Tom T Shimabukuro

Tom T Shimabukuro
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services | HHS · Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

MD, MPH, MBA

About

93
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all persons aged ≥5 years receive 1 booster dose of a COVID-19 vaccine after completion of their primary series.* On March 29, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized a second mRNA booster dose ≥4 months after receipt of a first booster dose for adults aged ≥50...
Article
Persons with moderate to severe immunocompromising conditions are at risk for severe COVID-19, and their immune response to COVID-19 vaccination might not be as robust as the response in persons who are not immunocompromised* (1). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that immunocompromised persons aged ≥12 years comple...
Article
Importance: COVID-19 and seasonal influenza vaccines are essential in preventing respiratory infections and their potentially severe complications. Simultaneous administration of vaccines is efficient and may improve coverage with each vaccine. However, the safety of simultaneous administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines has not been well...
Article
Background and objectives: Limited post-authorization safety data for BNT-162b2 COVID-19 vaccination among children ages 5-11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the US COVID-19 vaccination prog...
Article
Full-text available
The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the stabilized prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. During December 2020, the vaccine was granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Advisor...
Article
As of February 20, 2022, only BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine has been authorized for use in persons aged 12-17 years in the United States (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine on December 9, 2021, to authorize a homologous* booster dose for persons aged 16-...
Article
Background In December, 2020, two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were authorised for use in the USA. We aimed to describe US surveillance data collected through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive system, and v-safe, a new active system, during the first 6 months of the US COVID-19 vaccination programme. Methods In this obs...
Article
During September 22, 2021-February 6, 2022, approximately 82.6 million U.S. residents aged ≥18 years received a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose.* The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized a booster dose of either the same product administered for the primary series (homologous) or a booster dose that differs from the product administered...
Article
Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, setting, and pa...
Article
Background: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with adenoviral-vectored COVID-19 vaccination. It presents similarly to spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Twelve cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis after vaccination with the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Jo...
Article
(New Engl J Med. 2021;384:2273–2282) When the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines were granted Emergency Use Authorization by the Food and Drug Administration in December 2020, there was limited data concerning the safety of these vaccines during pregnancy. Pregnant individuals with COVID-19 are at higher risk for severe illness, death an...
Article
(Abstracted from N Engl J Med 2021;384:2273–2282) The first coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines in the United States were the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Pregnant persons were excluded from the original Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) issued by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) in Dece...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with adenoviral-vectored COVID-19 vaccination. TTS presents similarly to autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Twelve cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis following Janssen/Johnson & Johnson (Ad26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccinati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: In December 2020, two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were authorized for use in the United States. Vaccine safety was monitored using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and v-safe, an active surveillance system. Methods: VAERS and v-safe data during December 14, 2020-June 14, 2021 were analy...
Article
Background Post-authorization monitoring of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines is needed to better characterize their reactogenicity. We assessed reactions reported during the 2 weeks after receipt of BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines. Methods We monitored persons who enrolled in v-safe after vaccination health checkerSM, a U.S...
Article
On August 12, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines to authorize administration of an additional dose after completion of a primary vaccination series to eligible persons with moderate to severe immunocompromising conditions (1,2). On September...
Article
Importance Safety surveillance of vaccines against COVID-19 is critical to ensure safety, maintain trust, and inform policy. Objectives To monitor 23 serious outcomes weekly, using comprehensive health records on a diverse population. Design, Setting, and Participants This study represents an interim analysis of safety surveillance data from Vacc...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, and in February 2021, FDA issued an EUA for the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. After each EUA, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations fo...
Article
What is already known about this topic? In preauthorization trials of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, adolescents aged 12-17 years reported local and systemic mild and moderate reactions. Myocarditis has been observed after vaccination with mRNA vaccines in postauthorization monitoring. What is added by this report? Local and systemic reactio...
Article
On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-in...
Article
On April 7, 2021, after 5 weeks' use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), CDC received reports of clusters of anxiety-related events after administration of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine from five mass vaccination sites, all in different states. To further investigate these cases...
Article
Full-text available
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a devastating impact on global health, and has resulted in an unprecedented, international collaborative effort to develop vaccines to control the outbreak, protect human lives, and avoid further social and economic disruption. Mass vaccination campaigns are underway in multiple countries and...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia, a rare and serious condition, has been described in Europe following receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford/AstraZeneca), which uses a chimpanzee adenoviral vector. A mechanism similar to autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) has been proposed. In the US...
Article
Full-text available
Background Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. Methods From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the “v-safe after vaccination health checker” surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy reg...
Article
Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for use in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 11, 2020, and for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine on December 18, 2020; each is administered as a 2-dose series. The...
Article
Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), possibly related to changes in their immune system and respiratory physiology* (1). Further, adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm delivery and stillbirth, might be more common among pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (2,...
Article
Background: The 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine (9vHPV) was approved for females and males aged 9 to 26 years in 2014. We analyzed postlicensure surveillance reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Methods: We searched VAERS data for US reports of adverse events (AEs) after 9vHPV from December 2014 through December 2...
Article
Background: Vaccines administered into or too close to underlying joint structures have the potential to cause shoulder injuries. Limited data exist on the epidemiology of such events. Objective: To describe case reports of atypical shoulder pain and dysfunction following injection of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Methods: We searched t...
Chapter
Vaccines have been extremely successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from vaccine‐preventable diseases. However, given that few vaccine‐preventable diseases currently are eradicable, continued immunization of new susceptibles will be needed indefinitely. When high immunization rates successfully reduce the incidence of their target vaccine‐p...
Article
Autism is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. A report published in 1998, but subsequently retracted by the journal, suggested that measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine causes autism. However, autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that has a strong genetic component with ge...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: A recent study reported an association between inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and spontaneous abortion (SAB), but only among women who had also been vaccinated in the previous influenza season. We sought to estimate the association between IIV administered in three recent influenza seasons and SAB among women who were and were n...
Article
Full-text available
Recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV; Shingrix), an adjuvanted glycoprotein vaccine, was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for adults aged ≥50 years in October 2017 (1). The previously licensed live-attenuated zoster vaccine (ZVL; Zostavax) is recommended for adults age...
Article
Full-text available
Background 9-valent human papillomavirus vaccine (9vHPV) was licensed in December 2014 and recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) in February 2015. 9vHPV is FDA-approved for females and males aged 9–26 years; ACIP recommends routine vaccination at 11–12 years and through age 26 for women and 21 for males. About 29 mi...
Article
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines prevent infection with oncogenic virus types. We analyzed reports to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of adverse events (AE) following bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV). Methods: We conducted descriptive analysis of 2vHPV reports, reviewed individual reports, calculated crude AE r...
Article
Background: In 2010, a safety signal was detected for narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix, an AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) vaccine. To further assess a possible association and inform policy on future use of adjuvants, we conducted a multi-country study of narcolepsy and adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus in latently infected individuals. Live-attenuated HZ vaccine (zoster vaccine live, ZVL) is approved in the United States for persons aged ≥50 years and recommended by the CDC for persons ≥60 years. Methods: We analyzed U.S. reports of adverse events (AE...
Article
Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) for use in females and males aged 9-26 years, since 2006 and 2009 respectively. We characterized reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a US spontaneous reporting system, in females and males who received 4vHPV vacc...
Article
Background: Vaccines should be stored and handled according to manufacturer specifications. Inadequate cold chain management can affect potency; but, limited data exist on adverse events (AE) following administration of vaccines kept outside of recommended temperatures. Objective: To describe reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System...
Article
In 2013, the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) created a Working Group on Vaccine Safety (WG) to address unmet needs in the area of vaccine pharmacovigilance. Generating reliable data about specific vaccine safety concerns is becoming a priority due to recent progress in the development and deployment of new vaccin...
Article
Introduction: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is the spontaneous (passive) reporting system CDC and FDA use to monitor vaccine safety. We used cognitive testing to evaluate proposed revisions to the current VAERS form. Methods: We conducted in-person cognitive interviews with 22 volunteers to evaluate proposed revisions in a p...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objective: In 2006, routine 2-dose varicella vaccination for children was recommended to improve control of varicella. We assessed the safety of second-dose varicella vaccination. Methods: We identified second-dose single-antigen varicella vaccine reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System during 2006 to 2014 among chil...
Poster
Full-text available
The US CDC funded the SOMNIA study to assess the risk of narcolepsy following adjuvanted 2009 pandemic vaccine in countries where media attention was low.
Article
IntroductionThere have been isolated case reports of medication product mix-ups involving insulin unintentionally given to patients when the intent was to administer vaccines. Information on how and why these types of errors occur is limited. Objective To describe incidents of unintentional administration of insulin instead of influenza vaccine and...
Article
Background: 23-Valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, trade name Pneumovax(®)23 (PPSV23), has been used for decades in the Unites States and has an extensive clinical record. However, limited post-licensure safety assessment has been conducted. Objective: To analyze reports submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) fol...
Article
Full-text available
Major vaccine safety controversies have arisen in several countries beginning in the last decades of 20th century. Such periodic vaccine safety controversies are unlikely to go away in the near future as more national immunization programs mature with near elimination of target vaccine-preventable diseases that result in relative greater prominence...
Article
Background: In November 2012, the first cell cultured influenza vaccine, a trivalent subunit inactivated influenza vaccine (Flucelvax(®), ccIIV3), was approved in the US for adults aged ≥18 years. Objective: To assess adverse events (AEs) after ccIIV3 reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting surv...
Article
Safety data from countries with experience in the use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are important for the global polio eradication strategy to introduce IPV into the immunisation schedules of all countries. In the USA, IPV has been included in the routine immunisation schedule since 1997. We aimed to analyse adverse events after IPV admin...
Article
The CDC supports nurses in promoting vaccination.
Article
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conduct post-licensure vaccine safety monitoring using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous (or passive) reporting system. This means that after a vaccine is approved, CDC and FDA continue to monitor safety while it is d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Vaccines are among the safest medical products in use today. Hundreds of millions of vaccinations are administered in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are uncommon. However, temporally associated deaths can occur following vaccination. Our aim was to characterize main causes of death among reports submitted to the...
Article
Full-text available
Vaccines are rigorously tested and monitored and are among the safest medical products we use. Millions of vaccinations are given to children and adults in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are rare. However, because of the high volume of use, coincidental adverse events including deaths, that are temporally associated with vac...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To characterize adverse events (AEs) after Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting surveillance system. Study design: We searched VAERS for US reports after Hib vaccines among reports received from January 1, 1990, to December 1, 2013. We r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Limited data exist on the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in adults. We reviewed reports of adverse events (AEs) to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to assess safety in this previously understudied group. Methods: VAERS is the national spontaneous vaccine safety surveillance system coadminist...
Article
Background: Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) was approved in 2012 for healthy persons aged 2-49 years. Beginning with the 2013-2014 influenza season, LAIV4 replaced trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3). Methods: We analyzed LAIV4 reports to VAERS, a national spontaneous reporting system. LAIV4 reports in 2013...
Article
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months. Two vaccine types are approved in the United States, injectable inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), which is administered intranasally. Influenza vaccine typicaly becomes widely available beginning in late summer or early fall....
Article
Two live rotavirus oral vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5) (Merck & Co., Inc.) and Rotarix (RV1) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals), are approved for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis and recommended at ages 2, 4 (RV5/RV1), and 6 (RV5) months by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Because most childhood vaccines are injectable, vaccination prov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: CDC's Immunization Safety Office (ISO) responds to vaccine safety inquiries from healthcare providers, health officials and the public. We describe recent vaccine safety inquiries and trends. Methods: Vaccine safety inquiries received by phone, email and mail to ISO are tracked and categorized in an electronic database. We conducted d...
Article
This report updates the 2012 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccines for the prevention and control of seasonal influenza (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2012;61:613-8...
Article
The recommendations for this year's influenza vaccine administration are detailed in this report. © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.