Tom Rich

Tom Rich
Museum Victoria · Department of Sciences

Ph.D.

About

128
Publications
48,068
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4,154
Citations
Citations since 2017
2 Research Items
1059 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
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A second specimen of the Australian cimolodontan multituberculate Corriebaatar marywaltersae from the same loca�lity (Flat Rocks) as the holotype and previously only known specimen, reveals far more anatomical information about the species. The new specimen, composed of most of a dentary containing a complete p4 and alveoli for the lower incisor...
Poster
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Leaellynasaura amicagraphica was a small, bipedal, herbivorous Australian dinosaur that lived about 106 million years ago within the Antarctic Circle of that time. Although three cranial elements of Leaellynasaura exist, they are too delicate to be removed from the rock in which they are embedded. Synchrotron computed tomography (CT) provides a uni...
Article
Poropat, S.F., Kool, L., Vickers-Rich, P. & Rich, T.H., September 2016. Oldest meiolaniid turtle remains from Australia: evidence from the Eocene Kerosene Creek Member of the Rundle Formation, Queensland. Alcheringa 41, XX–XX. ISSN 0311-5518. Fossil meiolaniid turtles are known only from South America and Australasia. The South American record is r...
Article
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Rich, T.H., Hopson, J.A., Gill, P.G., Trusler, P., Rogers-Davidson, S., Morton, S., Cifelli, R.L., Pickering, D., Kool, L., Siu, K., Burgmann, F.A., Senden, T., Evans, A.R., Wagstaff, B.E., Seegets-Villiers, D., Corfe, I.J., Flannery, T.F., Walker, K., Musser, A.M., Archer, M., Pian, R. & Vickers-Rich, P., June 2016. The mandible and dentition of t...
Article
The giant extinct marsupial Diprotodon optatum has unusual skull morphology for an animal of its size, consisting of very thin bone and large cranial sinuses that occupy most of the internal cranial space. The function of these sinuses is unknown as there are no living marsupial analogues. The finite element method was applied to identify areas of...
Conference Paper
Scanning of the small dinosaur Leaellynasaura amicagraphica at the Australian Synchrotron is making possible the eventual reconstruction of its entire skeleton. Embedded in extremely hard rock, its bones are simply too fragile to ever physically extract from rock. However, by making a 3D rapid prototype print of the scanned bones, it will be possib...
Article
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Rich, T.H., Kear, B.P., Sinclair, R., Chinnery, B., Carpenter, K., McHugh, M.L. & Vickers-Rich, P., 2014. Serendipaceratops arthurcclarkei Rich & Vickers-Rich, 200392. Rich, T.H. & Vickers-Rich, P., 2003. Protoceratopsian? ulnae from Australia. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum 113, 1–12.View all references is an Australian Early Cretaceous cera...
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Their excellent night vision and apparent warm blood raise a question: Could they have survived icehouse conditions at the end of the Cretaceous period?
Article
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Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (∼75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxono...
Article
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Benson, R.B.J., Fitzgerald, E.M.G., Rich, T.H. & Vickers-Rich, P., 2013. Large freshwater plesiosaurian from the Cretaceous (Aptian) of Australia. Alcheringa 37, 1–6. ISSN 0311-5518We report a large plesiosaurian tooth from the freshwater early–middle Aptian (Early Cretaceous) Eumeralla Formation of Victoria, Australia. This, combined with records...
Article
Two thin-toed tridactyl tracks in a fluvial sandstone bed of the Eumeralla Formation (Albian) at Dinosaur Cove (Victoria, Australia) were likely made by avian trackmakers, making these the oldest known fossil bird tracks in Australia and the only Early Cretaceous ones from Gondwana. These tracks, which co-occur on the same surface with a slightly l...
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A Technical Report prepared by the Saudi Geological Survey, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The work on which this report is based was performed in support of Saudi Geological Survey Subproject Subproject-The Eastern Arabian Shield: Window into Supercontinental Assembly at the Dawn of Animal Life. It has been edited and reviewed by staff of the Sau...
Article
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The Eumeralla Formation (Aptian-Albian) of the Otway Group in Victoria, Australia, has yielded a significant amount of dinosaur skeletal material since the late 1970s, which, when combined with finds from the Wonthaggi Formation (Aptian) of the upper Strzelecki Group, constitute the best-documented polar-dinosaur assemblage in the Southern Hemisphe...
Article
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The Early Cretaceous fauna of Victoria, Australia, provides unique data on the composition of high latitude southern hemisphere dinosaurs. We describe and review theropod dinosaur postcranial remains from the Aptian-Albian Otway and Strzelecki groups, based on at least 37 isolated bones, and more than 90 teeth from the Flat Rocks locality. Several...
Article
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The basal theropod dinosaur clade Ceratosauria, and its subclade Abelisauroidea, is characteristic of late Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate faunas in western Gondwana (South America, Africa, Madagascar, and India) and Europe. Yet unambiguous records of ceratosaurs have hitherto been absent from Australia, where the theropod assemblage appears to inc...
Article
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The fossil record of mammals in the Mesozoic is decidedly meagre in comparison to that of the Cainozoic, but some useful generalisations can be drawn about the bio-geographic history of this group during the Mesozoic. Compared with the Jurassic, when cosmopolitanism was frequent among the mammalian families, regionalism became more pronounced in th...
Article
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Analysis of bone microstructure in ornithopod and theropod dinosaurs from Victoria, Australia, documents ontogenetic changes, providing insight into the dinosaurs' successful habitation of Cretaceous Antarctic environments. Woven-fibered bone tissue in the smallest specimens indicates rapid growth rates during early ontogeny. Later ontogeny is mark...
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A cervical vertebra from the Early Cretaceous of Victoria represents the first Australian spinosaurid theropod dinosaur. This discovery significantly extends the geographical range of spinosaurids, suggesting that the clade obtained a near-global distribution before the onset of Pangaean fragmentation. The combined presence of spinosaurid, neovenat...
Article
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A recent field survey of the Middle–Upper Triassic (upper Anisian to lowermost Carnian) paralic marine deposits of the Jilh Formation in central Saudi Arabia has yielded large quantities of vertebrate fossils. These finds prompt a revision of the existing faunal list and include at least one novel stratigraphical occurrence for the Arabian Peninsul...
Article
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Palaeontology is for the most part a postdictive science. That is, its central task is for the most part to explain existing data. A rare instance of palaeontology being a predictive science is to be found in the history of the development of the pseudotribosphenic concept. Based on the structure of the lower molars in a single dentary of a pseudot...
Article
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The Eumeralla and Wonthaggi formations (Otway and Strzelecki groups, respectively: late Hauterivian to Albian) of Victoria, Australia, have yielded diverse dinosaur faunas. Here we report a set of unassociated isolated specimens from these units including teeth, dorsal vertebrae, ribs and osteoderms of an indeterminate ankylosaurian dinosaur.
Article
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New isolated pterodactyloid bones from the Toolebuc Formation are described. The first one consists of a complete wing metacarpal 212 mm long, representing an individual with an estimated wing span of 4 m. Small depressions on the anterior surface are present and represent tooth marks showing that this specimen was subjected to scavenging prior to...
Article
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Doubt has been cast upon the association of the skull roof and postcranial bones, originally regarded as part of the same individual as the holotype, the left side of the skull, of Leaellynasaura amicagraphica Rich & Rich 1989. The reasons given for these doubts, the form of the prefrontal and the proportions of the supratemporal region being incon...
Article
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Herne et al. doubt our identification of tyrannosauroid pubes from the Lower Cretaceous of Australia. They suggest that the fossil is broken and can be identified only as an indeterminate neotetanuran (representing the wider clade that includes coelurosaurs such as birds and tyrannosauroids, and also more primitive large theropods, the allosauroids...
Article
The Turonian–Maastrichtian beds of the Bauru Group, western São Paulo State (Brazil), have yielded a diverse biota. The nine species of mesoecrocodilians are all mesosuchians. There is a single frog, a Neubatrachia. The vertebrates include, four types of fishes, a neobatrachian frog, an anilioid snake, two lizard, six species of podocnemid turtles,...
Article
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Tyrannosaurids monopolized the apex predator niche in latest Cretaceous Laurasia. Unfortunately, the preceding 100-million-year tyrannosauroid lineage is poorly documented, and its fossil record is restricted to the northern continents. We report an Australian tyrannosauroid, represented by a pubis from the late Early Cretaceous of Victoria. This d...
Article
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Triassic lungfish (Dipnoi) have been extensively documented from the Gondwanan continental and marine shelf deposits of Africa and Madagascar (Teixeira, 1949; Lehman et al., 1959; Beltan, 1968; Martin, 1979, 1981; Kemp 1996), Australia (Kemp, 1993, 1994, 1997a, 1998), India (Jainet al., 1964; Jain, 1968), and Antarctica (Dziewa, 1980). Numerous rec...
Article
The Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota from northeastern China has produced an abundance of well preserved birds, mammals and feathered dinosaurs, amongst other fossils. The similarities in the nature of the deposits producing these fossils to the lacustrine facies of the Strzelecki Group of southwest Gippsland, Victoria, Australia suggests that a prolon...
Article
Actinopterygian remains have been recovered from Upper Cretaceous (lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian) marginal marine deposits of the Adaffa Formation in northwestern Saudi Arabia. The fossils comprise gars (Lepisosteidae), pachycormids (cf. Protosphyraena sp.), indeterminate pycnodontiforms, enchodontid teleosts (cf. Enchodus sp.) and other i...
Article
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A fourth Mesozoic mammal locality is now known from Australia, the Eric the Red West locality. This late Aptian-early Albian site has produced to date a single mandible fragment with a p6, m1 and trigonid of m2. As far as can be determined, it is indistinguishable from Bishops whitmorei Rich et al. (2001) from the early Aptian Flat Rocks locality.
Article
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2009. An Australian multituberculate and its palaeobiogeo− graphic implications. Acta Palaeolontologica Polonica 54 (1): 1–6. A dentary fragment containing a tiny left plagiaulacoid fourth lower premolar from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) of Vic− toria provides the first evidence of the Multituberculata from Australia. This unique specimen represen...
Article
In 2007 an adit was cut into permafrost exposed on the left bank of the Colville River on the North Slope of Alaska. This was done for the express purpose of testing this approach to recover dinosaur bones underground. The reasons for carrying out what amounted to a palaeontological engineering experiment were: safety; the desire to test a techniqu...
Article
The Early Cretaceous Otway and Strzelecki Groups exposed on the southern coast of Victoria, Australia, have produced a fauna of dinosaurs that lived within the Antarctic Circle. As many as five or six species of hypsilophodontids numerically dominate the collections from there, but the rarer and more fragmentary theropod remains suggest a surprisin...
Article
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Early Cretaceous body and trace fossils in Victoria, Australia, establish the oldest known presence of parastacid crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidea, Parastacoidea) in freshwater environments of Australia, and the oldest known crayfish in Gondwana. Parastacid body fossils, comprised of a partial abdomen (Palaeoechinastacus australianus, gen. et sp. nov....
Article
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Marine reptile remains occur in the Upper Cretaceous (lower Campanian to lower Maastrichtian) Adaffa Formation of NW Saudi Arabia. This is the first detailed report of late Mesozoic marine reptiles from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include bothremydid (cf. Taphrosphyini) turtles, dyrosaurid crocodyliforms, elasmosaurid plesiosaurs, mosasaurs...
Article
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Monotremes have left a poor fossil record, and paleontology has been virtually mute during two decades of discussion about molecular clock estimates of the timing of divergence between the platypus and echidna clades. We describe evidence from high-resolution x-ray computed tomography indicating that Teinolophos, an Early Cretaceous fossil from Aus...
Article
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The fossil record of Mesozoic mammals is much more meagre than that of Cainozoic ones. Despite this deficiency, it is possible to make some useful generalisations about the biogeographic history of this group during the Mesozoic Era. Compared with the Jurassic, where cosmopolitanism is frequent amongst the various mammalian families, regionalism is...
Article
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Chubutemys copelloi is the oldest nonmarine cryptodire from South America represented by a skull. The skull and associated postcranial fragments are from the Aptian Cerro Costaño Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation of Chubut, Argentina. Chubutemys has a processus trochlearis oticum, showing that it is a cryptodire, and an enclosed canalis carotic...
Article
An updated, annotated list of all tetrapods from the Adamantina, Uberaba and Marília formations (Bauru Group), which constitute some of the best studied Upper Cretaceous units in Brazil, is presented. Tetrapod diversity in the Bauru Group is remarkable, including an admixture of typically austral Gondwanan taxa (e.g., abelisaurids, notosuchians) an...
Article
Twenty-two terrestrial and over 20 marine mammal faunas are currently recognized in the fossil record of Victoria, representing one of the most complete records of mammal evolution in Australia. Although the earliest recorded terrestrial mammals come from the Early Cretaceous, the majority of the faunas are concentrated in the Pliocene and Pleistoc...
Article
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The Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) southern high latitude deposits of Australia have yielded a diverse range of marine reptile fossils. Ichthyosaurs and at least five distinct plesiosaur taxa have been recorded. Most of the current marine reptile specimens are derived from the predominantly Aptian Bulldog Shale and Wallumbilla Formation. These un...
Article
In this contribution is given a preliminary up-to-date annotated list of all fossil vertebrates from the Turonian–Santonian Adamantina Formation, Bauru Group where it occurs in the Prata paleontological district which is located 45 km to the west of Prata in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Adamantina Formation is a reddish sandstone in the Triângul...
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Cretaceous-Tertiaty (K-T) boundary (ca. 65 Ma) sections on a Southwest Pacific island containing dinosaurs were unknown until March 2003 when theropod bones were recovered from the Takatika Grit on the remote Chatham Islands (latitude 44 degrees S, longitude 176 degrees W), along the Chatham Rise. Tectonic and palaeontologic evidence support the ea...
Article
The youngest members of the Ektopodontidae, an enigmatic family of Phalangeroidea, are reported from southwestern Victoria. Four isolated teeth are described as Ektopodon paucicristata sp. nov. (from the ?mid-?late Pliocene, and early Pliocene) and two isolated Pleistocene teeth are assigned to Darcius duggani Rich, 1986. Previously, the youngest k...
Article
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A partial right humerus has been recovered from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Eumeralla Formation at Dinosaur Cove in south-eastern Australia. General morphology, size and the presence of a single epicondylar foramen (the entepicondylar) suggest that the bone is from a mammal or an advanced therapsid reptile. The humerus is similar in size, shape a...
Article
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A dentary of the oldest known monotreme, the Early Cretaceous Teinolophos trusleri, has an internal mandibular trough, which in outgroups to mammals houses accessory jaw bones, and probable contact facets for angular, coronoid, and splenial bones. Certain of these accessory bones were detached from the mandible to become middle ear bones in mammals...
Article
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W e stand by our assessment of the taxonomic identity of Teinolophos trusleri and maintain that this specimen shows features that support an independent evolution of the middle ear in living monotremes and therians. Bever et al . ([ 1 ][1]) question whether the lower jaw that we ([ 2 ][2])
Article
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At least six different taxa are represented among the 21 specimens of mammals found at the Early Cretaceous Flat Rocks site in southeastern Australia. Analysis of these fossils reveals that, although the yield of mammalian specimens per person-year of effort at this locality is remarkably low, it is reasonable to expect that with further effort thi...
Article
Their excellent night vision and apparent warm blood raise a question: Could they have survived icehouse conditions at the end of the Cretaceous period?
Article
Since Woodburne (1969) analyzed the three diprotodontid specimens then known from the Mio-Pliocene Beaumaris locality in Victoria, Australia, three more specimens of that group have been recognized. Included among them is a lower jaw, referred here to Kolopsis cf. K. torus, originally thought to be from Queensland. Strong evidence, however, indicat...
Article
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Some fragmentary dinosaur remains from the uppermost Hauterivian–Barremian La Paloma Member of the Cerro Barcino Formation of northern Chubut, Argentina are described. Together with the fauna from the La Amarga Formation of Neuquén, Argentina, this material represent the oldest known Cretaceous dinosaur fauna from South America. It includes remains...
Article
The evolution of tribosphenic molars is a key innovation in the history of Mammalia. Tribospheny allows for both shearing and grinding occlusal functions. Marsupials and placentals are advanced tribosphenic mammals (i.e., Theria) that show additional modifications of the tribosphenic dentition including loss of the distal metacristid and developmen...
Chapter
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The broad-scale distribution of fossils within Victoria is controlled by general global patterns in the biological evolution of life on Earth, the local development and environmental evolution of habitats, and the occurrence of geological processes conducive to the preservation of fossil floras and faunas. Early Palaeozoic fossils are mostly marine...
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During the past 20 years, much evidence for dinosaurs that lived in polar regions has been unearthed. These dinosaurs may have been particularly adapted to extreme conditions, but establishing exactly what these conditions were is fraught with difficulties. In their Perspective, Rich et al. chart what is known about polar dinosaurs and their habit...
Article
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The morphology of the single preserved molar of the holotype of the Australian Early Creta-ceous (Aptian) mammal Teinolophos trusleri shows that it is a monotreme and probably a steropodontid, rather than a 'eupantothere' as originally proposed. The structure of the rear of the jaw of T. trusleri supports the molecular evidence that previously form...
Article
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A Middle Triassic vertebrate fauna from the Jilh formation in Saudi Arabia is described. Although the material is very fragmentary, the occurrence of a wide taxonomic variety of taxa can be documented, including hybodontiform sharks, actinopterygians, and sauropterygian reptiles such as a pachypleurosaur, Simosaurus, nothosaurs and cyamodontoid pla...
Article
Paleomagnetic evidence places southeastern Australia well inside the paleo-Antarctic Circle in the Early Cretaceous. Over the past two decades a small but moderately diverse dinosaur assemblage has been recovered from a variety of sediments laid down in a broad rift valley that was forming as Australia and Antarctica began separating at the beginni...
Article
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Paleomagnetic evidence places southeastern Australia well inside the paleo-Antarctic Circle in the Early Cretaceous. Over the past two decades a small but moderately diverse dinosaur assemblage has been recovered from a variety of sediments laid down in a broad rift valley that was forming as Australia and Antarctica began separating at the beginni...