Tomás Palma

Tomás Palma
University of Lisbon | UL · Faculty of Psychology

PhD

About

38
Publications
7,625
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
162
Citations
Introduction
My current research focuses broadly on how social categorization and stereotypes interface with face perception. For example, in one research line I investigate how processing goals and task requirements influence the extraction of category information from human faces. In another research line, I investigate the contextual malleability of social and non-social categories.

Publications

Publications (38)
Article
Recent research has explored cue competition phenomena in social learning. In particular, blocking effects have been observed in the way people learn to infer someone's internal states from their behavioral cues: When people learn to associate a certain behavior with a certain internal state, this blocks their learning of subsequent behavioral cues...
Article
Full-text available
The positivity-familiarity effect refers to the phenomenon that positive affect increases the likelihood that people judge a stimulus as familiar. Drawing on the assumption that positivity-familiarity effects result from a common misattribution mechanism that is shared with conceptually similar effects (e.g., fluency-familiarity effects), we invest...
Article
In the literature on learning, one of the most robust cue competition effects is blocking: the previous learning of a cue-outcome association prevents learning that other cues predict the same outcome if those cues are presented together with the first cue. In this research, we investigated blocking effects in mental state inference. Participants l...
Presentation
Blitz-talk about blocking effects in social inference
Poster
Full-text available
Laypeople tend to think that science can explain some psychological phenomena, but not others. For instance, they think that science can explain thoughts and feelings that are not associated with introspective access (e.g., how to read a map), but they do not believe that science can account for other more introspective thoughts and feelings (e.g.,...
Article
Full-text available
People have a remarkable capacity to process and recognize faces. Yet, they fail to recognize the faces of individuals from other racial groups-the Other-Race Effect (ORE). We investigated the role of repetition-a powerful determinant of learning and memory-in reducing the ORE. We predicted that repetition would improve face learning, particularly...
Article
Full-text available
Somos frequentemente confrontados com pessoas que fazem parte de múltiplas categorias, por vezes com implicações que conflictuam no que respeita aos estereótipos que lhes estão associados. Investigação anterior demonstra que, quando são gerados atributos para estereótipos compósitos, são criados os chamados atributos novos e emergentes. Estes parec...
Article
The positivity-familiarity effect suggests that people use positive affect as a cue to answer the question of whether they have encountered a stimulus before. Five experiments investigated this effect under various conditions. Positivity-familiarity effects were obtained irrespective of whether the task context suggested a correct answer to the que...
Article
Full-text available
Psychological research has devoted considerable attention to the relationship between the multiple category dimensions that can be extracted from faces. In the present studies, we investigated the role of experience and learning on the way the social perceiver deals with multiple category dimensions. Specifically, we tested whether learning which o...
Article
Full-text available
Based on research in physical anthropology, we argue that brightness marks the abstract category of gender, with light colours marking the female gender and dark colours marking the male gender. In a set of three experiments, we examine this hypothesis, first in a speeded gender classification experiment with male and female names presented in blac...
Poster
Full-text available
Research showed that there is a relatively reliable degree of stability of stereotypes (such as for national and ethnical groups) across time (3 different generations, known as the Princeton Trilogy; Katz & Braly, 1933; Gilbert, 1951; Karlins, Coffman, Walters, 1969). However, studies with nonsocial categories showed how categorization processes ar...
Article
Priming effects in the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) have been explained by a misattribution of prime-related affect to neutral targets. However, the measure has been criticized for being susceptible to intentional use of prime features in judgments of the targets. To isolate the contribution of unintentional processes, the present research...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present work was to measure the stereotypic content of several professional groups in a Portuguese sample, by determining the culturally shared stereotypic attributes, their accessibility and typicality. Study 1 used a spontaneous attribute-generation-task to collect the stereotypic content of 28 professional groups. The frequenc...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present work was to measure the stereotypic content of several professional groups in a Portuguese sample, by determining the culturally shared stereotypic attributes, their accessibility and typicality. Study 1 used a spontaneous attribute-generation-task to collect the stereotypic content of 28 professional groups. The frequenc...
Article
Full-text available
How can prejudices and stereotypes be stable over a period of thousands of years and yet unstable over only a few weeks? Payne, Vuletich, and Lundberg (2017) address similar puzzles. In light of the fact that the stereotypic biases revealed by individuals on implicit tests vary dramatically over the course of a few weeks, these authors ask how is i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It has been shown that subtle contextual primes produce transient-changes in stereotypes (Santos et al., 2012), an effect supposedly caused by both activation of the primed trait and failure of belief-monitoring. The present research investigated people’s ability to avoid the influence of primes. A first pilot experiment used a subliminal-priming p...
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown that subtle contextual primes produce transient changes in stereotypes (Santos et al., 2012), an effect supposedly caused by both activation of the primed trait and failure of belief monitoring. The present research investigated people's ability to avoid the influence of primes. A first pilot experiment used a subliminal-priming p...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has emphasised the role of episodic memory in both remembering past events and in envisaging future events. On the other hand, it has been repeatedly shown that judgments about past events are affected by the fluency with which retrieval cues are processed. In this paper we investigate whether perceptual fluency also plays a role in...
Article
Full-text available
Person memory has been mainly investigated as an individual process. In contrast, we argue that person memory results from the interplay between the individual and the context. Thus, the way people acquire and retrieve social information is constrained by the context in which these processes take place. This argument was explored in three experimen...
Article
Two studies examine the grounding of gender by the alignment of the female-male with the bipolar dimension of light-dark (most likely due to sexual dimorphism in skin pigmentation). We hypothesized and showed that in a speeded classification task males names are processed faster when they are presented in a black typeface (Exp. 1) or a dark color (...
Article
Full-text available
O constructo de intensidade afectiva reflecte o facto das pessoas reagirem diferenciadamente perante um mesmo estimulo emocional. De entre os factores que determinam a intensidade das respostas pessoais a um estimulo evocador de afecto, podemos salientar as caracteristicas individuais. No presente trabalho tivemos como principais objectivos adaptar...
Article
Full-text available
Neste artigo apresenta-se uma sugestao de versao portuguesa da escala de Motivacao Interna para Responder sem Preconceito e da escala de Motivacao Externa para Responder sem Preconceito (Plant & Devine, 1998). Estas medidas avaliam o impacto distinto das duas fontes de motivacao nas respostas nao-preconceituosas dos individuos. As qualidades psicom...
Chapter
Full-text available
To navigate a dynamically changing social environment, we respond to the situated demands made upon us by flexibly adapting to these demands. At the same time, we actively structure our physical and social environment to reduce its complexity and release cognitive resources. This is achieved, in part, by making use of the knowledge and competencies...
Article
Full-text available
Social Cognition has emerged in the middle 70’s as a generic conceptual approach to understand and explain how people make sense of themselves and of other people and how such perceptions explain predict and shape their social behavior. This new approach is based on a well established theoretical and research tradition in Social Psychology and inte...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we present human cognitive processes as situated and dynamic, a perspective identified by the umbrella term ‘situated cognition’, or ’socially situated cognition’ (SSC). We argue that while the SSC approach does not present a theoretically unified framework, it constitutes an approach offering a set of general principles and emphas...
Article
Full-text available
A Cognição Social emergiu em meados dos anos 70 como uma abordagem conceptual genérica com o objectivo de compreender e explicar como é que as pessoas se percebem a si próprias e aos outros, e como é que essas percepções permitem explicar, prever e orientar o comportamento social. Esta nova abordagem constituiu­?se com base na vasta tradição teóric...
Article
Social Cognition emerged in the mid 70’s as a generic conceptual approach to understand and explain how people make sense of themselves and of others and how such perceptions explain, predict and shape their social behavior. This new approach was based on a well-established theoretical research tradition in Social Psychology and integrates ideas an...
Article
In two experiments, we examine and find support for the general hypothesis that memory for behavioral information in the context of an impression formation task depends on where that information is located in vertical space. These findings extend earlier work showing that memory for location and shifts of spatial attention are influenced by the “go...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a pre-test of a set of 123 politically-related words. Each word was rated by 54 participants regarding its political connotation (left-wing, right-wing) and regarding its valence (negative or positive). Results allowed us to identify 47 left-wing words and 29 right-wing words that were significantly rated bellow or above de...
Article
Full-text available
O objectivo deste artigo foi pre-testar um conjunto de caracteristicas incluidas no estereotipo de alguns grupos sociais. Especificamente procuramos averiguar quais as principais caracteristicas associadas aos homossexuais e heterossexuais masculinos bem como aos arabes e aos americanos. Para tal, foram geradas 139 caracteristicas potencialmente il...
Article
The construct of affect intensity reflects the observation that people may react differently towards a given emotional stimulus. Individual characteristics emerge as one of the main factors underlying such differences in terms of intensity of response. In the first study, our main goals were the adaptation and Este trabalho foi realizado como parte...
Article
We report the cross-validation study of the Portuguese version for the internal and external motivation scales to respond without prejudice of Plant & Devine (1998). The results gathered in a convenience sample of college students revealed, after cross-validation, that the Portuguese version of the Internal and External motivation scales to respond...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
How it is possible that self-perpetuating knowledge structures happen to be context dependent? This project is aimed at providing a new theoretical solution to such problem. We propose that stereotypes and other beliefs derive from dynamic knowledge structures re-assembled whenever required. Re-assembling process occurs in sub-optimal conditions and is permeable to environmental noise and inherently unreliable (i.e., context-dependent). This vulnerability strongly require a belief-monitoring system that try to prevent that contextually available assertions or information becomes falsely adopted as beliefs. Belief monitoring is prone to errors that often go undetected because the assignment of a belief status can only be indirectly attributed to information that comes to mind.