the relationship between tourism and sustainable development. Environmental, social, and cultural contexts of sustainable tourism development has been widely discussed by researchers, politicians, and practitioners....
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the role of source of innovation, its degree of novelty, and their interaction in shaping tourism companies' stock returns in different geographical contexts. The research employed the buy‐and‐hold method. It included 378 innovation announcements released in the years 2011–2016 for 111 tourism companies operat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this enquiry is to determine the impact of various geographical factors on the rating and popularity of hotels in selected social media The criteria for the selection of mentioned social media were their popularity and the ability to rate the hotel by the guests. The analysed social media channels include: Booking.com, Facebook, GoogleMa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this enquiry is to asses significance of impact of different sources of online reviews on hotel room rates. This is the very first research comparing various types of online reviews’ sources as determinant of hotel prices. This research was conducted for all 193 star-ranked hotels operating in July 2017, in central Poland. However, analy...
Poster
Full-text available
Reguła Zipfa była dotąd wykorzystywana przez geografów ekonomicznych do opisu rozkładu wielkości miast (Krugman, 1997; Męczyński, Konecka-Szydłowska i Gadziński, 2010). Celem niniejszej prezentacji jest ocena możliwości wykorzystania reguły Zipfa w geograficznej analizie konkurencji w usługach hotelarskich. Główną zmienną analizy jest liczba pokoi...
Article
Full-text available
Przestrzenna koncentracja różnorodnych przedsiębiorstw hotelowych jest istotnym czynnikiem budowania przewagi konkurencyjnej. Ustalono, że wraz ze zmniejszeniem odległości między hotelem a najbliższymi obiektami o różnym standardzie, możliwym jest stosowanie relatywnie wyższych cen. Korzystna jest zatem lokalizacja w obszarach koncentracji hoteli,...
Article
Full-text available
Artykuł służy wskazaniu optymalnych lokalnych relacji społecznych, gospodarczych i geograficznych, sprzyjających efektywnej realizacji inwestycji hotelarskich w ramach rewitalizacji obszarów wiejskich. Wskazany cel zostanie osiągnięty poprzez studia przypadków czterech hoteli działających w zrewitalizowanych obiektach zabytkowych na terenach wiejsk...
Article
Full-text available
Critique of neoclassical (neoliberal) understanding of the phenomenon of competition enabled in the XX century arising numerous new economic theories which defined and interpreted the phenomenon of competition in a brand new manner. Rejecting of assumptions of neoliberal theory (particularly assumptions on the market equilibrium, and on access to t...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to analyse municipal expenditures on investments in the Łódź metropolitan area (Central Poland), spent between the years 2007 and 2013 (the previous European Union multi-annual financial framework). The author assessed the quality and completeness of public finance information at a local level. Three types of documents were...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to measure the effect on prices through the differing characteristics and attributes of hotels. Design/methodology/approach: A hedonic price model (HPM) was adopted to estimate the impact of various site and situational factors on hotel prices in Warsaw, Poland. To better understand room rates not explained by HPM, spatial...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter
Full-text available
Głównym celem opracowania jest analiza i ocena wydatków inwestycyjnych stymulujących rozwój turystyki, zrealizowanych przez samorządy miast i gmin Łódzkiego Obszaru Metropolitalnego. Zakres czasowy badania tożsamy jest z minionym okresem programowania Unii Europejskiej. Obejmuje lata od 2007 do 2013. Materiał badawczy zgromadzony został dzięki kwer...
Article
Full-text available
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań dostępności zasobów informacyjnych gmin wiejskich województwa łódzkiego. Badania prowadzone były w pierwszej połowie 2015 roku i odnosiły się do dwóch rodzajów zasobów informacyjnych: 1) związanych z operacyjnymi dokumentami, określającymi politykę finansową gmin, oraz 2) związanych z dokumentami o c...
Article
Full-text available
1 Purpose. Presentation of authors’ own method based on ICTs for description of the attractiveness of the tourism space. 2 Method. Using ICTs (application Geosearch Integration Engine was developed during research process) for collecting geographical data on multimedia content published in the Internet and using exploratory methods of spatial analy...
Article
Purpose. Presentation of authors’ own method based on ICTs for the description of a tourism space’s attractiveness. Method. Using ICTs (application Geosearch Integration Engine was developed during the research process) for collecting geographical data on multimedia content published in the Internet and using exploratory methods of spatial analysis...
Poster
Full-text available
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników badań dostępności zasobów informacyjnych gmin wiejskich województwa łódzkiego. Badania prowadzone były w pierwszej połowie 2015 roku i odnosiły się do dwóch rodzajów zasobów informacyjnych: 1) związanych z operacyjnymi dokumentami, określającymi politykę finansową gmin, oraz 2) związanych z dokumentami o c...
Poster
Full-text available
Wprowadzenie funkcji turystycznej jest współcześnie postrzegane jako jeden ze sposobów rewitalizacji obszarów wiejskich. Autorzy zamierzają zweryfikować następującą hipotezę: hotelarstwo jest najbardziej intensywnym wymiarem introdukowania funkcji turystycznej na rewitalizowanych obszarach wiejskich. Dzięki inwestycjom hotelarskim podejmowanych w r...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of the paper is to analyze municipal investment expenditures for educational infrastructure in Lodz Metropolitan Area. Presented research was conducted for the period between the years 2007 and 2013, the last Multiannual Financial Framework of European Union. The authors identified significance of investments in educational infrastruc...
Poster
Full-text available
It seems quite trite, that location is important aspect of business decision making. But, location is significant for hotel pricing decisions, indeed. Moreover, the problem of spatial determinants of hotel prices is widely discussed by scientists, both economists and geographers. In this study author considers location determinants of prices of ser...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the presentation authors discuss the location-based factors’ impact on accommodation prices. The aim of the presentation is to compare the results of qualitative and quantitative research on location-based determinants of accommodation prices in Lodz Metropolitan Area (Poland). The authors employ methodological triangulation (Yeung 2000), both t...
Article
Full-text available
In the recent studies, the impact of hotels’ distance from city centre on room rates has been widely discussed. The aim of this paper was to depict findings from the 2009 and 2013 research conducted by the authors in the four Polish cities: Cracow, Poznan, Warsaw and Wroclaw. Hotel industry in mentioned metropolises is most developed in Poland: mos...
Chapter
Full-text available
Celem rozdziału jest analiza zmian zachodzących w lokalizacji hoteli w Budapeszcie, w okresie od 1982 do 2013 r. Tak określony zakres czasowy badań umożliwił analizę badanego zjawiska bezpośrednio przed, w trakcie, i po transformacji ustrojowej, która dokonała się na Węgrzech. Autorzy odwołują się do własnych, wcześniejszych badań (Matczak i Napier...
Article
Full-text available
The main focus of the paper is to indicate the impact and significance of the location of transport hubs and road’s network for the location of logistics centres. The analysis was based on existing and constructed roads’ (regional, national and international level) data. Therefore, it was possible to determine the influence of the transport hubs, i...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to describe geographic differences in the prices of accommodation services offered in the Lodz Metropolitan Area. In this paper, the authors justify the need for their research on a metropolitan area scale, as opposed to research in which the study area is limited to the central city of a metropolis. The authors present a m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Celem artykułu jest próba określenia bieżących problemów związanych z wykorzystywaniem narzędzi e-learningu w edukacji na kierunkach, specjalizacjach i specjalnościach turystycznych, w państwowych uczelniach wyższych w Polsce. Autorzy artykułu stawiają sobie dwa cele szczegółowe. Pierwszym jest szczegółowa charakterystyka wykorzystania narzędzi e-l...
Book
Full-text available
By this study, author confirmed the spatial volatility of hotel prices in Poland and verified determinants of mentioned spatial volatility. It has to be underlined, that presented problem is consistent with research filed of geography of hospitality (Kowalczyk 2001). Author defined three research hypothesis: 1) hotel prices are significantly spatia...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of the paper was to depict branded hotels in Poland. Number of branded hotels in Poland is relatively low, but nevertheless the quantity of rooms offered by branded hotels is significant. Author showed characteristic of branded hotels location in Poland. The concentration of branded hotels location in metropolises was proved. In particular,...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of the paper is to verify, if the municipal budget can be implemented as an instrument of tourism development local policy. Presented case study research were conducted in five selected rural municipalities. Authors analysed budget plans and reports on budget execution. Furthermore, municipal expenditures on tourism development were c...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper, the authors determined the specific features of the construction of budgets in Poland and Norway and showed areas of tourism occurrence in the budget classifications of both countries. Then, thoroughly analysed the expenditures made by municipalities and counties of the Lodz region, booked in the financial accounts which content was...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper is preface to the collection of articles on tourism management's quality in the region of Lodz (Poland). Author presents concept of tourism reception area as the subject of the managements process. Additionally, sustainable growth postulates in tourist destination management are discussed. Finally, author considers determinants of effecti...
Article
The aim of the paper is an evaluation of effectiveness of financial resources that local authorities in the region of Lodz allocate to promote and develop tourism. The authors present a widely discussed problem of tourist destination management. Next, they propose their own model of evaluation of effectiveness of local authorities’ actions for tour...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper bases on scientific and practical author’s skills in economic consultancy for tourism industry. The aim of this article is a comparison between need for using strategic analysis’ methods for proper management and problems of using such methods for small tourist companies. Author focuses on two fields, which are important for implementati...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to present a detailed characteristic of possibility of SWOT analysis’ use in the process of strategic planning in small tourist enterprises. The author based conclusions on his own research, but also professional experience, which is a result of his engagement in consultancy for tourist companies. The paper is divided into...
Article
Full-text available
The article consists of three parts. In the first the authors review definitions of free time and the ways it is organized. The second, devoted to the issue of cultural activity, is based on the literature and the published results of empirical studies from official Polish social statistics. The third is a discussion of a survey carried out among L...
Article
Full-text available
Crisis of tourism, whose likelihood was accelerated by the attack on the 11th of September, afflicted mainly the United States – the country being the largest economic market, and the dominant one in international tourism. Yet it should be clearly notified that some activities conducted by extremely liberal American economy resulted in the followin...

Questions

Questions (8)
Question
I assume that volatility of dependent variable for a population is explained by volatility of same variable for one subpopulation rather than another. Comparison of those subpopulations is the focus of my study. Thus, I proposed a model:
Y for population A = b0 + b1 * time + b2 * Y for subpopulation A1 + b3 * Y for subpopulation A2
My qestion is, if such a model is correct? If not, what kind of method should be applied to measure the impact of subpopulations' variability on volatility of population in total.
Question
At my faculty we are going to start the project on spatial development of the areas surrounding urban hotels. The analysis need to be spatially limited. Thus, we would like to limit the area of the research into the radius of "close walking distance" from the hotel. Hence, we need the definition of "close walking distance". I appreciate your ideas of requested definition or suggestions of papers presenting or discussing this definition. Thank you in advance.
Question
I’m working on quite small sample of municipalities. I’m investigating impact of various variables on probability of being reelected in mayor elections in Poland. Thus, dependent variable is binary (mayor was – 1 or was not – 0 re-elected). When using “regular” logistic regression the problem of separation has been occurred. I found, when working on small sample, I should employ Firth Logistic Regression (FLR) or Exact Logistic Regression (ELR).
First, I would be thankful for your advices and comments about using both of mentioned methods or maybe another one.
Second, I would be grateful for your advices how to select independent variables when using logistic regression (particularly FLR or ELR). For logistic regression AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) or BIC (Schwarz-Bayesian Information Criterion) are recommended. Calculations are offered by bestglm package in R. However, I’m not sure if package bestglm is suitable for FLR or ELR.
Third, I don’t know how to generate binomial trials for ELR when using elrm package in R. I would be thankful for command line which should I use to extend my dataset with a variable representing binomial trials.

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Critique of neoclassical (neoliberal) understanding of the phenomenon of competition enabled in the XX century arising of numerous new economic, but also managerial, geographical and sociological theories which defined and interpreted the phenomenon of competition in a brand new manner (Hunt, 2000; Rumelt, 1997). Rejecting of assumptions of neoliberal theory (particularly assumptions on the market equilibrium, and on access to the market information) had significant impacts on redefining the theory and methods of investigation in various contexts of the competition: economic, managerial, spatial, relational and institutional. Interestingly, results diagnosed by empirical non-economic research, mainly geographical, but also observations of business practice impacted on development of economics (Boschma & Frenken, 2006). The goal of this special issue EJTHR is to discuss theoretical concepts, research empirical evidence, and business practice contributions to better understand the recent notion of competition in hotel industry. The focus of recent, interdisciplinary studies on the competition in the hotel industry covers different research problems. Regarding resource (Penrose, 2011), and resource-advantage (Hunt, 2000) theories, discussion on key resources for achieving competitive advantage by hotels, and hotel chains seems to be crucial. The following resources should be emphasized in the lodging industry: knowledge confronted with innovation and collaboration ability (Hjalager, 2010; Napierala & Szutowski, 2019), social and institutional relations and networks confronted with concept of coopetition (Czernek & Czakon, 2016), quality of environment confronted with the goals of sustainable development (Balli, Sigeze, Manga, Sahilli Birdir, & Birdir, 2018). Considering the abovementioned resources, the impacts of social media on competitiveness of hotel industry need to be underlined. This results from the linkage between modern resources of knowledge, technology, and recent changes of social and institutional relations (Buhalis & Licata, 2002). On the other hand, the contribution of evolutionary theory (Schumpeter, 1939) needs to be emphasized, as it enabled to better understand competition as a process, and not as a state. Particularly, the evolutionary approach allowed to explain spatial processes of competition in the hotel industry, location selection mainly (Dökmeci & Balta, 1999), or to understand factors influencing survival and development of hotel enterprises (Brouder & Eriksson, 2012).
Project
The aim of the “Sustainable Spatial Planning of Tourism Destinations (SPOT)” project is to develop an innovative teaching method of sustainable tourism planning in a master programme and implement the method at five educational organisations involved in the project by the end of the project. This goal is influenced by the wider context of development of the European idea of innovative, sustainable, and inclusive tourism planning. Thus, the following specific objectives should be defined: - Understanding main trends and challenges of tourism in Europe; this objective will result in a comparison of different contexts of tourism development in Europe (literature studies); - Facing the challenges of tourism planning through learning by doing on the spot; as the result of this objective solutions for problems and challenges of tourism planning diagnosed in particular locations will be delivered (study visits); - Disseminating results of joint initiatives for development of tourism planning and its teaching methods; this objective will result in the scientific, application, and educational contributions to tourism planning development (seminars and conferences); - Exchange of European best practices in the field of tourism planning; as the result of this objective a scientific publication (European handbook of tourism planning) and educational manual (Manual for the course on sustainable spatial planning of tourism destinations) will be prepared; both outputs will be included in the educational package offered to teachers and students participating in the sustainable tourism planning course; the handbook will disseminate teaching content, while the manual will describe innovative teaching method developed during the SPOT project. The SPOT project will be implemented by the consortium of educational and scientific institutions co-operating on a regular basis, representing various research, educational, cultural and geographical contexts. The final selection of project partners resulted from the interdisciplinary nature of education and research in the field of tourism planning and the diversity of tourist planning challenges and problems diagnosed in different locations. Tourism geography and spatial economy are the educational and research fields of the leading project institution – University of Lodz. Tourism economics and tourism management are the fields of contribution of Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences. Mersin University's input to the project is associated with tourism sciences and city planning. Tourism sciences is also the main axis of the contribution from the Polytechnic of Leiria. Architecture, territorial, urban and environmental planning, historic cities, and heritage management are the main scientific and educational interests of Politecnico di Torino. Finally, research projects carried out by Institute of Geography and Spatial Organisation of the Polish Academy of Science are focused on geography and spatial economy. Moreover, various geographical contexts represented by project partners refer to different ways of social and economic development, and different cultures: Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, and Turkish. The SPOT project will influence the following target groups and stakeholders in both long- and short-term perspectives: (1) tourism planning students, (2) academic teachers, (3) higher education institutions, and (4) tourism planning institutions. It is expected that European awareness of innovative, sustainable, and inclusive tourism planning will increase in long-term perspective. The ambition of the project consortium is to introduce the course and method concerning tourism planning as a significant part of this increase. Future tourism planners completing this course will use the project's outputs to implement their knowledge, skills, and competencies on innovative, sustainable, and inclusive tourism planning into planning practice. Thus, institutions of tourism planning and, indirectly, stakeholders of tourism development, will be influenced by this project's outputs in long-term perspective. During the project students’ competences, skills, and knowledge in the field of tourism planning are expected to increase. However, the implementation of an innovative method of sustainable tourism planning designed in the project is a promise of all partner institutions representing higher education sector. Moreover, dissemination of project outputs should make other higher education institutions attracted by the method mentioned above, as an increase in the attractiveness of the higher education curriculum in the field of tourism planning from the perspective of both students and employers is expected.
Project
The goal of the project is to identify if and how the image of the city in a social media influences economic effectiveness of hotels located in the city. The area of initial research covers five biggest Polish cities: Warsaw, Cracow, Lodz, Wroclaw and Poznan. Regarding estimation of abnormal returns of stock market enterprises, both short- and medium-term effects of social media posts on hotel performance indicators (ADR, occupancy, and RevPAR) will be analyzed.